Unit 2: Voices across Time: New Nation

Mix - Carolan's Concerto

American Harpsichord Music in the XVIII Century / The complete album / Olivier Baumont

Eric Ferling - Three menuets (1790's)

Best 18th Century Orchestral Music

Popular Books of the First Half of 18th Century America

Learning Objectives:

What steps did Washington take to ensure the strength of the new government?

Discuss Hamilton's economic program.

Contrast the approach taken by the Federalists and Democrats (what had each of these "labels" come to mean) to the following:

  • Hamilton's economic program
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • The formation of Democratic-Republican Societies
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
  • Foreign policy issues

What was the impact of Jefferson's decision to purchase the Louisiana territory?

Explain the goals and achievements of the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Discuss the causes, course, and consequences of the War of 1812.

The Presidency of George Washington

George Washington Papers

Washington elected unanimously

Vice President John Adams

Washington acted cautiously
Aware of precedents for the future
Only used his veto power when he felt a bill was unconstitutional

First Congress (April 1789):

Members were Federalists—generally

Congress succeeded at its four immediate tasks:

a. Revenue Act of 1789.

Congress adopted a 5 percent tariff on certain imports.
Raised sufficient revenue to support the new government.

b. Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights (Primary Documents in American History)

Responding to state ratification conventions' call for a bill of rights.
James Madison took the lead
First ten amendments to the Constitution passed

c. Beginnings of a "Cabinet"

Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson's day at Monticello

The duality of Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

The Duel Hamilton

Secretary of War Henry Knox (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Attorney General Edmund Randolph (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

d. Judiciary Act of 1789.

Judiciary Act of 1789 (Primary Documents in American History)

Organized the federal judiciary.
Supreme Court (6 members)
District courts (13)
Circuit courts of appeal (3)

First political party system:

Both groupings gradually divided into two opposing camps, each accusing the other of having sold out the principles of the Revolution.

Diplomacy of the Early Republic (1784-1800)
[not sure where to put this]

Put in Hamilton

"Cabinet Battle #1" - Hamilton Musical - Fanpage

a. Federalists

Supporters of Alexander Hamilton began calling themselves Federalists to link themselves with the federal Constitution.

The Duel (American Experience)

Federalist Party (Ohio History Central)

Federalist Party (PBS)

Washington and Adams were both Federalists.


Those in favor of the Constitution during ratification
Concentrated in New England: from mostly Yankee stock
Merchants; shippers

Strong national government
Central economic planning
For a National Bank
Internal improvements (roads, harbors)

Commercially-oriented America: For manufacturing
Protective tariffs (a tax on imported goods—to protect American industry)
Who should hold power: social elite—best interests of the people
More order, less liberty: protection of property rights
Constitution: broad construction==loose interpretation
Foreign policy: closer ties with Great Britain

b. Democrat-Republicans

Supporters of Jefferson began calling themselves Republicans, contending that they were the true heirs of the Revolution and that Hamilton was plotting to subvert republican principles.

Democrat-Republican Party (Ohio History Central)

Republican Party (PBS)

Key person: Thomas Jefferson. James Madison his principal associate.


Anti-federalists during ratification process
Southern planters
Small farmers south of New England
Non–English ethnic groups—Irish, Scots, and Germans

Limited national government; favored States rights
Against a National Bank
Against Internal improvements (roads, harbors)
Against manufacturing—it would cause slums in cities
Against protective tariffs
America based more on farming than on factories
Who should hold power: the people
More liberty, less order
Constitution: limited construction==tight interpretation
Foreign policy: closer ties with France

Hamilton's economic program

From the musical:
Cabinet Battle #1
Cabinet Battle #2

a. Report on Public Credit (1790)

Approved by Congress
Consolidate debts at national level==power to national level
Debt holders will want national government to
Fund foreign and domestic debt at full face value
Speculators who paid 10% of face value would get rich
Assume remaining debts owed by states
Those who had paid off already were mad
Deal made to move U.S. capitol to Washington, D.C.

Compromise of 1790
Hamilton and Jefferson/Madison Washington, DC as capital

b. Defense of the Constitutionality of the Bank (1790)

Congress approved it
Hamilton liked the British system: Bank of England
Said U.S. need a central bank to facilitate money movements
Hamilton: a bank is permitted: loose construction view
Can make laws necessary for commerce, taxation, war, etc.
Implied powers argument
Jefferson: a bank not permitted: strict constitutional view

c. Report on Manufactures (Dec 1791)

Congress did not approve it
Reverse reliance on Europe for manufactured goods
Encourage infant U.S. industries (shoes and textiles) with govt subsidies
Tariffs to protect infant industries
Promote immigration of technicians and laborer.

Whiskey rebellion (1794)

Whiskey Rebellion (PBS)

Washington and the Whiskey Rebellion (EDSITEment)

Friendship Hill National Historic Site (National Park Service)

Hamilton's economic program required tax on whiskey to fund debt
Farmers turned grain into whiskey (easier to ship)
Farmers (mostly Democrat-Republicans) in western Pa. refused to pay
Challenge to national authority had to be confronted
Army sent to disperse the "rebellion" which "faded away like a vapor"
Washington believed rebellion politically motivated by Jeffersonians
Jeffersonians believed military response unnecessary

The Whiskey Rebellion Explained in One Minute

French Revolution

French Revolution (Historian of the State Department)

The French Revolution

Meanwhile, developments in foreign affairs magnified the domestic disagreements.
Disagreements over the American response to the French revolution led to partisan disagreements.
U.S. initially welcomed the French revolution but was bothered by its excesses.
(Remember: U.S. was first independent country without a king.)

Citizen Genet (April 1793)

Edmond-Charles Genêt
Citizen Genêt

Haitian Revolution

Washington Receives Citizen Genet (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Citizen Genet (Historian of the State Department)

Citizen Genet (History Fact of the Week)

American neutrality (April 1793)

Proclamation issued by George Washington.
U.S. a small nation; caught in world war between Britain and France
U.S. wanted to remain neutral; continue trade with everyone
U.S. would act "friendly and impartial" toward the warring powers

Democratic–Republican societies:

A republic==consensus==no factions or disagreements
Composed chiefly of artisans and craftsmen
Members: Jefferson followers; sympathetic to French Revolution
Some 40 such societies organized (1793-1800)
Saw themselves as heirs of the Sons of Liberty
First grassroots political organizations
Opposed to Washington's administration; first formal political dissent

Jay Treaty (1794)

Jay's Treaty (Historian of State Department)

Uproar over Senate Approval of Jay Treaty (US Senate)

John Jay sent to Britain to negotiate
No agreement on major issues between U.S. and Britain
Neutral rights: Free ships make free goods
Impressments of American seamen
British withdrawal from military posts
Jay Treaty—and Jay himself—unpopular in America
Many thought we should stand up more firmly to British
Added to already developing partisanship in Congress
But treaty did postpone another war with Britain until 1812

Pinckney's Treaty (1795)

Pickney's Treaty (Historian of the State Department)

With Spain.
Spain promised to hold back Indians
Gave up land claim above 31 degrees latitude
Opened the Mississippi River to American commerce
Americans allowed to deposit goods at New Orleans w/out paying taxes

Washington's Farewell Address

Washington's Farewell Address (Historian of the State Department)

"The great rule of our conduct in regard to foreign nations is to have with them as little political connection as possible."
"It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world."

The Presidency of John Adams:

Election of 1796 won by John Adams, but a quirk in Electoral College made Jefferson (opposite political grouping) vice president.

John Adams bio material [insert here]

Abigail Adams (Finding Dulcinea)

John & Abigail Adams (American Experience)

Adams and Jefferson

The Vice Presidency

The Presidency

James Callender
Nasty Politics!!

Teacher's Guide: Government
Question #1

Teacher's Guide: Politics
Question #1
Question #2

XYZ affair (1798)

XYZ Affair (Monticello)

XYZ Affair and Quasi War (Historian of the State Department)

XYZ Affair (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Jay's treaty (between Britain and America) made France jealous
France began capturing American ships carrying British goods
President Adams sent three commissioners to ask France to stop
French demanded a bribe of $250,000 prior to any discussions
Americans took this as evidence of French disrespect
Anti–French sentiment—even cries for war—swept the country
Remember: partisanship between Federalists and Democrat-Republicans
Adams held off demand for war

Quasi–War with France:

An undeclared naval war began in the Caribbean between warships of the U.S. navy and French privateers seeking to capture American merchant vessels.

French–American Convention (1800):

French-American Convention (Historian of the State Department)

Ended the Quasi–War
Freed America from French Treaty of Alliance
Peaceful settlement cost Adams re–election
Laid foundation for Louisiana Purchase (1803)

Alien and Sedition Acts (1798):

Sedition Act (EDSITEment)

Federalist attempt to muzzle Jeffersonian-Republicans
Political criticism defined as treasonous
No concept of loyal opposition
First major crisis over civil liberties

See also:

Alien and Sedition Acts

The Alien and Sedition Acts (Colonial Williamsburg)

Sedition Act of 1798 Becomes Law (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

United States v. Thomas Cooper (violation of 1798 Sedition Act) (National Archives)

The Alien and Sedition Acts

Primary Sources: Alien Act

Primary Sources: Sedition Act

Kentucky and Virginia resolutions:

Kentucky Resolution (Avalon Project)

Virginia Resolution (Avalon Project)

How could Democrat-Republicans combat Alien and Sedition Acts
National-level institutions (President, Congress, Court) controlled by Federalists
They therefore turned to only other forum available for protest: state legislatures
We the People or We the States
Claimed Constitution a compact among states (and not individual citizens)
How far could states go in opposing the national government?
How could a conflict between the two be resolved?
This line of reasoning background to Nullification controversy and Civil War

Presidency of Thomas Jefferson:

From 1801–1824, all three American presidents were Republicans and Virginians: Thomas Jefferson (8 yrs.); James Madison (8 yrs.); James Monroe (8 yrs).

Empire of liberty:

Jefferson shared with other Americans the belief that the U.S. was destined to expand its "empire of liberty."
Most past empires had been run by dictators.

Four obstacles to America's empire of liberty would have to be confronted:

a. French in New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory
b. Spanish in Florida and Mexico
c. British in Canada
d. Native Americans throughout the continent.

I am not sure where exactly to put this:

A New Eden (Religious Freedom)

God and the Constitution

Virginia Experience

Wall of Separation

Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson and his "Bible"

James Madison

Deism: One Nation Under a Clockwork God? (James Breig) (Colonial Williamsburg)

Thomas Jefferson and John Adams die (History.com This Day in History | 7/4/1826)

Election of 1800:

Republicans Jefferson and Burr tied for the election

Jefferson selected by Federalist–controlled House of Representatives

Jefferson won election of 1800 (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Peaceful transition of power between political parties
New Congress controlled by Jefferson's Democrat-Republicans

Louisiana Purchase (1803):

The obstacle to the "empire of liberty" posed by the French was the first to be overcome.

U.S. paid $15 million to France.
Doubled the size of America.

Jefferson compromised his strict constructionist views

Great Maps:


America the Newcomer: Claiming the Louisiana Purchase (Elliott West) (Gilder Lehrman)

Louisiana Purchase (Historian of the State Department)

Louisiana Purchase (Today in History, Library of Congress)

The Louisiana Purchase (Monticello)

Lewis and Clark Expedition (May 1804-Sept 1806):

Here is a terrific map of the total route:

4,000 Miles.
Explored extent of Louisiana Purchase: rivers that drain into Mississippi.
Began in St. Louis; up the Missouri River to its source
Across the Rocky Mountains (Continental Divide)
Rivers running east go to Mississippi, those to West to Pacific Ocean
Winter camp in Astoria, Oregon

Journals of Lewis and Clark online

Lewis and Clark . Interactive Trail Map | PBS

Meriwether Lewis (The West)

Meriwether Lewis (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Meriwether Lewis (Finding Dulcinea)

William Clark (The West)

Sacagawea (The West)

The Lewis and Clark Expedition (Monticello)

Lewis and Clark Interactive (National Geographic)

Lewis and Clark Xpeditions (National Geographic)

Lewis and Clark (PBS) (Ken Burns)
My Website Spotlight blog post

Discovering Lewis and Clark
My Website Spotlight blog post

Rivers, Edens, Empires: Lewis and Clark and the Revealing of America (Library of Congress)
My Website Spotlight blog post

Preserving American trading rights and neutral status in a world at war

World War b/n England and France started up again in 1803.
U.S. was the chief supplier of food to both sides for a while.
By 1805, France and Britain began blockading each other's ports.
As a trading partner of both countries, the U.S. paid a high price.

War with Barbary pirates (1801-1815)

Libya, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

Barbary Wars (Historian of the State Department)

How the U.S. Built a Navy, Sent in the Marines, and Faced Down the Barbary Pirates (Christopher Miller)

Pirates attacked U.S. ships in the Mediterranean
U.S. got tired of paying protection money
U.S. built up its naval and marine capacity
Pirates defeated by 1815; no more protection money
"To the shores of Tripoli"

Marine Corps Hymn:
From the Halls of Montezuma
To the Shores of Tripoli;
We fight our country's battles
In the air, on land and sea;
First to fight for right and freedom
And to keep our honor clean;
We are proud to claim the title
of United States Marine.

See also:

Barbary Pirates (History Now, Gilder Lehrman)

Barbary Wars
My Website Spotlight blog post

America and the Barbary Pirates (Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress)

WAR OF 1812

Crash Course #11: War of 1812

Chesapeake affair (1807)

British warship Leopard; American warship Chesapeake
British attacked, boarded, (and killed 3 Americans) in American waters.
Exposed American military weakness

Intensified American objections to impressment.

Britain's navy suffered a severe shortage of sailors.
Britain stopped American ships
Forcible draft of American sailors.

Sparked American demands to go to war
Jefferson—with Congress not in session—able to resist war demands.

USS Ironsides (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)


Jefferson did not want a military fight with British
He was generally pacifistic; war cost big bucks for a small nation
He fought with "peaceable economic coercion."

Embargo Act of 1807 prohibited all exports from the U.S.

Policy was well–intentioned, but unpopular and unsuccessful.
Mocked as "OGRABME"

American economy collapsed
British not hurt at all
Only bright spot: U. S. manufactures—textile mills—received a boost
Domestic market became exclusively American.

WAR OF 1812

Remember: Britain and France locked in a world war

Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812.

["1812 Overture" written to commemorate Russian defense of Moscow against Napoleon.]

The War of 1812: Setting the Course for a Superpower (TIME)

War of 1812 (Historian of the State Department)

War of 1812 (Today in History, Library of Congress)

The War of 1812 - PBS Documentary

American grievances with British:

Interference with neutral commerce
British alliances with the western tribes
Desire to defend American independence and honor

The vote for war

Congress deeply divided over whether to go to war with Britain.
Federalists in New England did not want to go to war.
Many Federalist considered conflict to be "Mr. Madison's War."
Raising troops in New England was difficult.
People in west wanted to go to war.

War Hawks

Their fathers had fought in the Revolution.
They themselves wanted to prove themselves in war

Key War Hawks:

John C. Calhoun of South Carolina

House Speaker Henry Clay of Kentucky

War Hawk's desire to take British Canada

A "mere matter of marching" [Harvard Law School student story]
Americans were unsuccessful.

Let's watch the following video clip:

The War of 1812: When the U.S. Invaded Canada—and Failed (TIME)

Why the War of 1812 still matters (BBC News)

British Blockade

British navy blockaded American ports
American trade declined nearly 90 percent.
Loss of customs revenue threatened to bankrupt federal government.

Key battles of the War of 1812:

1. Washington, D.C.

Animated Map: Washington

British captured the city

Respective roles of President Madison and his wife, Dolley.

Dolley Madison saves portrait from British (History.com This Day in History | 8/23/1814)

See also:

D.C.’s darkest day, a war that no one remembers

Burning of Washington, 1814 (Today in History, Library of Congress)

The War of 1812: The Capitol in Flames

British Troops Burn White House and Capitol (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

2. Baltimore

The Battle for Baltimore (Alan Taylor) (Gilder Lehrman)

Americans held out

Francis Scott Key and our national anthem.

"Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?"

See also:

Francis Scott Key (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Francis Scott Key (Finding Dulcinea)

Francis Scott Key Writes “The Star-Spangled Banner” (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

3. Horseshoe Bend (in today's Alabama)

Andrew Jackson (future American president) defeated the Creek Indians
He forced them to sign away most of their land

Andrew Jackson's Victory in Creek War (Today in History, Library of Congress)

4. New Orleans (8 Jan 1815)

Animated Map: New Orleans

Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British
British: 300 killed, 1300 wounded, 500 captured
Americans: 30 killed, 40 wounded

Battle of New Orleans

Battle of New Orleans (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Battle of New Orleans song on YouTube

Hartford Convention (15 Dec 1814—5 Jan 1815)

Federalist delegates from New England
Unhappy with the war's stoppage of New England trade
Seemed treasonous during wartime.
Led to demise of Federalist Party
News arrived in Washington at same time as that of New Orleans

Treaty of Ghent (24 December 1814)

Did not specifically address any of the issues for which America went to war.
Merely restored the prewar status quo.

Consequences of War of 1812

1. Affirmed the freedom won in the Revolutionary war
2. Strengthened America's resolve to avoid European politics
3. Dealt a serious blow to Indian resistance to American expansion
4. Increased nationalism—renewed feeling of confidence and assertiveness
5. Stimulated economy (capitalists began to invest in home manufactures)
6. Sealed the fate of the Federalists