Week #7

19 October Tuesday
Spanish-American war review

Here is the latest version of my grading rubric:

21 October Thursday
Treaty of Paris and debate over acquisition of the Philippines

Week #8

26 October Tuesday
Philippine-American War

28 October Thursday
Open Door segment

Worldwide scramble for empire

1. 1890 census declared the frontier "closed."

2. College professor Frederick Jackson Turner: Frontier thesis.

3. 1893 Columbian Exhibition (World's Fair in Chicago)

4. Many looked to overseas expansion.

5. Great powers measured their greatness by the colonies they acquired
World Colonial Empires, 1900
a. Britain, Germany, and France divided up Africa
b. Looked to do the same in Asia

6. Alfred Thayer Mahan.
The Influence of Sea Power upon History (Wikipedia)
President of Naval War College.
In his important book, Mahan's argument ran as follows:

  • He argued that national greatness and prosperity depended on naval power.
  • Mahan urged the Navy to shift from wood construction to steel
  • Overproduction: More produced than domestic market could absorb.
  • Overseas markets needed to dispose of surplus
  • Overseas markets implied distant ports
  • Reaching distant ports required large merchant marine
  • Merchant marine needed protection of powerful navy
  • Ships needed coaling stations and repair yards
  • Coaling stations implied secure stops: colonies
  • Canal across Panama needed to link East coast with Pacific Ocean

7. The Age of Imperialism

Expansion in the Pacific:
A Letter to an Emperor

Footholds in the Pacific

1. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived.

2. Their offspring became powerful sugar planters in Hawaii.

3. By 1875, a treaty between the U.S. and Hawaii tightened the links between the two:
a. Allowed Hawaiian sugar to enter the U.S. free of customs duties;
b. Required Hawaiian monarchy to make no territorial or economic concessions to other countries.

4. In 1890 McKinley Tariff ended special status given to Hawaiian sugar.

5. By this time, Caucasian Americans owned three–quarters of the islands' wealth, though they represented a mere 2.1 percent of the population.

6. In 1891, a strongly nationalistic Queen Liliuokalani ascended to the throne and tried to restore greater power to Hawaiian natives.
Liliuokalani (Wikipedia)

7. In 1893, Americans overthrew Queen Liliuokalani.

8. Americans set up a provisional government.
Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom (Wikipedia)
Committee of Safety (Hawaii) (Wikipedia)

9. American sugar planters asked to become an American state—so that their sugar would be classified as domestic and would avoid tariffs.

10. Annexation took place in 1898 during the Spanish–American War.

Spanish–American War

Motives for war:
[Underlying versus immediate] [How does this compare to today?]
U.S. had sizable economic interests in Cuba and a lobbying group of 100,000 Cubans who lived in the U.S.

1. Humanitarians. Believed Spain too cruel in fighting rebels.

2. Hawks (jingoes). Believed America should chastise Spain

3. "Yellow journalism." Circulation war: Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.

4. De Lome letter—Spanish Ambassador to U.S. criticized McKinley
De Lôme Letter (Wikipedia)
5. Sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine.
Blown up in Havana harbor. Probably an internal explosion.
USS Maine (Wikipedia)
Remember the Maine

The War Itself
Spanish-American War (Wikipedia)
Website and DVD: Spanish American War Crucible of Empire (PBS)
Crucible of Empire -Spanish-American War (PBS video)
1890s Music
1890s Musichttp://www.pbs.org/crucible/music.html
Sheet Music Galleryhttp://www.pbs.org/crucible/music_gallery.html
Website and DVD: Spanish American War Crucible of Empire (PBS)
Crucible of Empire -Spanish-American War (PBS video)
Go to Site Map to get Timeline

1868-1878: Ten Years' War in Cuba
1895: Cuban War for Independence
February, 1896: Reconcentration Policy
December, 1897: McKinley Asks Congress for Aid to Cuba

Teller Amendment. U.S. had no intention of taking possession of Cuba.
Teller Amendment (Wikipedia)
Website and DVD: Spanish American War Crucible of Empire (PBS)
Crucible of Empire -Spanish-American War (PBS video)
Go to Site Map to get Timeline

March 17, 1898: Senator Proctor Exposes Spain's Brutality in Cuba
April 25, 1898: Congress Declares War

1. Short and glorious—"a splendid little war."
A Splendid Little War

2. Major battles:

a. Manila. George Dewey defeated Spanish fleet in Manila.
George Dewey (Wikipedia)
Battle of Manila Bay (1898) (Wikipedia)

b. San Juan Hill. Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders.

Website and DVD: Spanish American War Crucible of Empire (PBS)
Crucible of Empire -Spanish-American War (PBS video)
Go to Site Map to get Timeline
June 22, 1898: U.S. troops land in CubaJuly 1, 1898: Victory in San Juan Heights

3. U.S. defeated Spain.

Overseas expansion of the United States

Beginning of a U.S. empire.
American Empire, 1900

Treaty of Paris (1898)
1. Guam: to the U.S.

2. Puerto Rico: to the U.S.

3. Cuba: granted independence by Spain.

4. Platt Amendment permited U.S. intervention in Cuba's internal affairs
Platt Amendment (Wikipedia)Remember the Teller Amendment:
Teller Amendment. U.S. had no intention of taking possession of Cuba.
Teller Amendment (Wikipedia)

5. Philippines: U.S. paid $20 million to Spain.

Acquisition of the Philippines:
The proposed treaty sparked an important debate:

A Gift from the Gods

Social Darwinism activity:

1. Those in favor of acquiring Philippines: imperialist case. Advocated an empire.
Advocates of empire appealed to motives of
Manifest destiny

See also:
Rudyard Kipling (Wikipedia)
The White Man's Burden (Wikipedia)
Text of the White Man's Burden poem can be found here:

2. Those against acquiring Philippines: anti–imperialist case.
Many felt imperialism counter to U.S. principles.
Other felt U.S. could expand markets without ruling other countries.
Labor unions felt they would be undercut by importation of low–wage contract workers.

See also:
American Anti-Imperialist League (Wikipedia)

Philippine–American war (1898–1902)

Philippine–American War (Wikipedia)
Emilio Aguinaldo (Wikipedia)

1. Emiliano Aguinaldo's army had helped U.S. against the Spanish.

2. Aguinaldo expected to be president of an independent Philippines.

3. U.S. decided not to permit him to be President.

4. Aguinaldo led a guerrilla war against the occupying U.S. military.

5. War foreshadowed tactics and atrocities of Vietnam.

6. Aguinaldo finally captured. The revolt ended.

7. U.S. subsequent role in the Philippines


Open Door in China
As a trading nation, the U.S. opposed barriers to international commerce and demanded equal access to markets.

a.1st Open Door Note (1899): all nations guarantee free trade in China.
Open Door Policy (Wikipedia)

b. Boxer Rebellion (1900). U.S. and others rescue foreigners in Peking.
Boxer Rebellion (Wikipedia)

c. 2nd Open Door Note (1900): all nations protect China's territorial integrity

Japanese rivalry with U.S.
Beginnings of a Japanese empire

Sino–Japanese War (1895). Japan beat China: gained Taiwan

First Sino-Japanese War (Wikipedia)
Russo–Japanese War (1905). Japan beat Russia: gained Korea
TR helped negotiate treaty. Won Nobel Peace Prize.

Russo-Japanese War (Wikipedia)
Portsmouth Conference (Wikipedia)

Japan became dominant power in Asia
Japan wanted to include China in its sphere of influence.
U.S. resisted.

Great White Fleet (1907)
U.S. navy made world tour to impress the Japanese.
Japanese increased their military budget as a result.
Great White Fleet (Wikipedia)

Great White Fleet websitehttp://www.greatwhitefleet.info/
Panama Canal (1903-1914)
Panama Canal (Wikipedia)

Spanish–American War demonstrated need for a Panama Canal
Shift naval forces quickly from Atlantic to Pacific.

Panama originally a province of Columbia.
Columbia rejected proposed canal route treaty with the U.S. in 1903
Wanted more money
Treaty infringed on their sovereignty.
Almost immediately, Panama declared its independence from Columbia
With the help and approval of TR.
U.S. signed a treaty with Panama (1903).
Canal completed in 1914.