Cold War Timeline
As we move through the semester, start each session with a review of the items on Cold War timeline.


Session 1
Tuesday, 28 November
Nicaragua (Somozas, 1972 earthquake, Sandinista victory)

Central America and Nicaragua maps

In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure
(summarizes Central America wars) Read both links

Reminder to me: show in class
Video: CNN Cold War series: Nicaragua & the Somoza Regime 1970's (5:10)


United States occupation of Nicaragua (1912-1933)
1912-25 - US establishes military bases In Nicaragua
1927-33 - Guerrillas led by Augusto Cesar Sandino campaign against US military presence.

National Guard (Nicaragua)

Augusto César Sandino
I can't find a good video in English about him.

1934 - Sandino killed on the orders of the National Guard commander, General Anastasio Somoza

Somoza family dictatorship [US relations with dictators]
Anastasio Somoza García (father) (1938-1956)
Luis Somoza Debayle (eldest son) (1958-1967)
Anastasio Somoza Debayle (second son; overthrown by Sandinistas) (1967-1979)

1972 Nicaragua earthquake
Somoza embezzled aid funds

Chamorro, Prize-Winning Editor Is Shot Dead In Nicaragua (1978)

President Jimmy Carter's approach to Nicaragua

Video: Nicaragua Revolution (Lucia Newman) (26:13)

Sandinistas win the revolution

Daniel Ortega

Sandinista National Liberation Front

Session 2
Thursday, 30 November
Nicaragua (Contras, Honduras, Boland amendment)

Central America and Honduras maps

Role of John Negroponte (Honduras)
[Only read the part covering his time in Honduras]

Role of Honduras (Center for Justice and Accountability)

Iran-Contra Affair: Nicaragua Timeline

Iran-Contra Affair: Sandinistas


U.S supported those fighting against (contra) the communists in Nicaragua.
After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress anxious to oversee foreign policy
Congress ordered Reagan not to continue support of Contras

Video: Proxy War in Nicaragua (It's History) (9:00)

Video: Nicaragua and the Contras (John Pilger) (52:34)

Iran-Contra Affair: Contras

Adolfo Calero, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, Is Dead at 80

Session 3
Tuesday, 5 December
Nicaragua (Iran-Contra) the part in US

Video: Iran-Contra (Kip Hughes) (13:38)

Iran-Contra Affair: US support for the Contras

President Ronald Reagan's approach to Nicaragua
Include Reagan doctrine here

1982 Boland Amendment
US Congress pushes back

Senator won't approve promotion of James Steele

Nicaragua's broken dreams

Video: Nicaragua's vote puts Damiel Ortega back into spotlight (9:25)

The Soviet Union fought the Cold War in Nicaragua. Now Putin’s Russia is back.


Thursday, 7 December
Post-conflict (truth commissions, trials, rebels win political office)

Ending of war period
Peace treaty

Cold War Memories: Truth Commission phase
Stephen Rabe

Reconciliation phase in various places
Compare to how US trying to reconcile after recent election
Truth commissions
Former rebels winning elections (becoming President)
Desapercidos issue
US declassifies materials
El Salvador
El Salvador--Romero canonized
Chile--Bachelet and rival (see Guardian article)
Operation Condor places (Argentina)

Reconciliation since then
Insurgents now part of government (or not)

Contadora Group

Esquipulas Peace Agreement