Cold War Timeline
As we move through the semester, start each session with a review of the items on Cold War timeline.
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Cold+War+timeline



NICARAGUA

Session 1
Tuesday, 28 November
Nicaragua (Somozas, 1972 earthquake, Sandinista victory)

Central America and Nicaragua maps
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/central_america_map2.htm
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/nicaragua-political-map.htm

In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure
(summarizes Central America wars) Read both links
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9.html
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9_2.html

Reminder to me: show in class
Video: CNN Cold War series: Nicaragua & the Somoza Regime 1970's (5:10)
http://youtu.be/7vi00fhOKLE

TIMELINE:

United States occupation of Nicaragua (1912-1933)
1912-25 - US establishes military bases In Nicaragua
1927-33 - Guerrillas led by Augusto Cesar Sandino campaign against US military presence.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_occupation_of_Nicaragua

National Guard (Nicaragua)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Guard_(Nicaragua)

Augusto César Sandino
I can't find a good video in English about him.

1934 - Sandino killed on the orders of the National Guard commander, General Anastasio Somoza
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augusto_C%C3%A9sar_Sandino

Somoza family dictatorship [US relations with dictators]
Anastasio Somoza García (father) (1938-1956)
Luis Somoza Debayle (eldest son) (1958-1967)
Anastasio Somoza Debayle (second son; overthrown by Sandinistas) (1967-1979)

1972 Nicaragua earthquake
Somoza embezzled aid funds

Chamorro, Prize-Winning Editor Is Shot Dead In Nicaragua (1978)
http://www.nytimes.com/1978/01/11/archives/prizewinning-editor-is-shot-dead-in-nicaragua-he-opposed-somoza.html

President Jimmy Carter's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/central-america-carter

Video: Nicaragua Revolution (Lucia Newman) (26:13)
http://youtu.be/IuBNV3lpdZY

Sandinistas win the revolution
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicaraguan_Revolution

Daniel Ortega
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-15544315

Sandinista National Liberation Front
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandinista_National_Liberation_Front




Session 2
Thursday, 30 November
Nicaragua (Contras, Honduras, Boland amendment)

Central America and Honduras maps
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/central_america_map2.htm
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/honduras-map.htm

Role of John Negroponte (Honduras)
[Only read the part covering his time in Honduras]
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Negroponte

Role of Honduras (Center for Justice and Accountability)
http://www.cja.org/article.php?list=type&type=254

Iran-Contra Affair: Nicaragua Timeline
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/timeline-nicaragua.php

Iran-Contra Affair: Sandinistas
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-sandinistas.php

CONTRAS

U.S supported those fighting against (contra) the communists in Nicaragua.
After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress anxious to oversee foreign policy
Congress ordered Reagan not to continue support of Contras

Video: Proxy War in Nicaragua (It's History) (9:00)
http://youtu.be/M8Ihf9w_KCU

Video: Nicaragua and the Contras (John Pilger) (52:34)
http://youtu.be/qsyc7y_mO4M

Iran-Contra Affair: Contras
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contras.php

Adolfo Calero, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, Is Dead at 80
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/04/world/americas/adolfo-calero-contra-leader-in-nicaragua-is-dead-at-80.html






Session 3
Tuesday, 5 December
Nicaragua (Iran-Contra) the part in US

Video: Iran-Contra (Kip Hughes) (13:38)
http://youtu.be/Nix_vj2DaqQ

Iran-Contra Affair: US support for the Contras
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contrasus.php

President Ronald Reagan's approach to Nicaragua
Include Reagan doctrine here
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1981-1988/central-america

1982 Boland Amendment
US Congress pushes back
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boland_Amendment

Senator won't approve promotion of James Steele
https://www.upi.com/Archives/1988/09/18/Senator-upset-with-plan-to-promote-officer-who-
helped-North/2294590558400/

Nicaragua's broken dreams
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3856843.stm

Video: Nicaragua's vote puts Damiel Ortega back into spotlight (9:25)
http://youtu.be/8ppd_QTHMFo

The Soviet Union fought the Cold War in Nicaragua. Now Putin’s Russia is back.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/the-soviet-union-fought-the-cold-war-in-nicaragua-now-putins-russia-is-back/2017/04/08/






POST-CONFLICT

Thursday, 7 December
Post-conflict (truth commissions, trials, rebels win political office)

Ending of war period
Peace treaty

Cold War Memories: Truth Commission phase
PRINT THIS 28 pp
Stephen Rabe
http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/FLACSO-ISA%20BuenosAires%202014/Archive/1c1b645f-1b4e-4056-b35a-a3297453a52d.pdf

Reconciliation phase in various places
Compare to how US trying to reconcile after recent election
Truth commissions
Former rebels winning elections (becoming President)
Trials
Desapercidos issue
US declassifies materials
Guatemala
El Salvador
El Salvador--Romero canonized
Chile--Bachelet and rival (see Guardian article)
Operation Condor places (Argentina)

Reconciliation since then
Immunity
Trials
Remembrance
Insurgents now part of government (or not)

Contadora Group
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contadora_group

Esquipulas Peace Agreement
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esquipulas_Peace_Agreement