CIVIL RIGHTS MODULE




Main websites we will employ in this module:

1. Finding Dulcinea: On This Day series

2. Eyes on the Prize
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/index.html

Always work through "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"

Eyes on the Prize (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/index.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-eyes-on-prize.html

3. Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Online Encyclopedia
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia_contents




The following extensive chronology will help us tie together the events of the civil rights movement:

Follow with me by using Google Images on your laptop for each person and event.

Jim Crow laws (Segregation)

Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-rise-and-fall-of-jim.html

Plessy versus Ferguson (1896) (Supreme Court decision)

Plessy versus Ferguson (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may18.html

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/plessy-v-ferguson

Separate but equal is ok.

W.E.B. Du Bois

W.E.B. DuBois obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0223.html

W.E.B. Du Bois (God in America)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/web-dubois.html
In "The Two Nations of Black America": Booker T. and W.E.B
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/race/etc/road.html

Booker T vs WEB - YouTube

Booker T. Washington

Booker T. Washington obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0405.html

1948

Post World War II. Returning black veterans unwilling to accept second–class status back home.

Racial desegregation of the armed forces (1948) by executive order of President Truman.

Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces (1948) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/executive-order-9981

Jackie Robinson

Jackie Robinson obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0131.html

Jim Crow, Meet Lieutenant Robinson: A 1944 Court-Martial (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2008/spring/robinson.html

Jackie Robinson (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr15.html

1954

Brown v. Board of Education (Supreme Court decision)

Overturned the decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
"Separate facilities are inherently unequal" and therefore unconstitutional.

Argued by Thurgood Marshall on behalf of the NAACP.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/brown-v-board-of-education

Thurgood Marshall obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0702.html

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day:Supreme Court Ends School Segregation
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Supreme-Court-Ends-School-Segregation.html

Brown versus Board of Education decision (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0517.html#article

Supreme Court Declares School Segregation Unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/17/may-17-1954-supreme-court-declares-school-segregation-unconstitutional-in-brown-v-board-of-education/

Kenneth Clark "Doll Test"
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-brown.html
http://www.understandingrace.org/lived/video/index.html
http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&source=hp&q=kenneth+clark+doll+test&btnG=Search+Images&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=

"With an Even Hand": Brown v. Board at Fifty (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/

Separate Is Not Equal - Brown v. Board of Education
http://americanhistory.si.edu/Brown/index.html

1955

Emmett Till's Murder (28 August 1955)

Murder in Mississippi of a young black teenager from Chicago for having insulted a white women.

The Murder of Emmett Till (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/till/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-emmett-till.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Emmett Till
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_till_emmett_louis_1941_1955/

Eyes on the Prize
Emmett Till
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/01_till.html

Profile of Emmett Till
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/profiles/33_till.html
Look magazine published the confession of the men who killed Emmett Till
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/till/sfeature/sf_look_confession.html
Profile of the killers
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/profiles/07_killers.html

1955

Montgomery, Alabama, Bus Boycott (Rosa Parks)

Rosa Parks arrested on 1 December 1955

Rosa Parks (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/dec01.html

Rosa Parks Revisited (Charles Blow)
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/02/opinion/blow-rosa-parks-revisited.html?ref=global-home&_r=0

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Supreme Court Outlaws Bus Segregation
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Supreme-Court-Outlaws-Bus-Segregation.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_montgomery_bus_boycott_1955_1956/

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Rosa Parks
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_parks_rosa_1913_2005/

Eyes on the Prize
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/02_bus.html

Encyclopedia of Alabama: Montgomery Bus Boycott
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1567

Blacks' guidelines for how to ride a desegregated bus respectfully.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/sources/ps_bus.html

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Citizen Martin Luther King (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/mlk/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-martin-luther-king.html

Martin Luther King, Jr. obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0115.html

1956

Southern Manifesto

Document signed by 100 Southern members of Congress saying they would not obey the Brown versus Board of Education decision.

Southern Manifesto (1956) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/southern-manifesto

White Citizens' Councils

Brought economic power to bear.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/profiles/38_councils.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
White Citizens' Councils
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_white_citizens_councils_wcc/

1957

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/profiles/48_sclc.html

Grouping of African-American pastors.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_southern_christian_leadership_conference_sclc/

Encyclopedia of Alabama: Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1909

Little Rock Central High School

Central High School desegregated. Governor Faubus. Nine black students. President Eisenhower sent 101st Airborne.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Arkansas National Guard Bars “Little Rock Nine” From School
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Arkansas-National-Guard-Bars--Little-Rock-Nine--from-School.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Little Rock
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_little_rock_school_desegregation_1957/

Eyes on the Prize
Little Rock High School
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Gallery" [check out each photo]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/03_schools.html

See also:

Faubus and Little Rock (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0904.html#article

Ike Sends 101st to Little Rock (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0925.html#headlines

Elizabeth and Hazel: Little Rock women struggled after iconic civil rights image – In America - CNN.com Blogs
http://inamerica.blogs.cnn.com/2011/12/22/little-rock-nine-elizabeth-hazel-margolick/?hpt=hp_bn1

Behind the Famous Photograph (Telegraph)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/8813134/Elizabeth-Eckford-and-Hazel-Bryan-the-story-behind-the-photograph-that-shamed-America.html

Little Rock Nine 50 years later (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2007/10/01/us/20071001_LITTLEROCK_GRAPHIC.html




1959

Non-Violence

MLK and his wife spent a month in India studying Gandhi's non–violence.

MLK explanation of his philosophy of non-violence
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/mlk/sfeature/sf_bible.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/sources/ps_nonviolence.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
NonViolent Resistance
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_nonviolent_resistance/

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Gandhi
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_gandhi_mohandas_karamchand_1869_1948/

Gandhi obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1002.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
King's Trip to India
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_kings_trip_to_india/

1960

Sit–ins

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Sit-ins
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_sit_ins/

Eyes on the Prize
Nonviolent Protests
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/04_nonviolence.html

Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit-in

Greensboro Sit-in (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0201.html#article

Google Images: Greensboro sit-in
http://bit.ly/GEBN8Z

Greensboro Four: Civil Rights Sit-in
http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/februaryone/

Greensboro Sit-Ins: Launch of a Civil Rights Movement (Greensboro Sit-in Museum)
http://www.sitins.com/index.shtml

Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

(SNCC—pronounced "snick).
Established to coordinate sit–ins across the south.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/profiles/49_sncc.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_student_nonviolent_coordinating_committee_sncc/

Nashville sit-ins

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
John Lewis
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_lewis_john_1940/

Diane Nash
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/reflect/r04_nash.html

Singing in the Civil Rights Movement
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/reflect/r03_music.html

History Now Songs of the Civil Rights Movement
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/06_2006/interactive.php

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Songs and the Civil Rights Movement
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_songs_and_the_civil_rights_movement/

MLK jailed (October).

During the presidential election campaign, concern expressed by both JFK and Robert Kennedy for the arrest and prison sentence of Martin Luther King, Jr., earned Kennedy the black vote.

1961

Freedom Rides

A group of black and white persons set out by bus from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans to test the "whites only" facilities of southern interstate bus terminals.

Freedom Riders (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-freedom-riders.html

Freedom Riders (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0520.html#article

Route taken by Freedom Riders
http://amhist.ist.unomaha.edu/module_files/Freedom%20Rides%20Map.jpg

In Birmingham, riders attacked by Ku Klux Klan while police and FBI looked the other way.
Google Images
http://bit.ly/GFRvyE

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Freedom Ride Protests Provoke Violent Backlash Across American South
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May/Freedom-Ride-Protests-Provoke-Violent-Backlash-Across-American-South.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Freedom Rides
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_freedom_rides/

Eyes on the Prize
Freedom Rides
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/05_riders.html

Letter from a Freedom Rider's Father
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/sources/ps_riders.html

Extended Interview with white Freedom Rider Jim Zwerg.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/peoplescentury/episodes/skindeep/zwergtranscript.html

Encyclopedia of Alabama: Freedom Rides
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1605

The 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Riders
Denver Post Plog (75 incredible photos)
http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2011/05/31/captured-the-50th-anniversary-of-the-freedom-riders/

What Would the Freedom Riders Have Tweeted?
http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2011/08/what-would-the-freedom-riders-have-tweeted/

1962

University of Mississippi Desegregated

James Meredith desegregated the University of Mississippi.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: James Meredith Graduates From Ole Miss
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Aug/James-Meredith-Graduates-From-Ole-Miss.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
James Meredith
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_meredith_james_howard_1933/

James Meredith Graduates from University of Mississippi (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0818.html#article

JFK ordered federal troops to campus.

Profile of James Meredith
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/profiles/22_meredith.html

1963

Project "C" [Confrontation] in Birmingham

Birmingham, Alabama (called "Bombingham" by civil rights workers, due to so many unsolved bombings).

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Birmingham Campaign
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_birmingham_campaign/

Eyes on the Prize
Birmingham
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/07_c.html

1. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"

Written by MLK while in jail. Response to an ad from white pastors telling him that he was stirring up too much trouble.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_letter_from_birmingham_jail_1963/

Encyclopedia of Alabama: Letter from Birmingham Jail
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1389

2. Birmingham Children's march.
Police dogs and fire hoses. TV coverage shocked America.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Childrens' Crusade
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_childrens_crusade/

3. Sheriff "Bull Connor.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Bull Connor
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_connor_theophilus_eugene_bull_1897_1973/

4. JFK TV speech.

He was afraid of losing votes of white southern Democrats. He finally spoke out: "Civil rights is a moral issue."

Medgar Evers murdered

Mississippi head of NAACP.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/profiles/10_evers.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Medgar Evers
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_evers_medgar_1925_1963/




March on Washington

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
March on Washington
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_march_on_washington_for_jobs_and_freedom/

Eyes on the Prize
March on Washington
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/08_washington.html

MLK I Have a Dream Speech and March on Washington (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0828.html#article

MLK "I Have a Dream Speech"

One of the great speeches in U.S. history.
Delivered as part of the program during a March on Washington (60,000 whites and 190,00 blacks).

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers “I Have a Dream” Speech
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Martin-Luther-King-Jr--Gives-His--I-Have-a-Dream--Speech.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
"I Have a Dream" Speech
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_i_have_a_dream_28_august_1963/

Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing

Bomb exploded during Sunday School, killing four teenage black girls.
The Sunday school lesson for that morning was "A Love that Forgives."

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Four Girls Killed in Birmingham Church Bombing
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Sept/Four-Girls-Killed-in-Birmingham-Church-Bombing.html

Birmingham Church Bombing (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0915.html#article

Sept. 15, 1963 | Birmingham Church Is Bombed by Klansmen (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/15/sept-15-1963-birmingham-church-is-bombed-by-klansmen/

John F. Kennedy assassinated

President Lyndon B. Johnson

1964

Freedom Summer

Local black leaders aided by white students from elite colleges .
Whites saw this activity as "invasion" by outside agitators.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Freedom Summer
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_freedom_summer_1964/

Eyes on the Prize
Freedom Summer
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/09_summer.html

One Volunteer's Freedom Summer
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/sources/ps_summer.html
YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/captionedvideo#p/u/16/VcbtX-vymf4

Voter registration

No real power for blacks until they could vote. But risked their lives if they went through with the process.

Alabama Voter Registration form [See if you can fill this out!! I can't.]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/sources/ps_march.html

Murder in Mississippi (21 June 1964)

Two white and one black civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi.

Three Civil Rights Workers Reported Missing (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0621.html#article

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Three Civil Rights Workers in Mississippi Go Missing
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/June/Three-Civil-Rights-Workers-in-Mississippi-Go-Missing.html

See also:

Mississippi Burning Trial (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/ftrials.htm
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-mississippi-burning.html

Murderer finally brought to justice
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/race_relations/jan-june05/killen_6-21.html

Murder In Mississippi (TIME)
http://www.time.com/time/archive/collections/0,21428,c_mississippi_murders,00.shtml

Civil Rights Act (1 July 1964)

Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%2012_Cold%20War%20Culture%20and%20Civil%20Rights/Civil%20Rights%20Act%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed after lengthy filibuster
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0619.html#article

Johnson signs Civil Rights Act (History.com This Day in History | 7/2/1964)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/johnson-signs-civil-rights-act

MLK won the Nobel Peace Prize.

MLK Wins Nobel Peace Prize 1964 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1014.html#article

1965

Selma to Montgomery march. Alabama. "Bloody Sunday".

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Selma-to-Montgomery March Begins
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/On-This-Day--The-Selma-to-Montgomery-March-Begins.html

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Selma to Montgomery March
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_selma_to_montgomery_march/

Eyes on the Prize
Selma to Montgomery
Click on "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Video"
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/10_march.html

See also:

Selma to Montgomery Bloody Sunday (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar07.html

Selma (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0307.html#article

March 7, 1965 | Civil Rights Marchers Attacked in Selma (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/march-7-1965-civil-rights-marchers-attacked-in-selma/#more-104063

Encyclopedia of Alabama: Selma to Montgomery March
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1114

Encyclopedia of Alabama: Bloody Sunday
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1876

New Selma-to-Montgomery march is more than just a reenactment (CNN)
http://articles.cnn.com/2012-03-06/us/us_alabama-selma-reenactment_1_edmund-pettus-bridge-voting-rights-act-voter-id-laws?_s=PM:US

LBJ speech

Asks Joint Session of Congress for sweeping civil rights legislation. Ends speech with "we shall overcome." His southern friends appalled at his sellout.

Text of LBJ speech (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6336/

Watts Riots

Watts Riots 1965 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0811.html#article

1967

Black power

Militant black leaders gained prominence in SNCC, questioned Martin Luther King's philosophy of nonviolence, and forced white members to leave the organization.

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Black Power
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_black_power/

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Malcolm X
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_malcolm_x_1925_1965/

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Stokely Carmichael
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_stokely_carmichael_1941_1998/

Black Panther Party

Founded in California. Major figures: Eldridge Cleaver, Huey Newton, and Bobby Seale. Advocated violent confrontation with whites.

1968

Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (April in Memphis)

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
Assassination of MLK
http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_kings_assassination_4_april_1968/


April 4, 1968 | The Assassination of Martin Luther King (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/04/april-4-1968-the-assassination-of-martin-luther-king/#more-107753

Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy (June in Los Angeles)

Robert Kennedy Killed (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0605.html#article

Robert Kennedy obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1120.html

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Senator Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-This-Day--Senator-Robert-F--Kennedy-Assassinated.html

April 23, 1969 | RFK Assassin Sirhan Sirhan Sentenced to Death (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/23/april-23-1969-rfk-assassin-sirhan-sirhan-sentenced-to-death/

Black Power Salute at Mexico City Olympics

Mexico City Olympics Black Power issue (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1018.html#article

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: U.S. Athletes Give Black Power Salute on Olympic Podium
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--US-Athletes-Give-Black-Power-Salute-on-Olympic-Podium.html

50 stunning Olympic moments: Tommie Smith and John Carlos salute (Guardian)
http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/blog/2012/feb/08/olympic-moments-tommie-smith-john-carlos

The man who raised a black power salute at the 1968 Olympic Games (Guardian)
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/mar/30/black-power-salute-1968-olympics

Black athletes make silent protest (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/17/newsid_3535000/3535348.stm

Hispanic School Protests in Los Angeles

East LA Walkouts
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_LA_walkouts

Walkout: The True Story of the Historic 1968 Chicano Student Walkout in East L.A.
http://www.democracynow.org/2006/3/29/walkout_the_true_story_of_the

Sal Castro interview. Watch the first 5 minutes.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hXt8IJZhTM4