CIVIL WAR MODULE

Learning Objectives:

Explain the strengths and weaknesses of the combatants. What factors led to northern victory and southern defeat?

To what degree did slavery justify the war to Northerners/Southerners? Would a different approach to emancipation have led to a different result?

Discuss the impact of military life and wartime experiences on Confederate/Union soldiers.

Discuss "King Cotton Diplomacy." What might the South have done differently to gain foreign recognition or support? How would that support have changed the war's outcome?



Photography

Making sense of documentary photography
http://teachinghistory.org/best-practices/using-primary-sources/14568

Making sense of photos
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/photos/question1.html

Analyzing Nineteenth Century Daguerreotypes
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/sia/photo.htm

Daguerreotypes at Harvard
http://preserve.harvard.edu/daguerreotypes/

Making sense of documentary photography
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/photos/

Camera goes to Civil War
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/lincolns-camera/

Civil War photographers
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/lincolns-camera/

Civil War Photography
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/phcw/hd_phcw.htm

Photos: 3 part series: In Focus by Alan Taylor in The Atlantic magazine
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2012/02/the-civil-war-part-1-the-places/100241/
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2012/02/the-civil-war-part-2-the-people/100242/
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2012/02/the-civil-war-part-3-the-stereographs/100243/




Special features:

Washington Post Special Series on the 150th anniversary in 2011 of the start of the Civil War
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/artsandliving/civilwar/

New York Times Special Series: Opinionator--Disunion
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/category/disunion/

Ken Burns' Civil War PBS
[use a lot of clips from here]
http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/

Civil War cartoons
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/lincolns-cartoons/

Ken Burns

Episode Guide
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/civil-war/about/episode-guide/

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Civil_War_(TV_series)

Maps
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/civil-war/war/maps/#/detail/the-confederate-states-of-america

Photo gallery
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/civil-war/photo-gallery/

Biographies
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/civil-war/war/bios/#/detail/clara-barton

Music

See separate wiki page
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Music




War aims

North: Preserve the Union. Not free the slaves

South: Preserve slavery==the southern way of life



Names used to describe each side:

North=Federals=Yankees=Union=Billy Yank=Blue

South=Confederates=Rebels=Secessionists=Johnny Reb=Gray



Key Leaders/Generals

Meet the Civil War Commanders interactive
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/cmdrs/

Civil War Generals
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/grant-generals/

North:

Abraham Lincoln (see section below)

Ulysses Grant (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Grant_Ulysses_S_1822-1885

Ulysses Grant (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr27.html

Ulysses Grant obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0427.html

William Tecumseh Sherman (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/sherman.htm
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/grant-sherman/

George Meade (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Meade_George_Gordon_1815-1872

George McClellan (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/McClellan_George_B_1826-1885



South:

Meet the Civil War Commanders interactive
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/cmdrs/

Confederate States of America

Jefferson Davis (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Jefferson_1808-1889

Robert E. Lee (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Lee_Robert_Edward_1807-1870

Robert E. Lee
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/grant-lee/

Robert E. Lee obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0119.html

Stonewall Jackson (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Jackson_Thomas_J_Stonewall_1824-1863

Stonewall Jackson (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/j/thomas--stonewall--jackson.html

Stonewall Jackson (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan21.html

J.E.B. Stuart (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Stuart_J_E_B_1833-1864



Abraham Lincoln segment:

Lincoln 200th anniversary.
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/lincoln/

History Now Lincoln's Civil Religion
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/12_2005/historian4.php
History Now Lincoln's Religion
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/12_2008/historian4.php

History Now. Interactive History Lincoln in the Media
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/12_2005/interactive.php



Civil War side comparisons interactive
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/civilwar/lesson1/civil_war.swf

Northern advantages:

Larger population
Greater industrial production
More railroads and canals

Southern advantages:

Greater emotion

Rare Footage of Civil War Veterans Doing the Rebel Yell
http://youtu.be/s6jSqt39vFM

The Birth of 'Dixie' (New York Times)
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/31/the-birth-of-dixie/

Excellent military commanders



Union military strategy
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI294.jpg

Let's look at one result of the Union naval blockade

American Memory Timeline: Civil War
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/civilwar/
Click on "Presentations"
Click on "American Memory Timeline"
Click on "The Civil War and Reconstruction"
Click on "The South During the Civil War"
Read the article entitled "At Christmas People Did Not Have Luxuries"



Confederate military strategy
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI294.jpg

Offensive defensive:

a. Attack when possible
b. Mostly play defense
c. Use interior lines of transportation
d. Concentrate its forces at crucial points of Union attack

What else could the Confederates have done to win the war?



Union diplomatic strategy

Lincoln tried hard to prevent Britain and France from aiding the Confederacy

Lincoln Foreign Affairs (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/lincoln/essays/biography/5

Trent Affair (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1861-1865/trent-affair

Preventing diplomatic recognition of the Confederacy (Historian of the State Depaartment)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1861-1865/confederacy

Trent Affair (New York Times)
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/24/a-fateful-christmas-meeting/?smid=tw-NYTOpinionator&seid=au



Confederate diplomatic strategy

"King Cotton" diplomacy

Hoped that Britain and France would aid South to get southern cotton
It did not happen
Both countries developed other supply sources

See also:

Book review of A World on Fire
How Britain almost supported the Confederacy
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/03/books/review/book-review-a-world-on-fire-by-amanda-foreman.html?pagewanted=all



Military Life

a. Soldiers had to deal with mass violence, live on little food and sleep, and endure all kinds of weather.

b. Rifle and the minie ball. Straight–ahead charges were stupid in light of the more effective killing range of the rifle and the power of the minie ball.

Life of the Civil War Soldier in the Army
http://www.civilwar.org/hallowed-ground-magazine/winter-2013/life-of-the-civil-war-soldier-
army.html

The life of a Civil War soldier - North Carolina Digital History
http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-civilwar/5513

Civil War camp life
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/14/notes-on-civil-war-camp/?_r=0

American Memory Timeline: Civil War soldiers
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/civilwar/soldiers/

Women Soldiers and nurses

Women soldiers in the Civil War (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1993/spring/women-in-the-civil-war-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1993/spring/women-in-the-civil-war-2.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1993/spring/women-in-the-civil-war-3.html

Disney movie: Mulan
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120762/

Women in the Civil War
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/lincolns-women-war/

National Museum of Civil War Medicine
http://www.civilwarmed.org/

American Memory Timeline: Civil War
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/civilwar/
Click on "Presentations"
Click on "American Memory Timeline"
Click on "The Civil War and Reconstruction"
Click on "The North During the Civil War"
Click on the article entitled "Women in the Union Armies"

Diary of a Civil War Nurse
http://americanhistory.si.edu/documentsgallery/exhibitions/nursing_1.html
Website review: Diary of a Civil War Nurse
http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/website-reviews/25001

Black Union soldiers

Racism in the Union army was strong.
Black soldiers in the Union army (120,000) fought for acceptance from their white comrades

Religion

Was God on the side of the North?
Religion in the North during the Civil War (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/cwnorth.htm

Was God mad at the South because of slavery?
Religion in the South during the Civil War (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/cwsouth.htm

Lincoln and the Mormons - NYTimes.com
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/17/lincoln-and-the-mormons/

Onward Christian Soldiers - NYTimes.com
YMCA, Civil War, Second Great Awakening
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/22/onward-christian-soldiers/

Rabbi-Chaplains of the Civil War - NYTimes.com
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/11/rabbi-chaplains-of-the-civil-war/



Emancipation

a. Lincoln's approach

Hoped to achieve a peace treaty compromise with the South
Tried to balance conflicting parts of his Republican party coalition
Radical Republicans wanted immediate emancipation
Others (especially border slave states) did not
Set his priority to preserve the Union, not end slavery
But needed to keep Britain and France from aiding the Confederacy

See also:

Emancipation Proclamation (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep22.html

b. Jefferson Davis's approach

Preserving Confederate independence was the key
Would free the slaves if it preserved Confederate independence
An effort was made to emancipate: too little, too late

The Civil War and emancipation (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2967.html
Emancipation Proclamation
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h1549.html



Civil War Maps

Civil War animated maps
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/

Interactive Map Military Campaigns of the Civil War
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/civilwar/lesson2



Major Battles of the Civil War

Map of the Civil War, 1861-1862
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI297.jpg

Bull Run. South won. Southerners confident. Stonewall Jackson.

Animated Map: Bull Run/Manassas
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/first-manassas-east-38

See also:

Bull Run (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul21.html

The First Battle of Bull Run: What Happened? (New York Times)
In-depth analysis--with excellent maps--by noted historian Gary Gallagher.
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/07/20/where-ignorant-armies-clash/

Stonewall Jackson profile (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/j/thomas--stonewall--jackson.html

Shiloh. Union barely won. General Grant removed from command. Large casualties revealed the horrible nature of modern warfare.

Animated Map: Shiloh
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/shiloh-west-29

Battle of Shiloh (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0407.html#article

Cyrus F. Boyd: A Union Soldier at Shiloh
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/grant-boyd/

Henry Morton Stanley: A Confederate Soldier at Shiloh
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/grant-stanley/

You're General Grant at the Battle of the Shiloh
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/grant-general/

Antietam. Battle a draw. First time South invaded North. Antietam and Gettysburg the only major battles outside the South.

Antietam (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep17.html

Animated Map: Antietam
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/antietam-east-34

Fredericksburg (December 1862). Union lost big. Made 14 charges against well–entrenched Confederates.

Animated Map: Fredericksburg
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/fredericksburg



Map of the Civil War, 1863-1865
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI305.jpg

Chancellorsville (May 1863). Confederates won battle. But lost their great general, Stonewall Jackson.

Animated Map: Chancellorsville
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/chancellorsville-east-35

May 2, 1863 | Stonewall Jackson Shot by His Own Men at Chancellorsville (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/02/may-2-1863-stonewall-jackson-shot-by-his-own-men-at-chancellorsville/

Vicksburg (July 1863). Union victory. Union gained complete control of Mississippi River. Western part of Confederacy cut off.

Vicksburg (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may19.html

Animated Map: Vicksburg
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/vicksburg-west-30



Gettysburg (July 1863)

Animated Map: Gettysburg
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/gettysburg-east-50

Second time South invaded North.
Union victory. "High tide" of Confederacy.
Turning point of the war for the South.

Ist day: Union took the high ground; Jeb Stuart's cavalry arrived too late.
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Battle-of-Gettysburg-Begins-.html

2nd day: Rebels tried to take Big and Little Round Tops but Union held.

3rd day: Pickett's hopeless charge against the middle of Union lines.

Gettysburg (Today in History, Library of Congress)
[the three days]
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul01.html
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul02.html
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul03.html

Battle of Gettysburg Begins (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Battle-of-Gettysburg-Begins-.html

Choices and Commitments: The Soldiers at Gettysburg (National Park Service)
http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/44gettys/44gettys.htm



Gettysburg Address

Gettysburg Address (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/nov19.html

Reenactment of Gettysburg Address
(Read by Jeff Daniels)
http://youtu.be/BvA0J_2ZpIQ

President Lincoln Delivers Gettysburg Address (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/President-Lincoln-Delivers-Gettysburg-Address.html

Text of Gettysburg Address
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gettysburg_Address



Battle of Atlanta (1864). Union victory. Ensured Lincoln's reelection.

Animated Map: Atlanta
http://www.civilwaranimated.com/march-on-atlanta-west-48



Sherman's March through Georgia

Union victory
Sherman operated in deep South
Across Georgia: Atlanta to Savannah
Destroyed everything in a path 50 miles wide, 200 miles long

Sherman's March to the Sea (Eyewitness to History)
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/sherman.htm

American Memory Timeline: Civil War
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/civilwar/
Click on "Presentations"
Click on "American Memory Timeline"
Click on "The Civil War and Reconstruction"
Click on "The South During the Civil War"
Then read the article entitled "Sherman's Army Plunders a Georgia Plantation"

Dec. 22, 1864 | Gen. Sherman Completes March to the Sea, Offers Savannah as a 'Christmas Gift' (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/22/dec-22-1864-gen-sherman-offers-savannah-as-a-christmas-gift-to-president-lincoln/

Grant's overland campaign pursuing Lee's army to Richmond

Animated Map: Grant's overland campaign
http://www.historyanimated.com/OverlandAnimation.html



Appomattox (9 April 1865).

Appomatox (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr09.html

Confederate Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union Ulysses S. Grant
Lincoln assassination: 14 April 1865

Jefferson Davis captured (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may10.html



Legacy of the Civil War

Total deaths 620,000===(360,000 North; 260,000 South)

But new evidence may raise that total at least 20% higher:

Civil War Toll Up by 20 Percent in New Estimate (New York Times)

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/03/science/civil-war-toll-up-by-20-percent-in-new-estimate.html?_r=1&hpw=&pagewanted=all

Four million slaves in the South were free. What to do about them?