Here are the specific items I want to be certain to cover (out of all the wonderful material in our module):

do over 4 sessions

Session #1:

George F. Kennan
Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech (1946)
President Harry S. Truman
Truman Doctrine (1947)
Marshall Plan (1948)
Israel (1948)
Berlin blockade and airlift (1948–49)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)
McCarthy Era

Please follow me using Google Image search/Wikipedia for each topic:

Session #2:

Reconstruction of Japan
People's Republic of China (PRC) (1949)
Korean War (1950-1953)
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Sputnik (1957)
U–2 incident (1960)

Session #3:

President John F. Kennedy
1960 Presidential Election
Peace Corps
Berlin Wall (August 1961)
Cuba and Castro
Bay of Pigs invasion (April 1961)
Cuban missile crisis (October 1962)

Where to put this:

The Cold War in cartoons

Sources Of The Cold War

Main focus is the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (USSR).

USSR=Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Here is a listing of which Republics the USSR included:
Russia by far the major part of the USSR.

Hot war==actual shooting
Cold war==hostility but either no actual shooting or war through surrogates


Containment of Soviets became the cornerstone of American foreign policy.

Video: Policy of Containment (1/10)

George F. Kennan

Kennan and Containment (US State Department)

1. Kennan's "Long telegram" 1946

a. American diplomat in Moscow.

b. Soviet fanaticism made even a temporary understanding impossible.

c. His report played into a growing belief among American officials that only toughness would work with the Soviets.

2. Kennan's "Mr. X" article.

a. The article, titled the Sources of Soviet Conduct and based on the "long telegram," was published in the prestigious Foreign Affairs magazine.

b. Author (Kennan) advocated a policy of firm containment of the Soviets.

c. "Confront the Soviets with unalterable counterforce at every point where they show signs of encroaching on the interests of a peaceful and stable world."

Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech (1946)

Churchill Delivers 'Iron Curtain' Speech - 1946 | Today In History | 5 Mar

1. Warned that a Soviet "iron curtain" had cut off Eastern European countries from the West.

2. Called for an Anglo–American partnership to resist the communist menace.

Map: After World War II. Iron Curtain

President Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Harry Truman bio

Truman Doctrine (1947)

Video: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan (2/10)

The Truman Doctrine, 1947 (US State Department)

1. British had no money to continue to help Greece and Turkey.

2. British claimed that Communists threatened both countries.

3. Congress approved $400 million economic aid to Greece & Turkey.

4. Truman doctrine: "U.S. policy to support free peoples who are resisting attempted takeover by (a) armed minorities or (b) outside pressure."

Marshall Plan (1948)

Video: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan (2/10)

Marshall Plan, 1948 (US State Department)

1. War damage and dislocation in Europe invited communist influence:

a. Food was scarce; workers were demoralized; winter of 1947 was the worst in 50 years.

b. Communist voting strength was growing in France and Italy

2. U.S. offered economic aid to all European countries (including Soviets)

3. Soviets declined: fearing aid might defeat their control of Eastern Europe

Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance ( This Day in History | 7/2/1947)

4. U.S. gave $17 billion in aid over four years.

5. That aid helped rebuild Europe. It was also good for American business.

Israel Became a Separate Country

UN Votes to Partition Palestine (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Video: 1948 Nation of Israel is Born

Creation of Israel, 1948 (US State Department)

History of the Israel conflict

Maps of Israel

Berlin blockade and airlift (1948–49)

Video: Berlin Airlift and Formation of NATO (3/10)

The Berlin Airlift, 1948–1949 (US State Department)

Berlin Airlift Map

1. Soviets blocked land access to Berlin.

2. U.S. airlifted food and fuel for 2 million West Berliners.

Operation Little Vittles

3. Flights of 1,000 planes a day (every 3 minutes) for ten months.

4. Soviets finally called off blockade.

Soviet Union Ends Berlin Blockade

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)

Video: Berlin Airlift and Formation of NATO (3/10)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949 (US State Department)

1. Established to defend Europe against a Soviet invasion.
2. U.S. foreign policy change: not since French–American alliance (1778)
3. Members pledged to treat an attack against one as an attack on all.
4. Dwight Eisenhower named initial NATO commander.
5. Four U.S. divisions stationed in Europe to evidence American support.
6. Soviets later formed Warsaw Pact in response.

Issue in 2017: US approach to NATO.


Anti–communist hysteria
Named for Republican Senator from Wisconsin Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin)

Anti-Communist hysteria
Arthur Miller: The Crucible

Video: McCarthyism (8/10)

Video: McCarthyism (Sia's "Chandelier" parody) [Mr. Betts class]

What Donald Trump Learned From Joseph McCarthy’s Right-Hand Man, Roy Cohn

Video: US Senator Joseph McCarthy and Counsel Roy Cohn at Senate hearing

Video: Roy Cohn defends Senator McCarthy

Edward R. Murrow
Movie: Good night, and good luck

Arthur Miller
The Crucible: Parallels to today (2012)

Here are some of the key names and major events associated with McCarthyism:

1. J.Edgar Hoover (head of the FBI): fear of internal subversion by Communist spies became intertwined with fear of external attack by the Soviet Union.

2. Spy revelations gave people cause to be alarmed

Red Scare and House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) (6/10)

3. People began pointing accusing fingers at each other.


How to spot a Communist

4. "Hollywood Ten" (screenwriters and directors) jailed for contempt of Congress.

They refused to provide names of alleged Communists.

Others were blacklisted—even if only accused.

Those who did provide names (Elia Kazan) suffer to this day

5. Schoolteachers had to take loyalty oaths and were fired if they refused.

6. Alger Hiss case (1950)

Alger Hiss Case and the Rosenbergs (7/10)

Hiss accused by Whittaker Chambers of being a Communist spy.

Role of House of Representatives Committee on Un–American Activities (Richard Nixon a member).

7. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed (1953) for having supposedly spied for the Soviet Union.

8. Downfall of McCarthy

a. Eisenhower reluctance to confront McCarthy.

b. Televised hearings: Army–McCarthy.

Army-McCarthy Hearings First Televised

Reconstruction of Japan

Occupation and Reconstruction of Japan, 1945–52 (US State Department)

Korean War and Japan’s Recovery (US State Department)

Role of U.S. in controlling postwar Japan (Douglas MacArthur)

To help contain communism in Asia, we eventually built up Japan.

Japan turned into a formidable economic competitor.

People's Republic of China (PRC) (1949)

The Chinese Revolution of 1949 (US State Department)

Video: Mao's Communists take over China 1949

1. Chinese Civil War (1945-1949)
War between the forces of Mao Tse-Tung's Commuists and our World War II ally, Chang Kai-Shek.

2. Mao Tse-Tung's Communists won. Establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949).

3. Chang Kai-Shek and his supporters were forced to leave mainland China and move to the island of Taiwan (formerly called Formosa).

4. The Communist victory had a major influence on American politics.

Republicans criticized Democrats for the "loss" of China to the Communists.

A defeat for containment.

Decolonization of Asia and Africa, 1945–1960
(US State Department summary)

Map: Former colonies in Southeast Asia

Map: New nations, 1946-1991

Korean War (1950-1953)

The Korean War, 1950–1953 (US State Department)

Video: Start of Korean War (4/10)

Video: MacArthur Dismissed and Korean Armistice (5/10)

Let's spend a few minutes with this map of the Korean War

Here is a summary of the specific events during the war:

1. North Korea attacked across 38th parallel into South Korea (25 June 1950)

2. President Truman, determined to "contain" communism, committed U.S. forces to battle.

MacArthur Names Commander of UN Forces

3. Pusan perimeter
a. North Koreans advanced all the way to southern tip of South Korea.
b. America feared an Asian "Dunkirk"

4. Inchon invasion. Douglas MacArthur reversed initial tide of the war.

5. U.S. moved to 38th parallel, thereby recovering all of South Korea.

6. U.S. decided to take North Korea, too. Moved north of 38th parallel.

7. U.S. forces pushed to the Yalu River (North Korea's border with PRC)

8. Chinese troops entered the Korean War.

9. U.S. embarrassed militarily, particularly at the Chosin Reservoir

Ballad of the Chosin

10. MacArthur now looked like a chump.

11. Civilian control of the military became a hot issue.

12. MacArthur: wanted to expand the war to the Chinese mainland; use nuclear weapons

13. Truman: wanted to keep conflict limited; not risk Soviet entry and a possible World War Three
14. President Truman fired General MacArthur

Lessons Learned: General MacArthur's Dismissal

15. War's results. U.S. casualties: 34,000 dead.
16. Sometimes called the "Forgotten War": frustrating; no clear victory.
17. Issues today: U.S. troops in South Korea; North Korea threat to peace

Korean War in Photos (Boston Globe | Big Picture) (48 photos)
Work your way through ALL of the photos. Read ALL of the captions.
Comment specifically on 5 photos [spread throughout the montage] that impacted you the most.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower

American Experience: The Presidents series

Dwight D. Eisenhower (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Video: Eisenhower's New Look Strategy (9/10)

Dwight D. Eisenhower bio

1952 Presidential Election

Check out this great web site for campaign commercials.
1952 election campaign commercials

1956 Presidential Election

1956 election campaign commercials

Sputnik (1957)

Video: Sputnik (1957) [National Air and Space Museum]

Sputnik, 1957 (US State Department)

Soviets launched a satellite that scared America and put them ahead (temporarily) in the space race.

Video: Space Race (Taylor Swift's "Blank Space" parody) (Mr. Betts class)

U–2 incident (1960)

Video: U-2 Incident (10/10)

U-2 Overflights and the Capture of Francis Gary Powers, 1960 (US State Department)

U–2 spy plane carrying high–powered cameras crashed 1,200 miles inside the Soviet Union.

After denying presence of such a spy plane, President Eisenhower (Ike) accepted the blame.

President John F. Kennedy

I. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum

II. John F. Kennedy
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

John F. Kennedy (Aha's "TakeOnMe" Parody) Mr. Betts

Photos: President Kennedy (Big Picture | Boston Globe)

1960 Presidential Election

Nixon and Kennedy Hold First Ever Presidential Debate

1960 Election campaign commercials

Peace Corps

Video: Peace Corps

Alliance for Progress and Peace Corps, 1961–1969 (US State Department)

Peace Corps (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum)

Great image collage about Peace Corps (Washington Post)

Berlin Wall (August 1961)

The Berlin Crisis, 1958–1961 (US State Department)

Video: East Germany Closes Border - 1961 | Today in History | 13 Aug

Video: The Building of the Berlin Wall (August 1961) (5:45)

Video: Berlin Wall deconstructed (2:27)

Soviets built a wall to keep people from fleeing East Berlin.

Photo essay: Berlin Wall (The Big Picture | Boston Globe)

President Kennedy's Speech at the Berlin Wall (June 1963)

Video: JFK Berlin Wall speech (26 June 1963)
[start at 0:44]

President Kennedy Declares “Ich bin ein Berliner”

Cuba and Castro

1. Fidel Castro ousted American–backed dictator Fulgencio Batista (1959)

Castro takes power (1 January 1959)

Batista Flees Cuba and Castro Takes Power

Video: Cuban Revolution 1959 Today in History 1 January (1:21)

Video: Castro talks about guerrilla warfare (5:10)

Video: Rally Hails Cuban Dictator Fidel Castro (0:54
[Castro playing baseball]

2. Castro's Cuba became an ally of the Soviet Union.

3. America freaked. President Eisenhower (Ike) broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.

Eisenhower Places Embargo on Exports to Cuba

4. Ike ordered CIA to use Cuban exiles to try to overthrow Castro.

Bay of Pigs invasion (April 1961)

Video: Cuba and the Bay of Pigs

The Bay of Pigs Invasion and its Aftermath, April 1961–October 1962 (US State Department)

1. Kennedy approved the Eisenhower-initiated plan to topple Castro.
2. The 1,500 man invasion force was unsuccessful.
3. No uprising against Castro occurred.
4. Kennedy took all the blame. His poll ratings went up! Kennedy in his first Hundred Days.

Bay of Pigs Invasion Embarrasses US

Cuban missile crisis (October 1962)

Video: Cuban Missile Crisis Explained - @MrBettsClass

Photo essay: The Cuban Missile Crisis (Alan Taylor/The Atlantic) [26 photos]

The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962 (US State Department)

1. Soviet's secretly installed offensive missiles in Cuba.

2. Kennedy (JFK) learned from his mistakes earlier at Bay of Pigs. Laid out a range of options.

3. JFK chose a naval blockade (quarantine) of Cuba.

Video: Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962): JFK speech to the nation

Video: Tom Lehrer - We Will All Go Together When We Go (3:26)i

4. Soviets ships eventually turned back before they got to U.S blockade.

Interactive: World on the Brink: Thirteen Days in October 1962

1. Click on "Begin The Thirteen Days"
2. Click your way through each of the thirteen days.
3. Read what is on each screen. You can click on each visual to enlarge it.