COLD WAR MODULE

Central America, 1977–1980
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/central-america-carter

Central America, 1981–1993
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1981-1988/central-america

Reagan Doctrine, 1985
https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/rd/17741.htm

Elliot Abrams: The Reagan Doctrine in Central (America Ashbrook Center)
https://youtu.be/Otz5TdoqNP8




Sources Of The Cold War

Main focus is the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (USSR).
Hot war==actual shooting
Cold war==hostility but either no actual shooting or war through surrogates

See also:

History Now: Cold War issue
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/03_2011/index.php

Cold War Europe interactive
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/coldwareuropemap/main.swf


Containment

Containment of Soviets became the cornerstone of American foreign policy.

George F. Kennan
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX57.html

Kennan obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/18/politics/18kennan.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all&position=

Great article by Richard Holbrooke about Kennan (Washington Post)
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52533-2005Mar20.html

Kennan and Containment, 1947
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/kennan

1. Kennan's "Long telegram" 1946

a. American diplomat in Moscow.
b. Soviet fanaticism made even a temporary understanding impossible.
c. His report played into a growing belief among American officials that only toughness would work with the Soviets.

Here is the complete text of the 8,000-word "long telegram" (National Security Archive)
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/documents/episode-1/kennan.htm

2. Kennan's "Mr. X" article.

a. The article, titled the Sources of Soviet Conduct and based on the "long telegram," was published in the prestigious Foreign Affairs magazine.
b. Author (Kennan) advocated a policy of firm containment of the Soviets.
c. "Confront the Soviets with unalterable counterforce at every point where they show signs of encroaching on the interests of a peaceful and stable world."

Here is the text of the article:
http://www.historyguide.org/europe/kennan.html

"Mr. X" article appears in Foreign Affairs (History.com This Day in History | 7/1/1947)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mr-x-article-appears-in-iforeign-affairsi


Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech (1946)

March 5, 1946 | Winston Churchill Warns of Soviet "Iron Curtain" (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/05/march-5-1946-winston-churchill-warns-of-soviet-iron-curtain/#more-103783

Churchill's Iron Curtain speech (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0305.html#article

Churchill Delivers Iron Curtain Speech (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/Winston-Churchill-Delivers--Iron-Curtain--Speech-.html

Churchill Iron Curtain Speech Assails Soviet Policy
1. Warned that a Soviet "iron curtain" had cut off Eastern European countries from the West.
2. Called for an Anglo–American partnership to resist the communist menace.

Map: After World War II. Iron Curtain
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI593.jpg


President Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman
Miller Center (University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/truman
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-harry-truman.html

President Truman obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0508.html


Truman Doctrine (1947)

The Truman Doctrine, 1947
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/truman-doctrine

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: President Truman Establishes Truman Doctrine
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/Truman-Doctrine.html

Truman Doctrine (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0522.html#article

1. British had no money to continue to help Greece and Turkey.

2. British claimed that Communists threatened both countries.

3. Congress approved $400 million economic aid to Greece & Turkey.

4. Truman doctrine: "U.S. policy to support free peoples who are resisting attempted takeover by (a) armed minorities or (b) outside pressure."


Marshall Plan (1948)

Marshall Plan, 1948
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/marshall-plan

1. War damage and dislocation in Europe invited communist influence:

a. Food was scarce; workers were demoralized; winter of 1947 was the worst in 50 years

Truman Calls on U.S. citizens to save food for Europe 1947
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1005.html#article

b. Communist voting strength was growing in France and Italy

2. U.S. offered economic aid to all European countries (including Soviets)

3. Soviets declined: fearing aid might defeat their control of Eastern Europe

Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance (History.com This Day in History | 7/2/1947)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/soviet-union-rejects-marshall-plan-assistance

4. U.S. gave $17 billion in aid over four years.

5. That aid helped rebuild Europe. It was also good for American business.


Israel Became a Separate Country

Arthur Balfour obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0725.html

Palestine Partition 1947 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1129.html#article

UN Votes to Partition Palestine (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/UN-Votes-to-Partition-Palestine.html

Zionists Proclaim New State of Israel (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0514.html#article

Israel Becomes a Nation (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Israel-Becomes-a-Nation.html

Creation of Israel, 1948
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/creation-israel

Book Review - The Balfour Declaration - By Jonathan Schneer
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/22/books/review/Segev-t.html

Formation of Israel section
Theodor Herzl
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Herzl.html
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodor_Herzl

May 14, 1948 | Israel Declares Independence (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/14/may-14-1948-israel-declares-independence/


Berlin blockade and airlift (1948–49)

Berlin Airlift (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/airlift/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-berlin-airlift.html

The Berlin Airlift, 1948–1949
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/berlin-airlift

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Soviet Union Ends Berlin Blockade
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Soviet-Union-Ends-Berlin-Blockade.html

1. Soviets blocked land access to Berlin.

2. U.S. airlifted food and fuel for 2 million West Berliners lasting ten months.

3. Flights of 1,000 planes a day (every 3 minutes) for ten months.

4. Soviets finally called off blockade.

Berlin Airlift: Static Map
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI593.jpg

Berlin Airlift: Interactive Map
Click through the four sections
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/airlift/map/map_01.html


North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/nato

History of NATO (NATO website)
http://www.nato.int/history/nato-history.html
http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/index.htm

1. Established to defend Europe against a Soviet invasion.

2. U.S. foreign policy change: not since French–American alliance (1778)

3. Members pledged to treat an attack against one as an attack on all.

4. Dwight Eisenhower named initial NATO commander.

5. Four U.S. divisions stationed in Europe to evidence American support.

6. Soviets later formed Warsaw Pact in response.

Issue in 2012: what use is NATO? Who should be a member?


McCarthyism:

Anti–communist hysteria
Named for Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin)

Here are some of the key names and major events associated with McCarthyism:

1. J.Edgar Hoover (head of the FBI): fear of internal subversion by Communist spies became intertwined with fear of external attack by the Soviet Union.

J. Edgar Hoover obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0101.html

2. Spy revelations gave people cause to be alarmed
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_spies

http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/is-this-tomorrow.html
http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/commie-for-fbi.html

3. People began pointing accusing fingers at each other. Red-baiting.

4. "Hollywood Ten" (screenwriters and directors) jailed for contempt of Congress.

They refused to provide names of alleged Communists.
Others were blacklisted—even if only accused.
Those who did provide names (Elia Kazan) suffer to this day

FBI report names Hollywood figures as communists (History.com)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fbi-report-names-hollywood-figures-as-communists

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: “Hollywood Ten” Blacklisted by Movie Studios
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Hollywood-Ten-Blacklisted-by-Movie-Studios.html

Ronald Reagan on Communism in Hollywood
Watch at least the first 5 minutes of the 9:51 minute YouTube clip
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ensqVTnGkNw&feature=youtube_gdata_player

5. Schoolteachers had to take loyalty oaths and were fired if they refused.
http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/loyalty-oath-ditty.html

6. Alger Hiss case (1950)

Hiss accused by Whittaker Chambers of being a Communist spy.

Role of House of Representatives Committee on Un–American Activities (Richard Nixon a member).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_Un-American_Activities_Committee

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Alger Hiss convicted of perjury.
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Alger-Hiss-Convicted-of-Perjury-.html

Two excellent websites about Alger Hiss:

a. The Alger Hiss Story
http://homepages.nyu.edu/~th15/home.html

b. Alger Hiss Trial (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hiss.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-alger-hiss-trial.html

7. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed (1953) for having supposedly spied for the Soviet Union.

a. Rosenbergs Trial (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/rosenb/ROSENB.HTM
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-rosenberg-trial.html

b. Story about their two children is fascinating

Rosenbergs’ Sons Accept Conclusion That Father Was a Spy (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/17/nyregion/17rosenbergs.html?_r=2&hp&oref=slogin

30 Mar 1951: Rosenbergs guilty of espionage (BBC)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/30/newsid_3704000/3704209.stm

8. Downfall of McCarthy

a. Eisenhower reluctance to confront McCarthy.

b. Televised hearings: Army–McCarthy.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Army-McCarthy Hearings First Televised
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/On-this-Day--Army-McCarthy-Hearings-First-Televised.html

McCarthy hunts 'army Communists' (BBC)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/18/newsid_2749000/2749961.stm

Welch Assails McCarthy (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0609.html#article

c. U.S. Senate Censures McCarthy (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=1202

Senate Censures McCarthy (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1202.html#article

See also:

09 Feb 1950: McCarthy launches anti-Red crusade (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/9/newsid_3703000/3703305.stm

18 Feb 1954: McCarthy hunts 'Army Communists' (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/18/newsid_2749000/2749961.stm

02 Dec 1954: US Senate condemns McCarthy (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/2/newsid_3205000/3205423.stm


Reconstruction of Japan

Role of U.S. in controlling postwar Japan (Douglas MacArthur)

To help contain communism in Asia, we eventually built up Japan.

Japan turned into a formidable economic competitor.

See also:

Occupation and Reconstruction of Japan, 1945–52
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/japan-reconstruction

Korean War and Japan’s Recovery
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/korean-war

Japan's contradictory military might (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-17175834


People's Republic of China (PRC) (1949)

The Chinese Revolution of 1949
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/chinese-rev

1. Chinese Civil War (1945-1949)

War between the forces of Mao Tse-Tung's Commuists and our World War II ally, Chang Kai-Shek.

2. Mao Tse-Tung's Communists won. Establishment of the People's Republic of China.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/china/peopleevents/pande05.html

Mao Tse-Tung obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1226.html

3. Chang Kai-Shek and his supporters were forced to leave mainland China and move to the island of Taiwan (formerly called Formosa).

4. The Communist victory had a major influence on American politics.

Republicans criticized Democrats for the "loss" of China to the Communists.

A defeat for containment.

See Also:

China prepares for its 60th anniversary (Big Picture | Boston Globe)
http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2009/09/china_prepares_for_its_60th_an.html




NSC-68, 1950
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/NSC68

Decolonization of Asia and Africa, 1945–1960
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/asia-and-africa



Korean War (1950-1953)

YouTube videos to check out:

The Korean "War" For Dummies - YouTube

20th Century Battlefields - Korea - YouTube

Korean War- Retreat From Hell - YouTube

Korea: The Forgotten War (20th Century) - YouTube

NSC 68 (Historian of the State Department)
http://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/NSC68

The Korean War, 1950–1953
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/korean-war-2

The Korean War: An Overview (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/korea_hickey_01.shtml

Let's spend a few minutes with this map of the Korean War
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI599.jpg

Great Korean War maps in this one!
https://originals.azpm.org/unforgettable/

American troops arrive in Korea to partition the country (History.com This Day in History | 9/8/1945)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/american-troops-arrive-in-korea-to-partition-the-country

Here is a summary of the specific events during the war:

1. North Korea attacked across 38th parallel into South Korea (25 June 1950)

25 Jun 1950: UN condemns North Korean invasion (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/25/newsid_2699000/2699641.stm

2. President Truman, determined to "contain" communism, committed U.S. forces to battle.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: MacArthur Names Commander of UN Forces
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July/MacArthur-Named-Commander-of-UN-Forces.html

Historic Headlines | June 27, 1950: Truman Orders U.S. Forces to Fight in Korean War (New York Times)
[See how this article adds to the Finding Dulcinea approach.]
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/27/june-27-1950-truman-orders-u-s-forces-to-fight-in-korean-war/

Truman Orders Air and Naval Units to Aid Korea (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0627.html#article

3. Pusan perimeter

a. North Koreans advanced all the way to southern tip of South Korea.

b. America feared an Asian "Dunkirk"

4. Inchon invasion. Douglas MacArthur reversed initial tide of the war.

5. U.S. moved to 38th parallel, thereby recovering all of South Korea.

6. U.S. decided to take North Korea, too. Moved north of 38th parallel.

7. U.S. forces pushed to the Yalu River (North Korea's border with PRC)

8. Chinese troops entered the Korean War.

9. U.S. embarrassed militarily, particularly at the Chosin Reservoir

10. MacArthur now looked like a chump.

11. Civilian control of the military became a hot issue.

12. MacArthur: wanted to expand the war to the Chinese mainland; use nuclear weapons

13. Truman: wanted to keep conflict limited; not risk Soviet entry and a possible World War Three

14. President Truman fired General MacArthur

Truman Relieves MacArthur of Command in Korea (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0411.html#article

Truman and MacArthur (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%2011_Cold%20War/Truman%20and%20MacArthur%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Douglas MacArthur: Farewell Address to Congress (1951) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/general-macarthurs-farewell-address-to-congress

15. War's results. U.S. casualties: 34,000 dead.

16. Sometimes called the "Forgotten War": frustrating; no clear victory.

17. Issues today: U.S. troops in South Korea; North Korea threat to peace

See also:

U.S. Tests Hydrogen Bomb at Enewitok 1952 [note the date: during the Korean War] (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1101.html#article

Korean War in Photos (Boston Globe | Big Picture)
http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/06/remembering_the_korean_war_60.html

Photos: Korean War 60th Anniversary (Denver Post Photo Blog)
http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2010/06/17/on-war-korean-war-60th-anniversary/

The Korean War on Its 60th Anniversary (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/06/22/the-korean-war-on-its-60th-anniversary/

Recognition finally for a warrior priest's Korean heroics (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-17224774

Revisiting the Korean War (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/summer/korean-myths-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/summer/korean-myths-2.html


President Dwight D. Eisenhower

American Experience: The Presidents series
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/34_eisenhower/index.html

Dwight D. Eisenhower (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/eisenhower

President Eisenhower obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1014.html

John Foster Dulles obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0225.html

1952 Presidential Election

Check out this great web site for campaign commercials.
1952 election campaign commercials
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1952

1956 Presidential Election

1956 election campaign commercials
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1956


Sputnik (1957)

Soviets launched a satellite that scared America and put them ahead (temporarily) in the space race.

Sputnik, 1957
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/sputnik

Sputnik 1957 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1004.html#article

04 Oct 1957: Sputnik satellite blasts into space (BBC On This Day))
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/4/newsid_2685000/2685115.stm

On This Day: Sputnik Satellite Launched Into Orbit (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Oct/Sputnik-Satellite-Launched-Into-Orbit.html

YouTube - 1957 Sputnik I (Universal News)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWR70ngPYbc&feature=related


U–2 incident (1960)

U-2 Overflights and the Capture of Francis Gary Powers, 1960
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/u2-incident

U–2 spy plane carrying high–powered cameras crashed 1,200 miles inside the Soviet Union.

After denying presence of such a spy plane, President Eisenhower (Ike) accepted the blame.

See also:

U-2 Shot Down (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0501.html#article

Soviet Downs American Plane; U.S. Says It Was Weather Craft; Khrushchev Sees Summit Blow (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0501.html

Feb. 10, 1962 | U-2 Pilot Francis Gary Powers Released from Soviet Custody (New York Times)
Nice comparison to U.S. drone shot down recently by Iran.

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/10/feb-10-1962-u-2-pilot-francis-gary-powers-released-from-soviet-custody/#more-101113

See also:

17 May 1960: East-West summit in tatters after U-2 spy plane incident (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/17/newsid_2512000/2512335.stm

19 Aug 1960: Moscow jails American U-2 spy plane pilot Gary Powers (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/19/newsid_2962000/2962600.stm

29 Sep 1960: Khrushchev's anger erupts at UN (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/29/newsid_3087000/3087171.stm


President John F. Kennedy

I. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum
http://www.jfklibrary.org/

a. JFK in History
http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History.aspx

b. Interactive Exhibits
http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/Interactive-Exhibits.aspx

II. John F. Kennedy
Miller Center (University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/kennedy
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-john-f-kennedy.html


See also:

PT-109
Sixty Years Later, the Story of PT-109 still captivates (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2003/summer/pt109.html

Check out these pictures of President Kennedy (Big Picture | Boston Globe)
http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/11/the_presidency_of_jfk_50_years.html

JFK Assassinated (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1122.html#article

John F. Kennedy obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0529.html


1960 Presidential Election

Kennedy-Nixon Debates (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct21.html

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Nixon and Kennedy Hold First Ever Presidential Debate
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-This-Day--Nixon-and-JFK-Appear-in-First-Televised-Presidential-Debate.html

September 26, 1960 | First Televised Presidential Debate (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/26/september-26-1960-first-televised-presidential-debate/

1960 Election campaign commercials
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1960



Photos from The Atlantic magazine In Focus:

The World in 1961
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2011/10/50-years-ago-the-world-in-1961/100172/

The World in 1962
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2012/05/50-years-ago-the-world-in-1962/100296/



Peace Corps

Peace Corps (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum)
http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Peace-Corps.aspx

Alliance for Progress and Peace Corps, 1961–1969
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/alliance-for-progress

President Kennedy signs Peace Corps legislation (History.com This Day in History | 9/22/1961)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/president-kennedy-signs-peace-corps-legislation

Great image collage about Peace Corps (Washington Post)
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/artsandliving/magazine/closer-inspection/20110227/index.html?hpid=features1&hpv=national

Executive Order 10924: Peace Corps (1961) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/executive-order-10924


Berlin Wall (August 1961)

The Berlin Crisis, 1958–1961
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/berlin-crises

Soviets built a wall to keep people from fleeing East Berlin.

Berlin Wall Begun 1961 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0813.html#article

Deconstructing the Wall (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2009/11/06/world/08berlinwallgrfxB-ready.html?ref=europe

The Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall - Photo Essays (TIME)
The first 5 pictures are the most relevant for us.
http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1631993_1383208,00.html

See also:

Berlin (Historian of the State Department)
http://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/BerlinCrises

Berliners Awake to a Divided City (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/13/newsid_3054000/3054060.stm

East German Troops Seal Border (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0813.html#article

The Berlin Wall (BBC archive)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/berlinwall/

The Berlin Wall Through Time - Interactive Feature (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/11/09/world/europe/20091109-berlinwallthennow.html?ref=europe

Remembering the Berlin Wall (The Big Picture | Boston Globe)
http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2011/08/remembering_the_divide.html

The Berlin Wall, 20 years gone (The Big Picture | Boston Globe)
http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2009/11/the_berlin_wall_20_years_gone.html

Photos: The 20th Anniversary of the Fall of the Berlin Wall
http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2009/11/06/the-20th-anniversary-of-the-fall-of-the-berlin-wall/#

President Kennedy's Speech at the Berlin Wall (June 1963)

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day [26 June 1963]: President Kennedy Declares “Ich bin ein Berliner”
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--President-Kennedy-Declares--Ich-bin-ein-Berliner-.html

Ich Bin Ein Berliner Speech (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0626.html#article

26 Jun 1963: Kennedy: 'Ich bin ein Berliner' speech (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/26/newsid_3379000/3379061.stm

The Speech Itself (American Rhetoric)
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html


Cuba and Castro

1. Fidel Castro ousted American–backed dictator Fulgencio Batista (1959)

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Batista Flees Cuba and Castro Takes Power
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Batista-Flees-Cuba-and-Castro-Takes-Power.html

Fidel Castro (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-fidel-castro.html

2. Castro's Cuba became an ally of the Soviet Union.

3. America freaked. President Eisenhower (Ike) broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Eisenhower Places Embargo on Exports to Cuba
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Eisenhower-Places-Embargo-on-Exports-to-Cuba.html

4. Ike ordered CIA to use Cuban exiles to try to overthrow Castro.


Bay of Pigs invasion (April 1961)

The Bay of Pigs Invasion and its Aftermath, April 1961–October 1962
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/bay-of-pigs

Bay of Pigs (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum)
http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Bay-of-Pigs.aspx

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Bay of Pigs Invasion Embarrasses US
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/On-this-Day--Bay-of-Pigs-Invasion-Embarrasses-U-S-.html

Bay of Pigs (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0417.html#article

April 17, 1961 | The Bay of Pigs Invasion Against Castro (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/17/april-17-1961-the-bay-of-pigs-invasion-against-castro/

1. Kennedy approved the Eisenhower-initiated plan to topple Castro.

2. The 1,500 man invasion force was unsuccessful.

3. No uprising against Castro occurred.

4. Kennedy took all the blame. His poll ratings went up! Kennedy in his first Hundred Days.

See also:

Remembering the Bay of Pigs invasion (CNN)
http://www.cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2001/fyi/news/04/17/bay.of.pigs/


Cuban missile crisis (October 1962)

Cuban Missile Crisis (my very first blog post in this Website Spotlight series!)
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/03/website-spotlight-cuban-missile-crisis.html

The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/cuban-missile-crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum)
http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Cuban-Missile-Crisis.aspx

Beginning of Cuban Missile Crisis (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/october-22/

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Cuban Missile Crisis Begins
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Cuban-Missile-Crisis-Begins.html

1. Soviet's secretly installed offensive missiles in Cuba.
Check out these photos.
http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/photos.htm

2. Kennedy (JFK) learned from his mistakes earlier at Bay of Pigs. Laid out a range of options.

3. JFK chose a naval blockade (quarantine) of Cuba.

Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation (American Rhetoric)
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkcubanmissilecrisis.html

4. Soviets ships eventually turned back before they got to U.S blockade.

28 Oct 1962: World relief as Cuban missile crisis ends (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/28/newsid_2621000/2621915.stm

Nikita Khrushchev obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0417.html

See also:

50 Years Ago: The Cuban Missile Crisis (Alan Taylor/The Atlantic) [26 photos]
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2012/10/50-years-ago-the-cuban-missile-crisis/100387/

Thirteen Days. (book and movie)
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0146309/

Cuban Missile Crisis
Interactive exhibit from the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
World on the Brink: Thirteen Days in October 1962
Go to http://microsites.jfklibrary.org/cmc/
1. Click on "Begin The Thirteen Days"
2. Click your way through each of the thirteen days.
3. Read what is on each screen. You can click on each visual to enlarge it.