Colonial Era

COLONIAL ERA MODULE




COLONIAL ERA

This period is tough to cover

Goes from 1607-1776
Has to be dealt with geographically
Has to deal with what is going on in England
So I will be fairly selective in what I cover
It is even hard to select when I do an entire semester course.
We have two weeks at most









Religious Setting

Religions in Europe, 1500
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_mwh05_0618377115_p63_f1.jpg

Martin Luther (Lutherans):

People saved by faith alone (Not by pilgrimages, indulgences)
Priesthood of all believers replaced monasticism as the ideal
Neither priests nor Latin Bible should keep people from the Word

Martin Luther: Father of protest songs?
http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20170522-martin-luther-father-of-protest-songs

A Mighty Fortress is our God
http://youtu.be/jcDC4vLw23k

Martin Luther posts 95 theses (History.com This Day in History | 10/31/1517)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/martin-luther-posts-95-theses

Martin Luther: Ninety-five Theses (1517) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/martin-luthers-ninety-five-theses

Martin Luther (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Martin-Luther-Nails--Ninety-five-Theses--to-Chapel-Door.html

Martin Luther (Mark Edwards, Jr.)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/apocalypse/explanation/martinluther.html

John Calvin (Calvinists):

God alone decided who would be saved—predestination.
Act as if you were one of the elect by strict morality and hard work
Laymen governed church through elders and ministers (presbytery)

John Calvin biographical sketch (Calvin College)
http://www.calvin.edu/about/john-calvin/

John Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)

John Calvin: Comeback Kid (Christianity Today)
http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2009/september/14.27.html?paging=off
Christianity Today articles about Calvin
http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/topics/c/john-calvin/


Key point to remember: The History of America from 1607-1776 is English Colonial history.

Colonies were a part of England, so what happened there mattered greatly to the colonists.


Reformation in England

English King Henry VIII

House of Tudor

Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1533.
Under Henry, Protestantism hardly differed from Catholicism.

An Overview of the English Reformation (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/reformation_overview_01.shtml

Bio sketch of Henry VIII (British Monarchy)
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheTudors/HenryVIII.aspx

His son, Edward VI, was Protestant, but died as a teenager.

Edward VI (British Monarchy)
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheTudors/EdwardVI.aspx

One daughter, Mary I ("Bloody" Mary), was Catholic.

Mary burned many Protestants at the stake.
Other Protestants fled to safety of Frankfurt and Geneva
There they absorbed radical Calvinist doctrines.
Returned to England after the death of Mary
Eager to "purify" English church of any hint of Catholicism.

Mary I (British Monarchy)
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheTudors/MaryI.aspx

Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603):

Henry's other daughter.

Video: Queen Elizabeth I mini bio
https://youtu.be/cDg9AoJYxeY

Church settlement.
Church of England became clearly Protestant, but in its own way.
Latin liturgy translated into the English Book of Common Prayer.
Cult of saints dropped.
Clergy permitted to marry.
Calvinists, however, did not think these reforms went far enough.
Puritans versus Separatists

Elizabeth I: An Overview (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/elizabeth_i_01.shtml

Elizabeth I (British Monarchy)
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheTudors/ElizabethI.aspx

Elizabethan Room Virtual Tour (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/launch_vt_elizabethan_room.shtml

Who was England's Greatest Monarch? (BBC)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/6936537.stm

New Royal family:

House of Stuart. (Like House of Clinton v. House of Bush)

Overview (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/overview_civil_war_revolution_01.shtml

King James I (1603-1625)

During his reign, the Pilgrims fled to Netherlands and then from there to Plymouth colony

Jamestown (1607) named for him

Virginia's Father: King James I (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Autumn01/jamesI.cfm

In 2011 was celebrated the 400th anniversary of King James Bible.

King James Bible: Queen marks 400th anniversary (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-15754581

Folger Shakespeare Library celebrates 400th anniversary of King James Bible (Washington Post)
http://wapo.st/OCbvYk

James I (British Monarchy)
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/JamesI.aspx



King Charles I (1625-1649)

Intolerant of Puritans
Believed in divine right of kings
Puritan dissenters decided to flee from England to Massachusetts Bay colony (1630)

Charles I (British Monarchy)
He was the son of James I
His own sons were Charles II and James II
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/CharlesI.aspx

Personality and Political Style of Charles I (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/personality_charles_01.shtml



COLONIAL VIRGINIA

Map of the Chesapeake Colonies
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI025.jpg

Jamestown (1607)
First permanent English settlement in America

Virginia Company
Joint–stock company. Limited liability of investors
Not financed by government

Jamestown (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may14.html

John Smith (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep10.html

James Fort, Lost and Found (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Summer11/jamestown.cfm

Martial Law at Jamestown (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Summer11/death.cfm

Historical Rivalry: Jamestown and Plymouth (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Winter07/plymouth.cfm

The English Establish a Foothold at Jamestown, 1606-1610 (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/colonial/jamestwn/

John Smith's account of the trip to Virginia (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/colonial/jamestwn/colonist.html

Route taken across the ocean
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Y6bYos6rgQw/TjCmJXpOUUI/AAAAAAAACNk/EoLNjnfwRZg/s640/jtown+map.png

Why Settle on Jamestown? (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/why-settle-on-jamestown.htm

A Short History (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/a-short-history-of-jamestown.htm

Martial Law (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/martial-law.htm

Indispensable Role of Women at Jamestown (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-indispensible-role-of-women-at-jamestown.htm

Captain John Smith (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/life-of-john-smith.htm

Key item: Evolution of the Virginia Colony (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/colonial/virginia/

Reverend Robert Hunt (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-reverend-robert-hunt-the-first-chaplain-at-jamestown.htm




Powhatan Indians

They initially aided colonists

Quarrels over land led to warfare (1622 and 1644)
Indian massacre of 1622
Indians were defeated and pushed westward

Powhatan Indian World (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-powhatan-indian-world.htm

Pocahontas Revealed - YouTube

Pocahontas and John Rolfe (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/john-rolfe.htm
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/pocahontas-her-life-and-legend.htm

America in 1607: Jamestown and the Powhatans (National Geographic)
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2007/05/jamestown/jamestown-standalone
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-america-in-1607.html

Pocahontas Revealed (NOVA)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pocahontas/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-pocahontas-revealed.html



Green Spring Plantation as a bridge story to a later period than Jamestown per se

Green Spring Plantation (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/green-spring-plantation.htm



Tobacco

Basis of Virginia's success
Key cash crop
Required much land
Required continuous labor

Tobacco in Jamestown
http://youtu.be/DXO98zDx_ek

The History of 18th Century Tobacco Plantations in Coastal Virginia
http://youtu.be/43lWR9Pd0-c

John Rolfe (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/john-rolfe.htm

John Rolfe: Letter to Sir Edwin Sandys (1619) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/john-rolfes-letter-to-sir-edwin-sandys

Tobacco's Early History (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/tobacco-the-early-history-of-a-new-world-crop.htm

Tobacco Cultivation methods (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/tobacco-colonial-cultivation-methods.htm


Royal colony:

In 1624, Virginia became a royal colony, ruled by the king through appointed officials.


Headrights:

Land grants to individuals
Settlers could claim 50 acres of land for themselves
50 acres for those whom they paid passage (including servants).
Enabled some to build a large estate of landed wealth

Headrights
http://www.ancestry.com/wiki/index.php?title=Virginia_Land_Records


House of Burgesses (1619):

First Legislative Assembly in America (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-first-legislative-assembly.htm

Virginia began the tradition of local representative government
New Spain, New France, and New Netherlands had autocratic rule



Anglican Church

Church of England (Episcopalians today). Not Puritans.


Indentured servitude:

Need for laborers
Tobacco cultivation required many laborers
English began with indentured servants (7 years) from England
Slaves cost three times as much for initial outlay
Life was hard on servants; not much easier for owners
Diet of pork and corn
Not much material wealth (not like today's Williamsburg)
Servant might not live through his indenture
If he lived through it, he could become a landowner himself

Servitude (Toolbox Library, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/permanence/text6/text6read.htm

Richard Frethorne (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6475

Indentured Servants (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/us/5b.asp

Gottlieb Mittelberger (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5713



Maryland (1632)

Maryland a sanctuary for Catholics
Catholics severely persecuted in England.

Maryland similar to Virginia:

Rivers
Tobacco
Plantations
Indentured servitude and slavery.

Chesapeake (Bay). Term includes Virginia and Maryland, mostly.
Map of the Chesapeake Colonies
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI025.jpg

Proprietorship. A personal possession.

Land grant from King Charles I to Calvert family (Lord Baltimore).

Instructions from Lord Baltimore (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/settlement/text4/BaltimoreInstructions.pdf

Maryland Day (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar25.html

John Carroll, Bishop of Baltimore (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug15.html

Maryland Day (Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/colonial/jb_colonial_maryland_1.html

The Calvert Vision (St. Mary's City)
http://www.stmaryscity.org/history/The%20Calvert%20Vision.html

Brief History (St. Mary's City)
http://www.stmaryscity.org/History/Brief%20History.html

Articles and Resources from St. Mary's City (St. Mary's City)
http://www.stmaryscity.org/Articles.html

Maryland: The Catholic Experiment (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/us/5a.asp



NEW ENGLAND

Map of New England colonies
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI036.jpg

Overview
Religion was key to the founding and development of New England.



Plymouth (1620):

Separatist Puritans

Wanted to leave the Church of England entirely.

Called "Pilgrims"

Time in the Netherlands

Why did they flee there for refuge?
Why did they leave there?

The Pilgrims' Leiden
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~netlapm/Page01.htm
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-pilgrims-leiden.html

The Dutch Door To America (American Heritage)
http://www.americanheritage.com/content/dutch-door-america?page=show



Plymouth Colony (1620)

Plimouth Plantation
http://www.plimoth.org/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-plimoth-plantation.html

The Pilgrims
http://youtu.be/QQxgOZ4Q8zw

Colonial House
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17goYv_zFQU

Plimoth Plantation virtual field trip
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p5qi3Meqy24

Came to America on the Mayflower

Mayflower interactive (Orange County Register)
http://www2.ocregister.com/multimedia/mayflower07/

Mayflower Compact

Mayflower Compact (Pilgrim Hall Museum)
http://www.pilgrimhall.org/compact.htm

Mayflower Compact (1620) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/mayflower-compact

Wampanoag Indians

Pokanoket Indians (History.com)
See section "Relation with Native Americans"
http://www.history.com/topics/pilgrims
(compare to Powhatans) help Pilgrims
Portion of Plimoth Plantation website

The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3 - YouTube

Squanto

(compare him to Malinche) helps Pilgrims
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squanto
http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/History/BiographyTisquantum.php

First Thanksgiving
http://www.history.com/topics/thanksgiving

When is Thanksgiving? Colonizing America: Crash Course US History #2 - YouTube

Governor William Bradford

William Bradford website
http://www.angelfire.com/ny4/djw/williambradford.html

William Bradford (Pilgrim Hall Museum)
http://www.angelfire.com/ny4/djw/williambradford.html

William Bradford (C-SPAN American Writers)
http://www.americanwriters.org/writers/bradford.asp

God in America (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/view/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-god-in-america.html

The Pilgrims (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/pilgrims.html

William Bradford's Journal: Of Plymouth Plantation (Pilgrim Hall Museum)
http://www.pilgrimhall.org/bradjour.htm



Key point: Between 1620 and 1630, other options for settlement (besides Virginia and New England). English migrants settled on St. Kitts (1624) and Barbados (1627).

Great map illustrating the Great Migration during the1600s
http://faculty.umf.maine.edu/walter.sargent/public.www/web%20103/Map%20Great%20Migration.jpg



Massachusetts Bay (1630)

Non-Separatist Puritans

Boston
Bay Colony

Colonial House (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/colonialhouse/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/09/website-spotlight-colonial-house.html

John Winthrop (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/john-winthrop.html

The Puritans (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/puritans.html

Puritans (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Puritans%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

The Legacy of Puritanism (Divining America, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/legacy.htm

Puritanism and Predestination (Divining America, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/puritan.htm

Colonizing the Bay (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/colonizing-bay

John Winthrop and the “City upon a Hill” (Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/religion-and-eighteenth-century-revivalismreligion/resources/john-winthrop-and-%E2%80%9Ccity-

John Winthrop's City on a Hill text
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/winthrop.htm



Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/anne-hutchinson.html

Anne Hutchinson (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul20.html

Anne Hutchinson (National Women's History Museum)
http://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biography/biographies/anne-marbury-hutchinson/

The Puritans and Dissent: The Cases of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson (Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/religion-and-eighteenth-century-revivalism/essays/puritans-and-dissent-cases-roger-wi

Modern issue: Her Death (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/1990/10/07/nyregion/anne-hutchinson-puritan-rebel-and-westchester-pioneer.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

A Heretic's Overdue Honor (Boston Globe)
http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2005/09/07/a_heretics_overdue_honor/



Roger Williams

Roger Williams (Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/colonial/jb_colonial_williams_1.html

Roger Williams (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/roger-williams.html

Roger Williams (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb05.html

Roger Williams Biography (National Park Service)
Youth and Education
http://www.nps.gov/rowi/historyculture/youth.htm
Rejecting the Middle Way
http://www.nps.gov/rowi/historyculture/departure.htm
Founding Providence (Rhode Island)
http://www.nps.gov/rowi/historyculture/foundingprovidence.htm

The Puritans and Dissent: The Cases of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson (Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/religion-and-eighteenth-century-revivalism/essays/puritans-and-dissent-cases-roger-wi



New France (Canada today)

Will become the initial major enemy of English settlers.

Giovanni da Verrazzano (1524)

Letter to French King about his voyage (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/contact/text4/verrazzano.pdf

Verrazzano (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-094/summary/index.asp

Jacques Cartier (1534)

Jacques Cartier (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-028/summary/index.asp

Cartier Sailed up the St. Lawrence River (Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/colonial/jb_colonial_cartier_1.html

Jacques Cartier (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun09.html

Jacques Cartier (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/exploration/text2/cartier.pdf

Jacques Cartier (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/empireofthebay/profiles/cartier.html

Samuel de Champlain (1609)

Samuel de Champlain (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/empireofthebay/profiles/dechamplain.html

Champlain's Path to Quebec City (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/empireofthebay/maps/champlain.html

Samuel de Champlain Introduces Firearms to Native Warfare, 1609 (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6594

Samuel de Champlain, 1604-1608 (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-115/summary/index.asp

Champlain Among The Mohawk, 1609 (American Heritage)
http://www.americanheritage.com/content/champlain-among-mohawk-1609?page=show

Jamestown, Quebec, Santa Fe (Smithsonian)
Check out page 4 in particular
http://americanhistory.si.edu/exhibitions/small_exhibition.cfm?key=126&exkey=244
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-jamestown-quebec.html

Topography:

Key role of St. Lawrence River: Quebec and Montreal
French Jesuit missionaries (Black Robes)

Québec’s strong French accent : Quebec City (BBC Travel)
http://www.bbc.com/travel/blog/20120608-travelwise-quebecs-strong-french-accent

Québec City, the crown jewel of French Canada (BBC Travel--Slideshow)
http://www.bbc.com/travel/slideshow/20120604-quebec-city-the-crown-jewel-of-french-canada



New Netherlands

Netherlands a small country but a major trading power and enemy of England in Europe
Dutch settled along the Hudson river in what is now New York.

Henry Hudson's explorations (1609). 400th anniversary in 2009

Conflict and Commerce: The Rise and Fall of New Netherland (Simon Middleton) (Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/early-settlements/essays/conflict-and-commerce-rise-and-fall-new-netherland

A Virtual Tour of New Netherland
http://www.nnp.org/vtour/regions/map.html

The Dutch in America, 1609-1664 (Library of Congress)
http://international.loc.gov/intldl/awkbhtml/kb-1/kb-1.html#track1

New York’s Coldest Case: A Murder 400 Years Old (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/05/nyregion/05murder.html?_r=3&hp=&pagewanted=all

Henry Hudson (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/empireofthebay/profiles/hudson.html

Henry Hudson (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Henry-Hudson-Set-Adrift-by-Mutineers.html

Strangers In A New Land: Henry Hudson (American Heritage)
http://www.americanheritage.com/content/strangers-new-land?page=show

First Encounters: Champlain and Hudson (American Heritage)
http://www.americanheritage.com/content/first-encounters



Back again to English history as it affects colonies

Overview (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/overview_civil_war_revolution_01.shtml

Interregnum (British Monarch)
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/Interregnum.aspx


English Civil War

English Civil War timeline
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_English_Civil_War

The Execution of Charles I (BBC)
He was the son of James I
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/charlesi_execution_01.shtml

Charles I: Speech on the Scaffold (1649) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/charles-i-speech-on-the-scaffold

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/cromwell_01.shtml

Oliver Cromwell: Speech at the Opening of the Protectorate Parliament (1654) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/oliver-cromwell-speech-at-the-opening-of-protectorate-parliament

Choosing Sides in the English Civil War (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/choosingsides_01.shtml



Charles II (1660–1685)

Restoration [of the monarchy]

Charles II (British Monarchy)
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/CharlesII.aspx

Charles II: The Masquerading Monarch (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/charlesii_masq_01.shtml

Key for America:

Charles gave land grants of new colonies as rewards to men who supported him during his exile in France.

All were proprietorships: their owners held title to the soil and controlled the government.


Map of the Middle Colonies, 1685
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI037.jpg


New York
Province of New York

Charles II gave his younger brother, duke of York, a large land grant which include the Dutch–held New Netherlands.

Duke of York became King James II when his brother Charles II died.

King James II (British Monarchy)
http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/JamesII.aspx

New Netherlands was conquered in 1664 by the English; renamed New York.

New Jersey. Duke of York regranted much of his land grant to two friends.
Province of New Jersey

We won't do anything more with either New York or New Jersey.


Pennsylvania (1681)

Charles II gave William Penn a proprietary land grant

William Penn Religious Revolutionary, segment from "The American Birthright Part I" Documentary - YouTube

Penn saw this land as a refuge for Quakers—a "holy experiment"
Pennsylvania became known for its religious toleration.
Religious diversity: Quakers, German Reformed, Lutherans, Mennonites

Penn actively promoted his colony—to Germans (Deutsch) particularly

Pennsylvania became grain producing area of colonial America

William Penn (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct14.html

William Penn (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug24.html

William Penn Advertises for Colonists (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/7440

Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies (Divining America, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/midcol.htm

William Penn (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/penn/index.htm

William Penn (God in America)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/william-penn.html

William Penn's Peaceable Kingdom (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/william-penns-peaceable-kingdom


Quakers

Society of Friends, founded in England by George Fox.

George Fox (US History.org.)
http://www.ushistory.org/penn/fox.htm

Quakers then believed everyone could be saved—all were children of God and could experience his inner light.
No need of a formal priesthood or liturgy.
Women were allowed an important role in ministry.
Refused to swear oaths on the Bible—it would imply they were not telling the truth on other occasions.
Pacifists. Refused to perform militia service or pay taxes for self–defense.
Related well to the Indians. Could history have developed differently


Carolinas (1663)

Map of the Carolinas and Georgia
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI041.jpg

Charles II paid back several of his supporters (those who stood by him in exile in France) with land grants.

Creating the Carolinas (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/us/5c.asp

Northern portion of the grant (North Carolina) grew similarly to and was linked with Virginia.
Area around Charleston became the nucleus of South Carolina.
Heavily influenced by settlers from Barbados whose brand of slavery was harsher than in other parts of North America.
Rice and indigo.

South Carolina used skills slaves brought from Africa (rice growing) and the West Indies (indigo—blue dye).
Both crops offset each other: different growing seasons; indigo grown on high ground, rice in low–lying swampy areas.



North American slave trade

Map of the African Slave Trade
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI051.jpg

The Atlantic Slave Trade: Crash Course World History #24 - YouTube

Slavery and sugar shifted focus of world economy from Asia and the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
Being black did not initially mean being a slave.
By the 1670s, mainland colonists imported large numbers of Africans
Only a few Quakers had any moral problem with using slaves.
Slave trade made many merchants wealthy.
The middle passage: voyage from Africa to America.

See also:

The Discovery of the Americas and the Transatlantic Slave Trade (Ira Berlin) (Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/imperial-rivalries/essays/discovery-americas-and-transatlantic-slave-trade

African Immigration to Colonial America (History Now, Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/03_2005/historian3.php

Slavery in the South

Virginia’s Act XII: Negro Women’s Children to Serve according to the Condition of the Mother (1662) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/virginias-act-xii--negro-womens-children-to-serve-according-to-the-conditio

Virginia’s Act III: Baptism Does Not Exempt Slaves from Bondage (1667) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/virginias-act-iii-baptism-does-not-exempt-slaves-from-bondage

By 1720, Africans were 20% of population.

Autobiography of Olaudah Equiano gives details of slave life.

Olaudah Equiano (Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/origins-slavery/resources/olaudah-equiano

Relationship between the large number of slaves in South Carolina and the survival of African culture.
Gullah language.

Slavery in the north

North had fewer slaves (personal servants; dock workers)
In some cities, slaves 10 % of population.
Low northern slave population accentuated differences with South

“A Minute against Slavery, Addressed to Germantown Monthly Meeting” (1688) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/a-minute-against-slavery-addressed-to-germantown-monthly-meeting


Navigation Acts in the English "Empire"

Triangular trade

Interactive Map: Triangular Trade Routes
http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/books/applications/imaps/maps/g5s_u3/index.html

Triangular trade system
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_awh2005_0618376798_p568_f1.jpg

America in the British Empire
http://www.history.com/topics/america-in-the-british-empire

Navigation Acts

England passed laws called Navigation Acts.
Designed to confine profits of colonial trade primarily to England
Designed to eliminate Dutch rivals.
This system is called mercantilism: government control of the economy

General provisions of Navigation Acts:
All trade must be conducted in English ships;
Certain valuable American products could be sold only in the mother country or in other English colonies
Called "enumerated products"
Wool, sugar, tobacco, indigo, rice, naval stores (masts, spars, pitch, tar, and turpentine), and furs
All goods sent by European countries to the British colonies had to stop in England first and pay English import taxes.
English colonies could not export items (such as wool clothing, hats, or iron) that competed with English products.

Much evasion, smuggling, took place.


Glorious Revolution in England (1689–90)

Glorious Revolution (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/glorious_revolution_01.shtml

James II exiled to France.
William and Mary became new monarchs.

English Bill of Rights (1689) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/english-bill-of-rights

William III (Tony Claydon)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/william_iii_01.shtml

Power of the King lessened; power of Parliament increased.
Affirmed the supremacy of both Parliament and Protestantism.
Glorious Revolution in America (1689). Major impact: Dominion of New England and Andros overthrown.
Union of England and Scotland (1707). Great Britain (British) is the term used.



Salem Witchcraft (1692)

Salem Witch Trials - YouTube

Salem Witchcraft (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar01.html

Salem Witchcraft (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Five-Women-Hanged-in-Salem-for-Witchcraft.html

Salem Witch Trials (History Channel)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pKvclf7VRY8&list=FLliQ-7-03S-mPxVBCylwk9Q&feature=mh_lolz

Salem Witchcraft Trial (Famous Trials)
http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/salem.htm
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/09/website-spotlight-salem-witchcraft.html

Normal teenagers
Colonial Teenagers (Teachinghistory.org)
http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/24098



Deerfield (1703)

France as a major enemy

Deerfield (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb29.html

Deerfield Raid (America's Story, Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/colonial/jb_colonial_deerfld_1.html

Raid on Deerfield
http://1704.deerfield.history.museum/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/09/website-spotlight-raid-on-deerfield.html

Deerfield Massacre (American Heritage)
http://www.americanheritage.com/content/deerfield-massacre


First Great Awakening:

Impact of the Awakening:

Challenged deference, introduced egalitarianism to the colonies.
Divided churches over several issues:
Were pastors clearly born again?
How much education did pastors need?
Was itinerant evangelism allowable?
Denominations split into New Lights and Old Lights (Presbyterians) and Old Sides and New Sides (Congregationalists).

Religion and Eighteenth-Century Revivalism (Jon Butler) (Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/religion-and-eighteenth-century-revivalism/essays/religion-and-eighteenth-century-rev

Religion and the Founding of the American Republic (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-religion-and-founding.html

Religion in Eighteenth-Century America (Religion and the Founding of the American Republic, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel02.html

First Great Awakening (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%203_Revolution%20and%20Early%20America/First%20Great%20Awakening1.pdf

The First Great Awakening (Divining America, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/grawaken.htm

The First Great Awakening (Toolbox Library, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/becomingamer/ideas/text2/text2read.htm

The First Great Awakening (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/first-great-awakening

The Great Awakening Comes to Weathersfield, Connecticut: Nathan Cole's Spiritual Travels (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5711/

The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (Teaching with Historic Places)
http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/85bellamy/85bellamy.htm
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-joseph-bellamy-house.html

Religion and Eighteenth-Century Revivalism (Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/religion-and-eighteenth-century-revivalism/essays/religion-and-eighteenth-century-rev

Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards: The Life of a Master Preacher (Princeton University)
http://www.princeton.edu/~mudd/exhibits/edwards/index.html

Jonathan Edwards (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/jonathan-edwards.html

Jonathan Edwards Center (Yale University)
http://edwards.yale.edu/
Biography
http://edwards.yale.edu/research/about-edwards/biography

Jonathan Edwards (Christianity.com)
http://www.christianity.com/11630188/

Edwards Preached on "Sinners in God's Angry Hands" (Christianity.com)
http://www.christianity.com/ChurchHistory/11630236/

Jonathan Edwards: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/jonathan-edwards-sinners-in-the-hands-of-an-angry-god

John Wesley

John Wesley's Big Impact on America (Christianity.com)
http://www.christianity.com/ChurchHistory/11630220/

George Whitefield

George Whitefield (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/george-whitefield.html

George Whitefield (Christianity Today)
http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/131christians/evangelistsandapologists/whitefield.html

George Whitefield: Evangelist of the Great Awakening (Preaching.com magazine)
http://www.preaching.com/printerfriendly/11548788/

Benjamin Franklin on Rev. George Whitefield, 1739 (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/becomingamer/ideas/text2/franklinwhitefield.pdf

Whitefield's Georgia Orphanage (Christianity.com)
http://www.christianity.com/ChurchHistory/11630233/

George Whitefield: “The Great Duty of Family-Religion” (1738) (Milestone Documents)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/george-whitefield-the-great-duty-of-family-religion



Colonial Williamsburg:

Colonial Williamsburg
http://www.history.org/history/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/10/website-spotlight-colonial-williamsburg.html

Religion in Early Virginia (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/Almanack/life/religion/religionva.cfm

Philip Vickers Fithian journal (Journal of American History)
http://www.journalofamericanhistory.org/teaching/2003_09/article.pdf
http://www.journalofamericanhistory.org/teaching/2003_09/sources.html

Daily Schedule for an Urban Gentry Housewife (Pat Gibbs) (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://research.history.org/Historical_Research/Research_Themes/ThemeFamily/Housewife.cfm

Daily Schedule for a Young Gentry Woman (Pat Gibbs) (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://research.history.org/Historical_Research/Research_Themes/ThemeFamily/GentryWoman.cfm

Women and Education in Eighteenth-Century Virginia (Linda Rowe) (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://research.history.org/Historical_Research/Research_Themes/ThemeFamily/WomenEducation.cfm

The Adolescence of Gentry Girls in Late Eighteenth-Century Virginia (Cathleene Hellier) (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://research.history.org/Historical_Research/Research_Themes/ThemeFamily/GentryGirls.cfm

Hot Chocolate (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/winter12/chocolate.cfm

Staying Connected before the Age of the Silicon Chip (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/autumn11/printing.cfm

Early American Newspaper Advertisements (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Autumn10/ads.cfm

The Art of Eighteenth-Century Letter Writing (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Winter07/letters.cfm

To Bathe or not to Bathe (Colonial Williamsburg)
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/Autumn00/bathe.cfm