This period is tough to cover

Goes from 1607-1776
Has to be dealt with geographically
Has to deal with what is going on in England
So I will be fairly selective in what I cover
It is even hard to select when I do an entire semester course.
We have two weeks at most

Religious Setting

Religions in Europe, 1500

Martin Luther (Lutherans):

People saved by faith alone (Not by pilgrimages, indulgences)
Priesthood of all believers replaced monasticism as the ideal
Neither priests nor Latin Bible should keep people from the Word

Martin Luther: Father of protest songs?

A Mighty Fortress is our God

Martin Luther posts 95 theses ( This Day in History | 10/31/1517)

Martin Luther: Ninety-five Theses (1517) (Milestone Documents)

Martin Luther (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Martin Luther (Mark Edwards, Jr.)

John Calvin (Calvinists):

God alone decided who would be saved—predestination.
Act as if you were one of the elect by strict morality and hard work
Laymen governed church through elders and ministers (presbytery)

John Calvin biographical sketch (Calvin College)

John Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)

John Calvin: Comeback Kid (Christianity Today)
Christianity Today articles about Calvin

Key point to remember: The History of America from 1607-1776 is English Colonial history.

Colonies were a part of England, so what happened there mattered greatly to the colonists.

Reformation in England

English King Henry VIII

House of Tudor

Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1533.
Under Henry, Protestantism hardly differed from Catholicism.

An Overview of the English Reformation (BBC)

Bio sketch of Henry VIII (British Monarchy)

His son, Edward VI, was Protestant, but died as a teenager.

Edward VI (British Monarchy)

One daughter, Mary I ("Bloody" Mary), was Catholic.

Mary burned many Protestants at the stake.
Other Protestants fled to safety of Frankfurt and Geneva
There they absorbed radical Calvinist doctrines.
Returned to England after the death of Mary
Eager to "purify" English church of any hint of Catholicism.

Mary I (British Monarchy)

Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603):

Henry's other daughter.

Video: Queen Elizabeth I mini bio

Church settlement.
Church of England became clearly Protestant, but in its own way.
Latin liturgy translated into the English Book of Common Prayer.
Cult of saints dropped.
Clergy permitted to marry.
Calvinists, however, did not think these reforms went far enough.
Puritans versus Separatists

Elizabeth I: An Overview (BBC)

Elizabeth I (British Monarchy)

Elizabethan Room Virtual Tour (BBC)

Who was England's Greatest Monarch? (BBC)

New Royal family:

House of Stuart. (Like House of Clinton v. House of Bush)

Overview (BBC)

King James I (1603-1625)

During his reign, the Pilgrims fled to Netherlands and then from there to Plymouth colony

Jamestown (1607) named for him

Virginia's Father: King James I (Colonial Williamsburg)

In 2011 was celebrated the 400th anniversary of King James Bible.

King James Bible: Queen marks 400th anniversary (BBC)

Folger Shakespeare Library celebrates 400th anniversary of King James Bible (Washington Post)

James I (British Monarchy)

King Charles I (1625-1649)

Intolerant of Puritans
Believed in divine right of kings
Puritan dissenters decided to flee from England to Massachusetts Bay colony (1630)

Charles I (British Monarchy)
He was the son of James I
His own sons were Charles II and James II

Personality and Political Style of Charles I (BBC)


Map of the Chesapeake Colonies

Jamestown (1607)
First permanent English settlement in America

Virginia Company
Joint–stock company. Limited liability of investors
Not financed by government

Jamestown (Today in History, Library of Congress)

John Smith (Today in History, Library of Congress)

James Fort, Lost and Found (Colonial Williamsburg)

Martial Law at Jamestown (Colonial Williamsburg)

Historical Rivalry: Jamestown and Plymouth (Colonial Williamsburg)

The English Establish a Foothold at Jamestown, 1606-1610 (Library of Congress)

John Smith's account of the trip to Virginia (Library of Congress)

Route taken across the ocean

Why Settle on Jamestown? (National Park Service, Jamestown)

A Short History (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Martial Law (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Indispensable Role of Women at Jamestown (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Captain John Smith (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Key item: Evolution of the Virginia Colony (Library of Congress)

Reverend Robert Hunt (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Powhatan Indians

They initially aided colonists

Quarrels over land led to warfare (1622 and 1644)
Indian massacre of 1622
Indians were defeated and pushed westward

Powhatan Indian World (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Pocahontas Revealed - YouTube

Pocahontas and John Rolfe (National Park Service, Jamestown)

America in 1607: Jamestown and the Powhatans (National Geographic)
See my Website Spotlight blog post

Pocahontas Revealed (NOVA)
See my Website Spotlight blog post

Green Spring Plantation as a bridge story to a later period than Jamestown per se

Green Spring Plantation (National Park Service, Jamestown)


Basis of Virginia's success
Key cash crop
Required much land
Required continuous labor

Tobacco in Jamestown

The History of 18th Century Tobacco Plantations in Coastal Virginia

John Rolfe (National Park Service, Jamestown)

John Rolfe: Letter to Sir Edwin Sandys (1619) (Milestone Documents)

Tobacco's Early History (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Tobacco Cultivation methods (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Royal colony:

In 1624, Virginia became a royal colony, ruled by the king through appointed officials.


Land grants to individuals
Settlers could claim 50 acres of land for themselves
50 acres for those whom they paid passage (including servants).
Enabled some to build a large estate of landed wealth


House of Burgesses (1619):

First Legislative Assembly in America (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Virginia began the tradition of local representative government
New Spain, New France, and New Netherlands had autocratic rule

Anglican Church

Church of England (Episcopalians today). Not Puritans.

Indentured servitude:

Need for laborers
Tobacco cultivation required many laborers
English began with indentured servants (7 years) from England
Slaves cost three times as much for initial outlay
Life was hard on servants; not much easier for owners
Diet of pork and corn
Not much material wealth (not like today's Williamsburg)
Servant might not live through his indenture
If he lived through it, he could become a landowner himself

Servitude (Toolbox Library, National Humanities Center)

Richard Frethorne (History Matters)

Indentured Servants (US

Gottlieb Mittelberger (History Matters)

Maryland (1632)

Maryland a sanctuary for Catholics
Catholics severely persecuted in England.

Maryland similar to Virginia:

Indentured servitude and slavery.

Chesapeake (Bay). Term includes Virginia and Maryland, mostly.
Map of the Chesapeake Colonies

Proprietorship. A personal possession.

Land grant from King Charles I to Calvert family (Lord Baltimore).

Instructions from Lord Baltimore (National Humanities Center)

Maryland Day (Today in History, Library of Congress)

John Carroll, Bishop of Baltimore (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Maryland Day (Library of Congress)

The Calvert Vision (St. Mary's City)

Brief History (St. Mary's City)

Articles and Resources from St. Mary's City (St. Mary's City)

Maryland: The Catholic Experiment (US


Map of New England colonies

Religion was key to the founding and development of New England.

Plymouth (1620):

Separatist Puritans

Wanted to leave the Church of England entirely.

Called "Pilgrims"

Time in the Netherlands

Why did they flee there for refuge?
Why did they leave there?

The Pilgrims' Leiden
See my Website Spotlight blog post

The Dutch Door To America (American Heritage)

Plymouth Colony (1620)

Plimouth Plantation
See my Website Spotlight blog post

The Pilgrims

Colonial House

Plimoth Plantation virtual field trip

Came to America on the Mayflower

Mayflower interactive (Orange County Register)

Mayflower Compact

Mayflower Compact (Pilgrim Hall Museum)

Mayflower Compact (1620) (Milestone Documents)

Wampanoag Indians

Pokanoket Indians (
See section "Relation with Native Americans"
(compare to Powhatans) help Pilgrims
Portion of Plimoth Plantation website

The Natives and the English - Crash Course US History #3 - YouTube


(compare him to Malinche) helps Pilgrims

First Thanksgiving

When is Thanksgiving? Colonizing America: Crash Course US History #2 - YouTube

Governor William Bradford

William Bradford website

William Bradford (Pilgrim Hall Museum)

William Bradford (C-SPAN American Writers)

God in America (PBS)
See my Website Spotlight blog post

The Pilgrims (God in America, PBS)

William Bradford's Journal: Of Plymouth Plantation (Pilgrim Hall Museum)

Key point: Between 1620 and 1630, other options for settlement (besides Virginia and New England). English migrants settled on St. Kitts (1624) and Barbados (1627).

Great map illustrating the Great Migration during the1600s

Massachusetts Bay (1630)

Non-Separatist Puritans

Bay Colony

Colonial House (PBS)
See my Website Spotlight blog post

John Winthrop (God in America, PBS)

The Puritans (God in America, PBS)

Puritans (Stanford History Education Group)

The Legacy of Puritanism (Divining America, National Humanities Center)

Puritanism and Predestination (Divining America, National Humanities Center)

Colonizing the Bay (EDSITEment)

John Winthrop and the “City upon a Hill” (Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History)

John Winthrop's City on a Hill text

Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson (God in America, PBS)

Anne Hutchinson (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Anne Hutchinson (National Women's History Museum)

The Puritans and Dissent: The Cases of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson (Gilder Lehrman)

Modern issue: Her Death (New York Times)

A Heretic's Overdue Honor (Boston Globe)

Roger Williams

Roger Williams (Library of Congress)

Roger Williams (God in America, PBS)

Roger Williams (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Roger Williams Biography (National Park Service)
Youth and Education
Rejecting the Middle Way
Founding Providence (Rhode Island)

The Puritans and Dissent: The Cases of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson (Gilder Lehrman)

New France (Canada today)

Will become the initial major enemy of English settlers.

Giovanni da Verrazzano (1524)

Letter to French King about his voyage (National Humanities Center)

Verrazzano (American Journeys)

Jacques Cartier (1534)

Jacques Cartier (American Journeys)

Cartier Sailed up the St. Lawrence River (Library of Congress)

Jacques Cartier (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Jacques Cartier (National Humanities Center)

Jacques Cartier (PBS)

Samuel de Champlain (1609)

Samuel de Champlain (PBS)

Champlain's Path to Quebec City (PBS)

Samuel de Champlain Introduces Firearms to Native Warfare, 1609 (History Matters)

Samuel de Champlain, 1604-1608 (American Journeys)

Champlain Among The Mohawk, 1609 (American Heritage)

Jamestown, Quebec, Santa Fe (Smithsonian)
Check out page 4 in particular
See my Website Spotlight blog post


Key role of St. Lawrence River: Quebec and Montreal
French Jesuit missionaries (Black Robes)

Québec’s strong French accent : Quebec City (BBC Travel)

Québec City, the crown jewel of French Canada (BBC Travel--Slideshow)

New Netherlands

Netherlands a small country but a major trading power and enemy of England in Europe
Dutch settled along the Hudson river in what is now New York.

Henry Hudson's explorations (1609). 400th anniversary in 2009

Conflict and Commerce: The Rise and Fall of New Netherland (Simon Middleton) (Gilder Lehrman)

A Virtual Tour of New Netherland

The Dutch in America, 1609-1664 (Library of Congress)

New York’s Coldest Case: A Murder 400 Years Old (New York Times)

Henry Hudson (PBS)

Henry Hudson (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Strangers In A New Land: Henry Hudson (American Heritage)

First Encounters: Champlain and Hudson (American Heritage)

Back again to English history as it affects colonies

Overview (BBC)

Interregnum (British Monarch)

English Civil War

English Civil War timeline

The Execution of Charles I (BBC)
He was the son of James I

Charles I: Speech on the Scaffold (1649) (Milestone Documents)

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (BBC)

Oliver Cromwell: Speech at the Opening of the Protectorate Parliament (1654) (Milestone Documents)

Choosing Sides in the English Civil War (BBC)

Charles II (1660–1685)

Restoration [of the monarchy]

Charles II (British Monarchy)

Charles II: The Masquerading Monarch (BBC)

Key for America:

Charles gave land grants of new colonies as rewards to men who supported him during his exile in France.

All were proprietorships: their owners held title to the soil and controlled the government.

Map of the Middle Colonies, 1685

New York
Province of New York

Charles II gave his younger brother, duke of York, a large land grant which include the Dutch–held New Netherlands.

Duke of York became King James II when his brother Charles II died.

King James II (British Monarchy)

New Netherlands was conquered in 1664 by the English; renamed New York.

New Jersey. Duke of York regranted much of his land grant to two friends.
Province of New Jersey

We won't do anything more with either New York or New Jersey.

Pennsylvania (1681)

Charles II gave William Penn a proprietary land grant

William Penn Religious Revolutionary, segment from "The American Birthright Part I" Documentary - YouTube

Penn saw this land as a refuge for Quakers—a "holy experiment"
Pennsylvania became known for its religious toleration.
Religious diversity: Quakers, German Reformed, Lutherans, Mennonites

Penn actively promoted his colony—to Germans (Deutsch) particularly

Pennsylvania became grain producing area of colonial America

William Penn (Today in History, Library of Congress)

William Penn (Today in History, Library of Congress)

William Penn Advertises for Colonists (History Matters)

Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies (Divining America, National Humanities Center)

William Penn (US

William Penn (God in America)

William Penn's Peaceable Kingdom (EDSITEment)


Society of Friends, founded in England by George Fox.

George Fox (US

Quakers then believed everyone could be saved—all were children of God and could experience his inner light.
No need of a formal priesthood or liturgy.
Women were allowed an important role in ministry.
Refused to swear oaths on the Bible—it would imply they were not telling the truth on other occasions.
Pacifists. Refused to perform militia service or pay taxes for self–defense.
Related well to the Indians. Could history have developed differently

Carolinas (1663)

Map of the Carolinas and Georgia

Charles II paid back several of his supporters (those who stood by him in exile in France) with land grants.

Creating the Carolinas (US

Northern portion of the grant (North Carolina) grew similarly to and was linked with Virginia.
Area around Charleston became the nucleus of South Carolina.
Heavily influenced by settlers from Barbados whose brand of slavery was harsher than in other parts of North America.
Rice and indigo.

South Carolina used skills slaves brought from Africa (rice growing) and the West Indies (indigo—blue dye).
Both crops offset each other: different growing seasons; indigo grown on high ground, rice in low–lying swampy areas.

North American slave trade

Map of the African Slave Trade

The Atlantic Slave Trade: Crash Course World History #24 - YouTube

Slavery and sugar shifted focus of world economy from Asia and the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
Being black did not initially mean being a slave.
By the 1670s, mainland colonists imported large numbers of Africans
Only a few Quakers had any moral problem with using slaves.
Slave trade made many merchants wealthy.
The middle passage: voyage from Africa to America.

See also:

The Discovery of the Americas and the Transatlantic Slave Trade (Ira Berlin) (Gilder Lehrman)

African Immigration to Colonial America (History Now, Gilder Lehrman)

Slavery in the South

Virginia’s Act XII: Negro Women’s Children to Serve according to the Condition of the Mother (1662) (Milestone Documents)

Virginia’s Act III: Baptism Does Not Exempt Slaves from Bondage (1667) (Milestone Documents)

By 1720, Africans were 20% of population.

Autobiography of Olaudah Equiano gives details of slave life.

Olaudah Equiano (Gilder Lehrman)

Relationship between the large number of slaves in South Carolina and the survival of African culture.
Gullah language.

Slavery in the north

North had fewer slaves (personal servants; dock workers)
In some cities, slaves 10 % of population.
Low northern slave population accentuated differences with South

“A Minute against Slavery, Addressed to Germantown Monthly Meeting” (1688) (Milestone Documents)

Navigation Acts in the English "Empire"

Triangular trade

Interactive Map: Triangular Trade Routes

Triangular trade system

America in the British Empire

Navigation Acts

England passed laws called Navigation Acts.
Designed to confine profits of colonial trade primarily to England
Designed to eliminate Dutch rivals.
This system is called mercantilism: government control of the economy

General provisions of Navigation Acts:
All trade must be conducted in English ships;
Certain valuable American products could be sold only in the mother country or in other English colonies
Called "enumerated products"
Wool, sugar, tobacco, indigo, rice, naval stores (masts, spars, pitch, tar, and turpentine), and furs
All goods sent by European countries to the British colonies had to stop in England first and pay English import taxes.
English colonies could not export items (such as wool clothing, hats, or iron) that competed with English products.

Much evasion, smuggling, took place.

Glorious Revolution in England (1689–90)

Glorious Revolution (BBC)

James II exiled to France.
William and Mary became new monarchs.

English Bill of Rights (1689) (Milestone Documents)

William III (Tony Claydon)

Power of the King lessened; power of Parliament increased.
Affirmed the supremacy of both Parliament and Protestantism.
Glorious Revolution in America (1689). Major impact: Dominion of New England and Andros overthrown.
Union of England and Scotland (1707). Great Britain (British) is the term used.

Salem Witchcraft (1692)

Salem Witch Trials - YouTube

Salem Witchcraft (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Salem Witchcraft (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Salem Witch Trials (History Channel)

Salem Witchcraft Trial (Famous Trials)
See my Website Spotlight blog post

Normal teenagers
Colonial Teenagers (

Deerfield (1703)

France as a major enemy

Deerfield (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Deerfield Raid (America's Story, Library of Congress)

Raid on Deerfield
See my Website Spotlight blog post

Deerfield Massacre (American Heritage)

First Great Awakening:

Impact of the Awakening:

Challenged deference, introduced egalitarianism to the colonies.
Divided churches over several issues:
Were pastors clearly born again?
How much education did pastors need?
Was itinerant evangelism allowable?
Denominations split into New Lights and Old Lights (Presbyterians) and Old Sides and New Sides (Congregationalists).

Religion and Eighteenth-Century Revivalism (Jon Butler) (Gilder Lehrman)

Religion and the Founding of the American Republic (Library of Congress)
See my Website Spotlight blog post

Religion in Eighteenth-Century America (Religion and the Founding of the American Republic, Library of Congress)

First Great Awakening (Stanford History Education Group)

The First Great Awakening (Divining America, National Humanities Center)

The First Great Awakening (Toolbox Library, National Humanities Center)

The First Great Awakening (EDSITEment)

The Great Awakening Comes to Weathersfield, Connecticut: Nathan Cole's Spiritual Travels (History Matters)

The Joseph Bellamy House: The Great Awakening in Puritan New England (Teaching with Historic Places)
See my Website Spotlight blog post

Religion and Eighteenth-Century Revivalism (Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History)

Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards: The Life of a Master Preacher (Princeton University)

Jonathan Edwards (God in America, PBS)

Jonathan Edwards Center (Yale University)

Jonathan Edwards (

Edwards Preached on "Sinners in God's Angry Hands" (

Jonathan Edwards: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741) (Milestone Documents)

John Wesley

John Wesley's Big Impact on America (

George Whitefield

George Whitefield (God in America, PBS)

George Whitefield (Christianity Today)

George Whitefield: Evangelist of the Great Awakening ( magazine)

Benjamin Franklin on Rev. George Whitefield, 1739 (National Humanities Center)

Whitefield's Georgia Orphanage (

George Whitefield: “The Great Duty of Family-Religion” (1738) (Milestone Documents)

Colonial Williamsburg:

Colonial Williamsburg
See my Website Spotlight blog post

Religion in Early Virginia (Colonial Williamsburg)

Philip Vickers Fithian journal (Journal of American History)

Daily Schedule for an Urban Gentry Housewife (Pat Gibbs) (Colonial Williamsburg)

Daily Schedule for a Young Gentry Woman (Pat Gibbs) (Colonial Williamsburg)

Women and Education in Eighteenth-Century Virginia (Linda Rowe) (Colonial Williamsburg)

The Adolescence of Gentry Girls in Late Eighteenth-Century Virginia (Cathleene Hellier) (Colonial Williamsburg)

Hot Chocolate (Colonial Williamsburg)

Staying Connected before the Age of the Silicon Chip (Colonial Williamsburg)

Early American Newspaper Advertisements (Colonial Williamsburg)

The Art of Eighteenth-Century Letter Writing (Colonial Williamsburg)

To Bathe or not to Bathe (Colonial Williamsburg)