GENERAL





MAPS

Map of South Western Asia and the Middle East
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/small_middle_east_map.htm

Middle East
http://www.projectvisa.com/regions/Middle_East

Ethnic maps of Afghanistan and Pakistan
Look particularly how the Pashtun straddle the border for a large distance
http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/Maps/afghan.map.htm

Tribal areas
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/taliban/tribal/map.html

Pakistan
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/pakistan_map.htm

Afghanistan
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/afghanistan_map.htm



NEWS

a. Reuters
http://www.reuters.com/news
b. BBC News
http://www.bbc.com/news/world
c. Washington Post
https://www.washingtonpost.com/
d. New York Times
http://international.nytimes.com/
e. Wall Street Journal
http://www.wsj.com/
f. Economist
http://www.economist.com/




Countries included herein: [in alphabetical order]

Arab League
Bahrain
Egypt
Gulf Cooperation Council
Iran
Islam
Islamic State
Israel
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Syria
Turkey
United Arab Emirates
Yemen




ARAB LEAGUE

Arab League (Council on Foreign Relations)
http://www.cfr.org/middle-east-and-north-africa/arab-league/p25967

Arab League profile (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-15747941




BAHRAIN

Country Profiles (BBC News): Bahrain
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14540571
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/bahrain_map.htm

From website:

1967 - Britain moves its main regional naval base from Aden to Bahrain.
Bahrain now home to the US Navy's Fifth Fleet

Members of the Sunni Muslim ruling family hold the main political and military posts. There are long-
running tensions between Bahrain's Sunnis and the Shia Muslim majority.

1986 November - Opening of the King Fahd causeway which links Bahrain to the mainland of Saudi
Arabia.

In early 2011 the government called in the Saudi military to crush protests by demonstrators demanding
a greater say in government and an end to what Shias say is systematic discrimination against them in
jobs and services.

The controversial decision to allow Bahrain to host the Formula 1 Grand Prix in April 2012 further
galvanised protests.

It is thought that Prime Minister is a hardliner who is reluctant to make any concessions on the grounds
that they will only encourage opposition leaders to make more demands.

Crown Prince Salman, on the other hand, is seen as a moderate

In Bahrain, the struggle behind Pearl Revolution still glows
http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/story/2012-05-13/bahrain-pearl-revolution-monarchy/54939728/1

Frequently asked questions about Bahrain

Go to part about how women should dress: abaya
http://www.expatarrivals.com/bahrain/frequently-asked-questions-about-bahrain
Abaya
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abaya



EGYPT

Country Profile (BBC News): Egypt
Check out the EGYPT IN TRANSITION links at the bottom of the overview tab
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13313370
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/egypt_map.htm

Profile: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-12313405

Gamal Abdel Nassar
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamal_Abdel_Nasser

Nassarism
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasserism

Suez crisis
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Crisis




GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL

Gulf Cooperation Council profile (BBC News)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/4155001.stm




IRAN

Country Profile (BBC News): Iran
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14541327
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/iran_map.htm

Showdown with Iran FRONTLINE
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/showdown/

Film online
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/showdown/

As Iraq descends into chaos and civil war, FRONTLINE examines the rise of its neighbor -- Iran -- as one of America's greatest threats and most puzzling foreign policy challenges. Through interviews with key players on both sides, FRONTLINE traces the tumultuous history of U.S.-Iran relations since 9/11 -- from unprecedented early cooperation in Afghanistan, to the growing crisis over Iran's nuclear ambitions and Tehran's open threats to drive America out of the Middle East.

Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/showdown/etc/script.html

Site map
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/showdown/etc/sitemap.html

Themes and Analysis
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/showdown/themes/

Interviews
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/showdown/interviews/

Readings and links
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/showdown/etc/links.html

Iranian Revolution in pictures
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/04/middle_east_the_iranian_revolution/html/9.stm

Iran historical timeline
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14542438

US had extensive contact with Ayatollah Khomeini before Iran revolution
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/10/ayatollah-khomeini-jimmy-carter-administration-iran-revolution

The Great Game
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Game

Iran and Afghanistan | The Iran Primer
http://iranprimer.usip.org/resource/iran-and-afghanistan

Shah of Iran flees into exile (16 January 1979)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/16/newsid_2530000/2530475.stm




ISLAM

Islam: Empire of Faith (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/index.html
Video
http://youtu.be/UHhbSvOcz4g

Muslims (FRONTLINE)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/

Frequently Asked Questions [use this]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/etc/faqs.html

What Muslims believe [use this]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/etc/what.html

Major Themes
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/themes/
Islam and the West
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/themes/west.html
Islamic belief, law, and practice
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/themes/beliefs.html
Women and Islam
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/themes/women.html

Readings
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/etc/links.html

Portraits of ordinary Muslims
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/portraits/

Interviews with Muslim scholars
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/muslims/interviews/

Sharia

Five myths about Sharia
https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/five-myths-about-sharia/2016/06/24/7e3efb7a-31ef-11e6-8758-d58e76e11b12_story.html

Sunni versus Shiite

Sunnis and Shias: Islam's Ancient Schism (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-16047709

Why the Sunnis and Shias are fighting (Washington Post)
[Be sure to play the video]
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2014/01/22/why-sunnis-and-shias-are-fighting-explained-in-two-minutes/

Questions rebels use to tell Sunni from Shiite
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/25/world/middleeast/questioning-helps-rebels-tell-sunnis-from-shiites.html

Map of Sunni/Shia divisions
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/world_maps/muslim_distribution.jpg

Sunni resentment muddles prospect of unifying Iraq
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/13/world/middleeast/sunni-resentment-muddles-prospect-of-reunifying-iraq-after-isis.html

Sunni Muslims - Shiite Muslims - Silvestre Reyes - United States Congress
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/17/weekinreview/17cave.html?action=click&contentCollection=Middle%20East&module=RelatedCoverage%C2%AEion=Marginalia&pgtype=article

Behind Stark Political Divisions, a More Complex Map of Sunnis and Shiites
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/01/04/world/middleeast/sunni-shiite-map-middle-east-iran-saudi-arabia.html

Kurds

The Kurds: the world's largest stateless nation
http://www.france24.com/en/20150730-who-are-kurds-turkey-syria-iraq-pkk-divided

Put with section on ethnic difficulties in Iraq today
The Kurds - A Chronology | The Survival Of Saddam | FRONTLINE | PBS
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saddam/kurds/cron.html

Thousands die in gas attack against Kurds
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/16/newsid_4304000/4304853.stm

Hajj

Why do millions gather in Mecca each year [this is good]
http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/zgymxnb

Hajj: World's Largest Pilgrimage [Show this in class for sure]
http://youtu.be/q7q_LcqbvKI

Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/practices/hajj_1.shtml#h2

Hajj in pictures
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/galleries/hajj/

Ramadan

Ramadan 2015: what do I need to know?
http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z82mtfr

What is Ramadan? [show in class]
http://youtu.be/0ikpzGMoB5Y

Ramadan: a guide to the Islamic holy month
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/17/ramadan-guide-to-islamic-holy-month-
muslims-fast

Muslims and wearing the veil

Why Muslim women wear the veil [click on the graphic showing different styles]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/5411320.stm
What are the basic issues in this article?
What is your own feeling about how to dress as a religious person? Or is it only about religion?

The Islamic veil across Europe
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-13038095
Why do Muslim women wear the hijab.
The "debate takes in religious freedom, female equality, secular traditions and even fears of terrorism." What are the issues involved in this and how have some of the countries dealt with it.
What is your personal feeling.

My First Afghan Burka (Female New York Times reporter Alissa Rubin)
http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/05/05/my-first-afghan-burqa/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0
Would you like to be a correspondent going on this kind of mission?
How did you feel as you read through her detailed description.

A Makeover for the Hijab, via Instagram
Muslim Women Add Personal Style to a Traditional Garment
Would you as a Christian want to wear a hijab. Why or why not?
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/17/fashion/muslim-women-hijab-style-traditional-garment-fashion.html

Why Do Muslim Women Wear The Hijab?
[nice short video]
http://youtu.be/sobFJShtuOo

What’s That You’re Wearing? A Guide to Muslim Veils
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/04/world/what-in-the-world/burqa-hijab-abaya-chador.html

Olympians in Hijab and Bikini
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/12/opinion/olympians-in-hijab-and-bikini.html?_r=0

Putting Faith and Sports on the Same Team
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/06/business/putting-faith-and-sports-on-the-same-team.html

Meet the woman in the American flag hijab
http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-34852817

Other

England's forgotten Muslim history
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/18/opinion/sunday/englands-forgotten-muslim-history.html

The Life of Omar ibn Said
http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/201002/the.life.of.omar.ibn.said.htm

African Muslim Slaves in the Americas: An Understudied Presence
http://www.whyislam.org/muslim-heritage/african-muslim-slaves-in-the-americas-an-understudied-presence/

Yarrow Mamout, a freed Muslim slave, takes his place among presidents and generals at
National Portrait Gallery
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/arts-and-entertainment/wp/2016/08/11/yarrow-mamout-a-freed-muslim-slave-takes-his-place-among-presidents-and-generals-at-national-portrait-gallery/




ISLAMIC STATE (ISIS)

In rise of ISIS, no single missed key but many strands of blame
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/19/world/middleeast/in-rise-of-isis-no-single-missed-key-but-many-strands-of-blame.html?_r=0

Losing Iraq (ISIS) | FRONTLINE | PBS
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/losing-iraq/

Secret history of ISIS
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/the-secret-history-of-isis/

The ISIS threat
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/investigation/the-isis-threat/

Salafism: Why ultra-conservative Islam is finding support in post-revolution Egypt
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-19914763

ISIS’ Harsh Brand of Islam Is Rooted in Austere Saudi Wahhabi Creed
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/25/world/middleeast/isis-abu-bakr-baghdadi-caliph-wahhabi.html

What's the appeal of a caliphate?
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29761018

Levant
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levant

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: Islamic State's driving force
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28560449

Profile: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27801676

How ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi became the world’s most powerful jihadist leader
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/06/11/how-isis-leader-abu-bakr-al-baghdadi-became-the-worlds-most-powerful-jihadi-leader/

What is the Islamic State?
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144

How ISIS works
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/09/16/world/middleeast/how-isis-works.html

How ISIS expands
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/05/21/world/middleeast/how-isis-expands.html?_r=0

ISIS finances are strong
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/05/19/world/middleeast/isis-finances.html

Islamic State: Where does jihadist group get its support?
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29004253

How the Islamic State evolved in an American prison
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/11/04/how-an-american-prison-helped-ignite-the-islamic-state/?tid=hp_mm&hpid=z3

Jihad and Girl Power: How ISIS Lured 3 London Girls
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/18/world/europe/jihad-and-girl-power-how-isis-lured-3-london-teenagers.html

Life in the Islamic State series (Washington Post):
Overview
http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/life-in-the-islamic-state/2015/10/01/overview/
Women
http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/life-in-the-islamic-state/2015/10/01/women/
Justice
http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/life-in-the-islamic-state/2015/10/01/justice/
Economy
http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/life-in-the-islamic-state/2015/10/01/economy/
Education
http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/life-in-the-islamic-state/2015/10/01/education/

Key differences between Al Qaeda, Islamic State, and Taliban
https://www.reddit.com/r/explainlikeimfive/comments/3ishmg/eli5_what_are_the_key_differences_between_alqaeda/

Taliban chastise Islamic State
http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2015/06/taliban-chastise-islamic-state-for-dividing-jihadist-ranks-in-afghanistan-and-beyond.php




ISRAEL

Country Profile (BBC News): Israel
Check out the MORE ON THIS STORY links at the bottom of the overview tab.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14628835
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/israel_map.htm

What Is Hamas And Why Are They At War With Israel?
http://youtu.be/RmlGcQUFmEA

Arab-Israeli conflict series: The Past 50 Years of Israeli Occupation.
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/02/opinion/sunday/the-past-50-years-of-israeli-occupation-
and-the-next.html?_r=0

When Israelis view 50 years of occupation in Palestine as normal, peace is a foreclosed dream
https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/opinions/israel-settlements/?utm_term=.78fb4441445b

1967 war: Six days that changed the Middle East
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-39960461

Legacy of 1973 Arab-Israeli war reverberates 40 years on
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-24402464

How the K.G.B. Started the War That Changed the Middle East
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/07/opinion/how-the-kgb-started-the-war-that-changed-the-middle-east.html?mabReward=CTM5&recp=4

Still Stuck Between May and June of 1967
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/06/opinion/israel-1967-war.html

Country Profile (BBC News): Palestinian territories
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14630174

A Guide to the Arab-Israeli conflict [thanks to Rachel Pobre for this link]
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/myths3/MythsEnglish2012.pdf
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/myths3/mftoc.html

Israel/Palestinian issue home page
http://www.bbc.com/news/special_reports/middle_east_crisis/

Middle East talks: core issues
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-11138790

History of Mideast peace talks
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-11103745

Profile: Benjamin Netanyahu (Israel)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-18008697

Profile: Mahmoud Abbas (Palestinian Authority)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-20033995

Profile: Fatah Palestinian movement
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-13338216

Profile: Hamas Palestinian movement
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-13331522

Israel's Iron Dome missile shield
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-20385306

Gaza: How Hamas tunnel network grew
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28430298

No place to hide for children of war in Gaza and Syria
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28513709

Hamas and Israel step up cyber battle for hearts and minds
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28292908

Israel map: 1947 to the present
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_mwh2005_0618377115_p584_f1.jpg

BBC documentary - Birth of Israel - Birth of a Nation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4X4JCPckWgY&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Primer on Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict | Middle East Research and Information Project
http://www.merip.org/primer-palestine-israel-arab-israeli-conflict-new

Avalon Project - The Middle East 1916-2001 : A Documentary Record
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/mideast.asp

History of the Israel Palestine Conflict reference links
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/guides/Reference/Israel-Palestine-Conflict.xa_1.html

Map Progression 1947-2012 — Foundation for Middle East Peace
http://www.fmep.org/resources/publications-1/Map_progression_1947_2012

Hamas (National Counter-terrorism Center)
http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/hamas.html

Hamas (Council on Foreign Relations)
http://www.cfr.org/israel/hamas/p8968

Hamas Palestinian Movement (BBC News profile)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-13331522

Palestinian territories (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14630174



JORDAN

Country Profile (BBC News): Jordan
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14631981
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/jordan_map.htm

Jordan Queen Rania
http://www.queenrania.jo/gallery/image
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Rania_of_Jordan




KUWAIT

Country Profiles (BBC News): Kuwait
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14644252
Map
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/kuwait_pol96.jpg

Sheikh becomes emir. What is the difference between a sheikh, emir, sultan, king.

Role of Britain in various of these countries

British protectorates

Sandhurst's sheikhs: Why do so many Gulf royals receive military training in the UK?
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-28896860

Role of various wars in all of these countries: WWI, WWII, Gulf War, US invasion of Iraq. Had to choose
sides.

From website:

1985-86 - Domestic security concerns, particularly about Iran's perceived influence over the Shi'ite
minority, prompt the deportations of thousands of expatriates, many of them Iranian. [role of foreign
workers/human rights]

1992 - Under domestic and international pressure, Emir gives green light to National Assembly elections.
Opposition forces perform well in the vote.

2009 October - Constitutional court rules women can obtain passports without the consent of their
husbands.
In another ruling, it decides women MPs are not required to wear an Islamic head cover




LEBANON

Country Profile (BBC News): Lebanon
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14647308
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/lebanon_map.htm
Who are Hezbollah?
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm

Lebanon profile (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14647308

Who are Hezbollah?
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4314423.stm

Hezbollah (background report by the Council on Foreign Relations)
http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/hezbollah-k-hizbollah-hizbullah/p9155




OMAN

Country Profiles (BBC News): Oman
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14654150
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/oman-map.htm

From website:

The oldest independent state in the Arab world strategically important position at the mouth of the
Gulf.

At one time Oman had its own empire
1800s-1900s - Omani empire expands to include Zanzibar and Mombasa on Africa's east coast and parts
of the Indian subcontinent, reflecting Oman's strong maritime heritage.

1749 - Persians are driven out. The Al Bu Said dynasty comes to power, and continues to rule to this day. Role of ruling dynasties in many of these places.

1913 - Control of the country splits. The interior is ruled by Ibadite imams and the coastal areas by the
sultan. Under a British-brokered agreement in 1920 the sultan recognises the autonomy of the interior. What is a sultan?

1981 - Oman is a founding member of the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council

2006 January - Oman and the US sign a free trade deal. The agreement is approved by the US Congress
and Senate in June and July.





PAKISTAN

India-Pakistan Partition BBC documentary (90 minutes)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZS40U5yFpc&feature=youtu.be

India, Pakistan, and Kashmir (Economist videographic)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rmUiLwy7kI&feature=youtu.be

Kashmir:The origins of the dispute
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1762146.stm

Kashmir conflict profile
https://www.insightonconflict.org/conflicts/kashmir/conflict-profile/

Great Calcutta killings
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_Action_Day




QATAR

Country Profiles (BBC News): Qatar
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14702226
See the Qatar links at bottom of screen
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/qatar-map.htm

How Qatar came to host the Taliban
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-23007401

[Ciara's mother to teach there??]

From website:

In 1995 Crown Prince Hamad bin Khalifa deposed his father to become emir. Have you noticed the pattern in all these places of family intrigues and infighting?

Qatari satellite TV station Al-Jazeera has become one of the most important broadcasters in the Arab
world. Not popular in some countries.

1939 - Oil reserves discovered. Exploitation is delayed by World War II, but oil comes to replace pearling
and fishing as Qatar's main source of revenue.

Foreigners - including labourers attracted by a construction boom - outnumber natives. Oil money funds
an all-embracing welfare state, with many services being free or heavily subsidized.

2002 - Qatar looms large in US plans for a possible war against Iraq. Its al-Udeid air base is developed and expanded. Washington says it will deploy US Central Command staff to Qatar.
2003 March-April - Qatar-based US Central Command forward base serves as the nerve centre in the US-
led military campaign in Iraq.

2009 January - Qatar cuts trade ties with Israel over Gaza offensive. Was sole Gulf state to have trade ties with Israel. Relations with Israel run as a theme through all these countries.

2011 Qatar reportedly arms Libyan opposition. Which side are they on in the current Islamic State crisis?

2012 January - The Afghan Taliban say they are setting up a political office in Qatar to facilitate talks. We traded 4 prisoners for that US soldier. They were released in the custody of Qatar.

2014 March - Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the UAE withdraw their ambassadors from Qatar after alleging
that it has been meddling in their internal affairs.




SAUDI ARABIA

Country Profiles (BBC News): Saudi Arabia
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14702705
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/saudi-arabia-map.htm

Home to Mecca and Medina

The House of Saud FRONTLINE
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saud/

Video: FRONTLINE House of Saud
http://youtu.be/Nj0uHdGyIhQ

Turki bin Faisal Al Saud
House of Saud video 38:59
Georgetown School of Foreign Service in 1964
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turki_bin_Faisal_Al_Saud

The House of Saud has controlled every aspect of Saudi life and politics since the kingdom was established in 1932. But outside the Desert Kingdom little is known about Saudi Arabia's secretive royal family. In "House of Saud" FRONTLINE explores how the Al Saud family maintains its hold on power in the face of growing tensions between Islam and modernity. Through interviews with members of the royal family government officials and other experts from Saudi Arabia and the U.S. the two-hour documentary also traces America's relations with the Saudi royal family from their first alliance in the 1930s through Sept. 11 and beyond to the present day.

Synopsis
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saud/etc/synopsis.html

Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saud/etc/script.html

Chronology
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saud/cron/

Themes and Analysis
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saud/themes/

Interviews

Interviews - Prince Amr Ibn Mohammad Al Faisal | House Of Saud |
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saud/interviews/amr.html

The US-Saudi relationsip
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saud/themes/us.html

Wahhabism
ISIS’ Harsh Brand of Islam Is Rooted in Austere Saudi Creed
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/25/world/middleeast/isis-abu-bakr-baghdadi-caliph-wahhabi.html?mabReward=RI%3A5&_r=0

Long reign of same dynasty

Ottoman Turks role (in so much of this part of the world)

Significance of the term "Middle East"

Oil. US and British petroleum companies.

OPEC

Osama bin Laden

I'm amazed at all the terrorist acts.

2010 October arms sales. US foreign aid: Israel/Saudi Arabia

2011 March Saudis put down unrest in Bahrain during Arab Spring
Governments afraid to have a vote--that extremists might win Issue of women driving and publishing pictures

2014 March Muslim Brotherhood
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-12313405

Saudis and Extremism: ‘Both the Arsonists and the Firefighters’
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/26/world/middleeast/saudi-arabia-islam.html

Don' t blame Wahhabism for terrorism
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/20/opinion/dont-blame-wahhabismfor-terrorism.html?mabReward=CTM&_r=0

How Kosovo Was Turned Into Fertile Ground for ISIS
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/22/world/europe/how-the-saudis-turned-kosovo-into-fertile-ground-for-isis.html

The first global terrorists were anarchists in the 1890s
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/30/opinion/the-first-global-terrorists-were-anarchists-in-the-1890s.html?_r=0

What the Saudis miss when they focus on Iran
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/21/opinion/what-the-saudis-miss-when-they-focus-on-iran.html?_r=0




SYRIA

Country Profile (BBC News): Syria
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14703856
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/syria-map.htm

Syria: Mapping the conflict
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-22798391

Syria Conflict home page (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-17258397

Syria at war FRONTLINE
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/investigation/syria-at-war/

SYRIA

FRONTLINE Inside Assad's Syria
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YSF6MgKopdI&feature=youtu.be

Syria’s Paradox: Why the War Only Ever Seems to Get Worse
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/27/world/middleeast/syria-civil-war-why-get-worse.html

Who is fighting whom in Syria?
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/01/world/middleeast/the-syria-conflicts-overlapping-agendas-and-competing-visions.html

Syria crisis: where key countries stand
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-23849587

Untangling the overlapping conflicts in the Syrian war
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/10/16/world/middleeast/untangling-the-overlapping-conflicts-in-the-syrian-war.html

Islamic State women and enforcers in Syria recount collaboration, anguish, and escape
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/22/world/middleeast/isis-wives-and-enforcers-in-syria-recount-collaboration-anguish-and-escape.html

How the growing web of conflict in Syria became a global problem
https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/world/explaining-the-syrian-conflict/

Syria's Alawites
http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/02/us-syria-alawites-sect-idUSTRE8110Q720120202#3QG7Ac7G7TYU3G5b.97

Syria's Baath party
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-18582755

Syria's beleaguered Christians
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-22270455

A brief guide to the Syrian civil war
https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/10/syrian-civil-war-guide-isis/410746/

Straightforward answers to basic questions about Syria's civil war
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/19/world/middleeast/syria-civil-war-bashar-al-assad-refugees-islamic-state.html




TURKEY

Country Profile (BBC News): Turkey
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-17988453
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/turkey-map.htm

Song: Istanbul, not Constantinople
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SP3CF6YBU_8&feature=youtube_gdata_player




UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

Country Profiles (BBC News): United Arab Emirates
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14703998
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/united_arab_emirates_map.htm

From website:

1820 - Britain and local rulers sign a treaty to combat piracy along the Gulf coast. From this, and later
agreements, the area becomes known as the Trucial Coast.

Although each state - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ajman, Fujairah, Ras al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al Qaiwain -
maintains a large degree of independence, the UAE is governed by a Supreme Council of Rulers made up
of the seven emirs, who appoint the prime minister and the cabinet. [I had never heard of most of these]

Role of foreign workers
The oil industry has attracted a large influx of foreign workers who, together with expatriates, now make
up more than three quarters of the population.

Dubai sought to turn itself into the financial gateway and cosmopolitan hub of the Middle East.

Burj Khalifa skyscraper - the world's current tallest man-made structure

1971 - UAE joins the Arab League [what is the Arab League]

Who are members of OPEC

1981 May - UAE is a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council; its first summit is held in Abu
Dhabi.

2006 March - Political storm in the US forces state-owned Dubai Ports World to relinquish control of
terminals at six major American ports. Critics of the ports deal feared an increased risk of terrorist attack, saying the UAE was home to two of the 9/11 hijackers.




YEMEN

Country Profiles (BBC News): Yemen
Check out the YEMEN UNREST link [Arab Uprisings after 3 years] at the bottom of the overview tab
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14704852
Map
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/yemen-map.htm

Yemen and coffee [Mocha/Java blend is my favorite]

From website:

1839 - Aden comes under British rule, and when the Suez Canal opens in 1869 serves as a major refuelling port.

Yemen crossroads of Africa, the Middle East and Asia for thousands of years thanks to its position on the
ancient spice routes. One of the possible locations for the Biblical kingdom of Sheba.

The modern Republic of Yemen was born in 1990 when traditional North Yemen and Communist South
Yemen merged after years of clashes.

Yemen was hit by more serious political upheaval early in 2011 when protesters - inspired by the Arab Spring uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt - rallied against the three-decades-old rule of President Saleh.

He stepped down as part of a deal brokered by neighbouring countries.

In the meantime, Yemen had become a major base for Islamic Al-Qaeda militants

2000 October - US naval vessel USS Cole damaged in suicide attack in Aden which is subsequently
blamed on al-Qaeda. Seventeen US personnel killed.

US does drone strikes in Yemen.

The price of abandoning Yemen
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/23/opinion/the-price-of-abandoning-yemen.html?_r=0

Yemeni government and Houthi rebels reach agreement, U.N. envoy says
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/09/20/us-yemen-security-idUSKBN0HF07H20140920

Yemen Mocha coffee
http://www.espressocoffeeguide.com/gourmet-coffee/arabian-and-african-coffees/yemen-coffee/yemen-mocha-coffee/
http://www.martinezfinecoffees.com/yemen-mocha-mattari-private-reserve.html
http://www.ncausa.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=68
http://coffeetea.about.com/od/Coffee-Glossary/g/Mocha.htm