GILDED AGE POLITICS

Political Songs (2 screens)
http://www.parlorsongs.com/issues/2002-11/thismonth/feature.php
http://www.parlorsongs.com/issues/2002-11/thismonth/featureb.php

Party Politics
  • Politics was the most popular form of local recreation,

More popular than baseball, vaudeville, or circuses.
  • Political torchlight parades, picnics, and speeches were exciting.
  • Close political party balance.
  • [Commentators compared the 2000 election results to that during the Gilded Age.
  • Neither political party gained clear control for any sizable time.
  • Presidential elections were close
  • Swing states (New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois) made the difference.
  • Political party choice dependent on religion and ethnicity.

Republican party

  • Party of evangelical Protestants.
  • Believed government could be an agent of moral reform
  • World must be purged of evil
  • Legislation necessary to protect people from sin.
  • Opposed parochial schools.
  • Supported prohibition of liquor.

Republicans and the Bible
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/goldbible.html

Democratic party

Party of immigrant Catholics and Jews.
Opposed interference by government in

Matters of personal liberty
Use of leisure time
Celebration of Sunday.
  • Supported parochial schools
  • Opposed prohibition of liquor



ELECTION OF 1896

Election of 1896
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1896

Major realigning election in U.S. history
Winner: William McKinley—a Republican

McKinley conducted a traditional "front porch" campaign
McKinley supported the gold standard.
Republican platform emphasized
  • Federal government support of the economy
  • The virtues of the urban–industrial society
  • Progress and prosperity: a full dinner pail
  • Loser: William Jennings Bryan—a Democrat

Bryan broke with tradition; traveled across the country
Bryan supported free silver
Bryan argued for an older America
  • Farms as important as factories,
  • Rural and religious life outweighed sinfulness of the city
  • Common people, not corporations, still ruled.
  • Election of 1896 realigned national politics.

Old split: North versus South

Election of 1896
The "Bloody Shirt"
Vote as you shot
Reconciliation after Civil War
Lost Cause
Connection to monuments discussion these days

New split:

East versus West
City versus farm



VASSAR WEBSITE

Election of 1896

1896 Presidential Campaign (Vassar)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/1896home.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-1896-vassar.html

To get some context, read the portion regarding the Election of 1896 from this biographical material about William McKinley.
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley/essays/biography/3

Try to understand the 1896 material on its own terms, but--to a brief extent--consider the current 2012 Presidential campaign dynamics as a comparison.

William McKinley
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/mckinley.html

Mark Hanna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Hanna

The Republicans, Mark Hanna, and Labor
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/hanna.html

William Jennings Bryan
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryan.html

William Jennings Bryan (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar19.html

1896 Election (New York Times, On This Day)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0709.html

Election of 1896:

Political Parties in the 1896 Presidential election campaign:
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/parties.html

The Republican Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/republicans.html

The Democratic Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/democrats.html

The Populist Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/populists.html

Bryan and the Bible
Bryan, Religion, and the Silver Question
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryanreligion.html

McKinley Supporters and the Bible
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/goldbible.html

Racial Prejudice
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/prejudice.html

Plessy versus Ferguson
(Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may18.html

Antisemitism
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/antisemitism.html

Women suffrage
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/suffrage.html

Women in the Campaign
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/women.html

Bicycles
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bicycle.html



The Currency Issue
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/currency.html

Check out these sites; both gold and silver fluctuate in price:
http://money.cnn.com/data/commodities/
http://www.monex.com/liveprices

Gold Standard

March 14, 1900 | U.S. Officially Adopts Gold Standard - NYTimes.com
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/march-14-1900-u-s-officially-adopts-gold-standard/

In Rise of Gold Bugs, History Repeats Itself - NYTimes.com
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/03/business/in-rise-of-gold-bugs-history-repeats-itself.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1331722960-zicLewt1yGtRvOCUXlOWag&pagewanted=all

Back to a Gold Standard? - Room for Debate - NYTimes.com
http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2010/11/09/back-to-a-gold-standard

FDR takes United States off gold standard — History.com This Day in History — 6/5/1933
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-takes-united-states-off-gold-standard



Farmers and Laborers
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/labor.html

Uncle Sam
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/unclesam.html
Here is a more complete explanation of the origin of the term "Uncle Sam":
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~cap/sam/sam.htm

Temperance
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/prohibition.html

Civil War and Slavery
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/civilwar.html

Lynchings and Jim Crow in the South
Plessy versus Ferguson (1896)

Sectional Interests
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/sections.html

US Foreign Relations
Spain and Cuba; Turkey and Armenia
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/foreignrelations.html

Hamidian Massacres
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamidian_massacres

Socialism
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/socialism.html

Can Bernie Sanders keep socialism alive? [read both pages]
http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/09/bernie-sanders-socialism-eugene-v-debs-213093
http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/09/bernie-sanders-socialism-eugene-v-debs-213093?o=1

Political interpretation of the Wonderful Wizard of Oz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_interpretations_of_The_Wonderful_Wizard_of_Oz

Tariffs
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/tariff.html

McKinley Tariff
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1468



WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines

William McKinley (Miller Center) [Read both of these links]
http://millercenter.org/president/biography/mckinley-life-before-the-presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/biography/mckinley-campaigns-and-elections

1896 Election (New York Times, On This Day)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0709.html

Bryan's Cross of Gold speech
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/crossofgold.html

Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5354/
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=163

William Jennings Bryan bio (LOC)
https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/march-19/

William Jennings Bryan - A Cross of Gold
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/williamjenningsbryan1896dnc.htm

William Jennings Bryan (Vassar)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryan.html



WILLIAM McKINLEY

William Mckinley (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley

William McKinley documents on Imperialism
[This is excellent]
http://www.schlagergroup.com/mdal_sample.php

60-Second Presidents
William McKinley
https://youtu.be/FOK05f0afto

William McKinley obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0129.html

William McKinley (Foreign Affairs issues)
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley/essays/biography/5

McKinley Administration (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/McKinley.html

McKinley Assassination
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/mckinley.htm
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0914.html

September 6, 1901| President McKinley Assassinated - NYTimes.com
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/06/september-6-1901-president-mckinley-assassinated/

On This Day: President McKinley Fatally Shot by Anarchist
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--President-McKinley-Fatally-Shot-By-Anarchist.html

McKinley assassination (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep06.html






THEODORE ROOSEVELT

Theodore Roosevelt (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/2
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/4
Foreign Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/5

60-Second Presidents
Theodore Roosevelt
https://youtu.be/3y-8aHZr0Nk

Theodore Roosevelt (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb03.html

Theodore Roosevelt (Bruno Mars' "24K Magic" Parody)
http://youtu.be/N4hV1OBeC4g

Presidential politics Theodore Roosevelt
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/tr-politics/

New Nationalism

Motto of the Theodore Roosevelt presidency

  • TR believed government should direct national affairs
  • Government should coordinate and regulate big business
  • Government should not destroy big business.
  • Government should act as an umpire.
  • Roosevelt was a Republican, party of big business.

He was thus in an awkward position.

Theodore Roosevelt, "The New Nationalism," address, 1910
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text10/text10read.htm
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=501
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Croly

Theodore Roosevelt: New Nationalism (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text10/text10read.htm

Obama comparison to TR speech (Washington Post)
http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/obama-invokes-teddy-roosevelt-in-speech-attacking-gop-policies/2011/12/06/gIQAEf3yaO_story.html

Regulation of trusts

Trusts and monopolies
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/trusts.html

Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
GET MORE FOR THIS TOPIC

Major issue in the Roosevelt presidency

  • Industrialization had led to a concentration of great power.
  • Large–scale business combinations were then called "trusts";

Today we would call them conglomerates or multinationals.
  • By 1904, for example, trusts controlled much of American business:

6 large financial groups dominated the railroad industry;
Rockefeller's Standard Oil owned 85% of the oil business.
  • No one really clear on how to deal with trusts:

Let trusts alone since big business is an inevitable part of progress
Distinguish between good and bad trusts
Regulate good trusts (if so, who should be the regulators)
Break up bad trusts into smaller companies.
Theodore Roosevelt sought to regulate the abuses of the worst trusts—the railroads, oil companies, and the meatpacking monopolies.
We still do not have a solution.
We vary between regulation and deregulation




President William Howard Taft (1909-1913)

Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/2
Campaigns and Elections
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/3
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/4
Foreign Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/5

60-Second Presidents
William Howard Taft
https://youtu.be/Ikwkgtdnpzw

Dollar Diplomacy
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/dollar-diplo