EXPANSION MODULE

Learning Objectives:

Examine the variety of forces and beliefs that contributed to the emergence of expansionist sentiment within American society during the 1830s and 1840s.

Discuss the objectives of expansionists, and explain the debates over the Texas and Oregon territories.

What is manifest destiny? How did Americans use the concept to justify expansion? What difficulties accompanied American expansionism? Do vestiges of manifest destiny remain?

Manifest Destiny painting (hat tip to Tim Davis)
http://www.historyonthenet.com/American_West/manifestdestinypainting.htm

What were the causes, events during, and results of the U.S.-Mexican War?



Items to put in below:

Unit 3: Voices across Time: Expansion & Reform
http://voices.pitt.edu/TeachersGuide/ExpansionandReform.htm

Rush-Bagot Pact, 1817 and Convention of 1818 (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1801-1829/rush-bagot

Acquisition of Florida: Treaty of Adams-Onis (1819) and Transcontinental Treaty (1821) (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1801-1829/florida

Russians establish Fort Ross (History.com This Day in History | 2/2/1812)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/russians-establish-fort-ross

Fort Ross
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Ross,_California
http://www.fortross.org/

Monroe Doctrine
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1801-1829/monroe

The West
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-west.html



Maps:

Territorial Acquisitions Map
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U.S._Territorial_Acquisitions.png

US expansion, 1783-1853
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_mwh2005_0618377115_p325_f02.jp





Andrew Jackson

The Age of Jackson (Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/national-expansion-and-reform-1815-1860/age-jackson

The Hermitage
http://www.thehermitage.com/
The Jackson Family
http://www.thehermitage.com/jackson-family/

Andrew Jackson
Miller Center (University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/jackson
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-andrew-jackson.html

Nullification Crisis (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan13.html



Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis de Tocqueville Tour
http://www.tocqueville.org/

Alexis de Tocqueville
http://www.tocqueville.culture.fr/en/

Tocqueville
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/home.html



Indian Removal

Native American resistance and removal
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI199.jpg
Most whites wanted land
Most whites were racist: had little respect for Indians' rights and culture
Indians always seemed to be in the way of whites' land hunger
Some whites: physically separate Indians and white settlers
Other whites: "civilize" Indians and assimilate them into American culture

Removal Act of 1830

Indian Treaties and the Removal Act of 1830 (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/indian-treaties

Indian Removal (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html

The government forced the Five Civilized Tribes to move west of the Mississippi River.
Five Civilized tribes: Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, Seminole



Cherokee Trail of Tears

One part, a sad one, of the overall Indian removal.
Some 4,000 of the 13,000 Cherokees died along the way.

Fans mock team over Trail of Tears
http://deadspin.com/alabama-high-school-mocks-indians-opponent-with-trail-1466812691

Billy Ray Cyrus - Trail Of Tears
http://youtu.be/oT7B6m8fKKA

Google image search: Trail of Tears motorcycle ride

Trail of Tears yearly memorial ride home page
http://www.trailoftearsmemorialassoc.com/

Picture:
Indian Removal
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html

Resources for Trail of Tears | Teach US History
http://www.teachushistory.org/indian-removal/resources

7 Things You May Not Know About the Trail of Tears
http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/7-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-trail-of-tears

Cherokees. If civilizing Indians was the American goal, no tribe met that test better than the Cherokees:
Cherokee–language Bible

Sequoyah
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequoyah

Bilingual tribal newspaper
Formal government complete with legislature and court system
Written constitution modeled after that of the U.S.
Ownership of black slaves
Almost total conversion to Christianity.

[Get a good reference to Trail of Tears]
Use picture




Mountain Men (1822-1840)

Not sure where this fits: Today in History: June 7 Daniel Boone
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun07.html

Mountain Men: Pathfinders of the West (University of Virginia)
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/hns/mtmen/home.html

1. Competition of fur trading companies
Beaver the prize commodity: fashionable hats

2. Mountain men covered the entire west: learned its geography

3. Key names: [go to Google Images]

a. Jim Bridger

Johnny Horton song about Jim Bridger
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnJL4ErQK8k&feature=youtube_gdata_player

b. Jedidiah Smith (grizzly bear; friend sewed his scalp on)

Jedidiah Smith--For God and Wild West (Christianity.com)
http://www.christianity.com/ChurchHistory/11630332/

Jedidiah Smith (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-112/summary/index.asp

c. John Colter (raced naked for his life)

4. Rendezvous: held once a year

5. Mountain men became guides on Oregon Trail

Mountain Men and the Fur Trade
http://www.xmission.com/~drudy/mtman/museum/index.html
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-mountain-men-and-fur.html

6 Legendary Mountain Men of the American Frontier
http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/6-legendary-mountain-men-of-the-american-frontier


Oregon Trail:

Map:
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI234.jpg

Independence, Missouri to Oregon/California
Trip was 2,000 miles; took 6 months
Role of Methodist missionaries (1833)
"Oregon fever" began after the Panic of 1837
Fremont mapped the trail (1842)
1843—major increase in migration over the Trail

Oregon Trail
http://oregontrail101.com/

Oregon Trail:

Introduction

http://oregontrail101.com/introduction.html

Discoverers and Explorers

http://oregontrail101.com/discoverers.html

"Jumping off"
http://oregontrail101.com/jumping.html

The Route West
http://oregontrail101.com/routewest.html

Power
http://oregontrail101.com/power.html

Hardships
http://oregontrail101.com/hardships.html

Camping
http://oregontrail101.com/camping.html

Buffalo
http://oregontrail101.com/buffallo.html

Native Americans
http://oregontrail101.com/native.html

Whitmans in Oregon Territory (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb16.html

What kind of historical source are letters and diaries?
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/letters/whatkind.html

Making sense of letters
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/letters/letters.pdf

Analyzing Nineteenth Century Letters
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/sia/letters.htm

Journal of the missionary party
http://www.oregonpioneers.com/munger.htm

Emigrants' diaries and journals
http://www.oregonpioneers.com/diaries.htm

Oregon Trail Diaries : A literate middle class hits the dusty trail : OCTA
http://www.octa-trails.org/articles/oregon-trail-diaries



Mormon Trail

Mormon Pioneer Day (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul27.html

Joseph Smith (PBS, God in America)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/joseph-smith.html

Brigham Young profile (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/y/brigham-young.html

Mormon Handcart Expedition Begins (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/June/On-This-Day--Mormon-Handcart-Expedition-Begins.html

Mormon handcart pioneers depart for Salt Lake City (History.com This Day in History | 6/9/1856)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mormon-handcart-pioneers-depart-for-salt-lake-city

Mormon leader killed by mob (History.com This Day in History | 6/27/1844)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mormon-leader-killed-by-mob



James K. Polk
Miller Center (University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/polk
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-james-k-polk.html

James K. Polk profile (The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/polk.htm



Oregon Country

Oregon Territory (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/oregon-territory

Northwest boundary dispute

Establishing Borders: The Oregon Question (Smithsonian)
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/essay3.html
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/map1a.html
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/map1b.html

U. S. negotiated for Oregon Country (1846).
U.S. to brink of war with Britain over Oregon boundary.
Polk's campaign slogan: Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
U.S. could not fight Mexico and Britain at same time

Boundary dispute map:
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI236.jpg

Mapping History
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US17-00.html

Territorial Acquisitions Map
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U.S._Territorial_Acquisitions.png


California Gold Rush

Gold Rush (Harvard University Immigration Study)
http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/goldrush.html

Gold Discovered at Sutter's Mill (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Gold-Discovered-at-Sutter-s-Mill.html

1. Discovery of gold (1848) (2 months before Mexican-American war treaty)

California Gold Rush (1849)
Overland trail plus passage around South America
100,000 arrived in one year

2. California statehood (1850)

3. Gold Rush (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/goldrush/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-gold-rush.html

Special Features: Online Poll--Journey of the Forty-Niners
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/goldrush/sfeature/poll.html

Special Features: Gold Rush Game: Strike it Rich
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/goldrush/sfeature/game.html

History in photographs of the California Gold Rush
http://www.historichwy49.com/hisphotos.html

Gaming and entertainment in Gold Rush towns
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/goldrush/peopleevents/e_fun.html

Mexicans in the Gold Rush
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/goldrush/peopleevents/p_mexicans.html

See also:

Gold Nugget (Smithsonian)
http://www.objectofhistory.org/objects/intro/goldnugget/

On the Water - Van Valen’s Gold Rush Journey (Smithsonian)
http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthewater/goldrush/index.html

Gold Rush (Calisphere)
http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/calcultures/eras/era4.html

President Polk Sparks the California Gold Rush (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-This-Day--President-Polk-Sparks-the-California-Gold-Rush.html

Gold Discovered (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan24.html

Gold Rush: Boardinghouse Keeper (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6512

Gold Rush: Life in a Gold Mining Camp (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6516

Gold Rush: Panning for Gold (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6513



Manifest destiny.

Term first used by editor John L. O'Sullivan (1839) (Teaching American History)
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=668

American Exceptionalism: An Old Idea and a New Political Battle (Washington Post)
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/28/AR2010112804139.html?hpid=topnews

American expansion westward and southward was
Inevitable
Just
Divinely ordained

The Religious Origins of Manifest Destiny (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/mandestiny.htm

Racism in American society
a. Justified slavery in the South
b. Accepted discrimination in the North
c. Supported expansion in the West

In accordance with this view:
Native Americans: savages, best eliminated
Hispanics: inferior peoples, best controlled or conquered

Territorial Acquisitions Map
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U.S._Territorial_Acquisitions.png

See also:

Manifest Destiny (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%204_Expansion%20and%20Slavery/Manifest%20Destiny%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Items from the U.S.-Mexican war website

President James K. Polk, Miller Center, Domestic Affairs

Monuments, Manifest Destiny, and Mexico (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2005/summer/mexico-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2005/summer/mexico-2.html



Texas

The Annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American War, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1845-1848
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/texas-annexation

Map:
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI232.jpg

Establishing Borders (Smithsonian)
American and Mexican Views of Texas
Revival of Expansionism in the 1840s
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/essay2.html
Maps:
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/map2a.html
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/map2b.html
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/map2c.html
Timeline:
http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/borders/timeline.html

Americans move into Spanish, then Mexican Tejas
Panic of 1819 pushed some Americans westward
Mexico gained its independence from Spain (1821)

Empresarios
Spain gave land grants to Moses Austin
Mexico continued the same deal with Stephen Austin (1824)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/peopleevents/p_austin.html

Americans not happy with three aspects of life in Mexico.
a. Catholicism: Settlers either converted superficially or ignored requirement
b. Slavery (in 1829 Mexico freed its slaves)(colonists freed slaves but signed them to lifelong indentured servant contract
c. Self government

Texas part of Mexican Coahuila (Texas outnumbered 3 to 1)
Americans demanded a Mexican state of their own

Dictator Santa Anna abolished separate Mexican states (1834)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/peopleevents/p_santaanna.html



Texas revolution (1836)

By 1835, Texas population: 30,000 Americans; 3,000 Mexicans
"War party" declared Texas independent in1836
Guests who rebelled against their hosts

Texas Independence interactive
http://www.txindependence.org/index.php



Main battles of the Texas Revolution:

a. Alamo: 187 all died (Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, William Travis)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/

Alamo (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar06.html

The Alamo Came Under Attack (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Feb/On-this-Day--The-Alamo-Came-Under-Attack.html

Alamo (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/08/website-spotlight-alamo.html

Davy Crockett
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/peopleevents/p_crockett.html

10 Things You May Not Know About Davy Crockett
http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-davy-crockett

Ballad of Davy Crockett (Fess Parker)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txcRQedoEyY&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Jim Bowie
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/peopleevents/p_bowie.html

William Travis
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/peopleevents/p_travis.html

b. Goliad: 350 captured Americans were massacred

c. San Jacinto:

Sam Houston attacked Mexicans during a siesta
630 Mexicans killed
Santa Anna captured

Battle of San Jacinto | April 1836. The Texian Army wins Texas Independence.
http://www.sanjacinto-museum.org/The_Battle/



Texas: the Lone Star Republic (1836–1845)

Texas a separate country

Sam Houston the first president.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/peopleevents/p_houston.html

Population increased from 30,000 to 142,000
Annexation delayed until 1845: volatility of the slavery issue

Texas Independence (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%204_Expansion%20and%20Slavery/Texas%20Independence%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Texas Annexation 1845 (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun23.html

Texas Annexation and Statehood (Alamo)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/alamo/peopleevents/e_annex.html

Territorial Acquisitions Map
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U.S._Territorial_Acquisitions.png



Wilmot Proviso (1846)

Wilmot Proviso Document itself:
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/wilmot.htm
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=948

Wilmot Proviso (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1400

From the Wilmot Proviso to the Compromise of 1850 (Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/polk/aa_polk_wilmot_1.html

President James Polk (Miller Center)
http://millercenter.org/president/polk/essays/biography/4

Many northerners opposed the war with Mexico
They saw in a war an evil design by slave owners to increase possible slave territory

Democrat Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a bill that would outlaw slavery in any territory won from Mexico.
His proposal did not pass Congress.
But the Wilmot Proviso became a rallying cry for abolitionists & those against spread of slavery.

Most white northerners were racists, not abolitionists.
Whites wanted to protect themselves—not southern blacks—from the Slave power.
They wanted to keep this new land only for free white people.



Free–Soil Party

Formed in 1848 to prevent slavery in the territories won from Mexico.

Free Soil Party (Ohio History Online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=893&nm=Free-Soil-Party

Free Soilers did not necessarily want to abolish slavery.
They simply wanted to prevent its spread into the Western territories.

Party slogan was Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men.

Free Soil party was made up of
1. Northern Democrats committed to the Wilmot proviso
2. Antislavery ("Conscience" as opposed to "Cotton") Whigs



Mexican War (1846–1848)

Crash Course #17: Mexican War and Expansion
http://youtu.be/tkdF8pOFUfI

Mexican War animated map
Buena Vista and Cerro Gordo
http://historyanimated.com/verynewhistorywaranimated/?page_id=189

Road to Mexican War
http://historyanimated.com/verynewhistorywaranimated/?page_id=196
http://historyanimated.com/verynewhistorywaranimated/?page_id=196

U.S.-Mexican War (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/index_noflash.html
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-us-mexican-war.html

Mexican War

The U.S.-Mexican War . Prelude to War . A Go-Ahead Nation | PBS
http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/prelude/md_go-ahead_nation.html

Manifest Destiny
http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/prelude/md_manifest_destiny2.html

John L. Sullivan on Manifest Destiny
http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/resources/manifest_destiny_sullivan.html

Zachary Taylor
http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/resources/primary_source_window/posters8.html

Zachary Taylor
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/grant-taylor/

Winfield Scott
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/grant-scott/

Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo
http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/biographies/mariano_guadalupe_vallejo.html

Stephen F. Austin
http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/biographies/stephen_austin.html

Mexican War video
http://youtu.be/_JjjaMBoSQE

Mexican War Regular Map:
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI239.jpg

1. Mexico felt annexation of Texas cause for war

American sent forces into disputed region to provoke a Mexican attack
Mexicans did attack
America declared war

Some in U.S. opposed war:
New England
Whig party: Henry Clay; Abraham Lincoln

2. American interest in California:

New England clipper ships traded with the area in the 1830s
Bartered manufactured goods for cowhides
Boston companies set up resident agents in California
Agents' reports back East sparked interest in California

a. Richard Henry Dana's Two Year Before the Mast: a best seller (1840)

Dana Point. Ship visit: Pilgrim.

b. Sutter's Fort. Sacramento. At end of Overland Trail.

3. When war with Mexico seemed likely, U.S. claimed California

a. California Republic (Bear Flag)

b. Bear Flag Revolt (June 14, 1846)

Key names: Sonoma; William B. Ide; John Fremont; Mexican Governor Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo

Separate country for less than a month

California's Bear Flag revolt begins (History.com This Day in History | 6/14/1846)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/californias-bear-flag-revolt-begins

History of the Bear Flag (Bear Flag Museum)
http://www.bearflagmuseum.org/History.html

4. U.S. Forces in Mexico

a) General Zachary Taylor: invaded Mexico from north
Battle of Buena Vista

b) General Winfield Scott: invaded Mexico from seacoast
Battle of Chapultepec

Halls of Montezuma
Marines raised U.S. flag over National Palace in Mexico City

5. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb02.html

Map: U.S. Territorial Acquisitions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:U.S._Territorial_Acquisitions.png

Map: Mexican Cession in the Mexican View
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mexican_Cession_in_Mexican_View.PNG

U.S. paid Mexico $15 million

Present states: California, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona

U.S. territory enlarged by 20%

Legacy of the Mexican-American War

$100 million in military costs

13,000 Americans died

Training ground for military officers later famous in Civil War

Gold discovered in California (1848): a few months before treaty signed

Continuing controversy over extension of slavery in land won from Mexico