EXPLORATION MODULE




Vikings

Viking Routes (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/upload/pdf/Viking_routes.pdf

Vikings (BBC History)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/index.shtml

Vikings landed in Newfoundland in 1001.

No real connection--that we know so far--between the Vikings in America and the voyages of subsequent explorers.

The Saga of Eric the Red (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-056/summary/index.asp

L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/4

L'Anse aux Meadows (Google Images)
http://bit.ly/TIFNvr

Vikings (Seas and Ships Fact File, Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/ships-and-seafarers/the-vikings

Viking boat burial discovery 'a first' (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-15333852

The Vikings (NOVA)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/vikings/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/09/website-spotlight-vikings-nova.html

Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga (Smithsonian)
http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/start.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/09/website-spotlight-vikings-north.html



European exploration:

Luxury goods in Asia: silk, dyes, perfumes, jewels, and gold.

Spices in Asia: pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg.

Spice Islands [Moluccas in today's Indonesia] (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/faqs/places/what-and-where-are-the-spice-islands

Earlier role of Italy as middlemen in European overland trade with China.

Marco Polo's Travels (1275) to China. Published in 1477.

Marco Polo (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/polo_marco.shtml

Constantinople (1453). Fell to the Muslim Turks.

Muslims then controlled overland trade routes from Catholic Europe to Asia.

Europeans sought all–water trade route to Asia to outflank Muslims.



Voyages of Exploration:

Early Explorations 1400s
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_mwh2005_0618377115_p93_f02.jpg

European Exploration of the Americas
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_awh2005_0618376798_p555_f1.jpg

Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21 - YouTube




Portugal

Will try to reach Asia by sailing east.
The other European countries will try to reach Asia by sailing west
America gets in their way and becomes the heart of our story.
Portugal began explorations first:
Portuguese sailed around Africa to reach Asia

Prince Henry the Navigator
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p259.html

Bartolomeu Dias: Cape of Good Hope (1488)
http://www.sahistory.org.za/people/bartholomew-alternate-spelling-bartolomeu-dias
http://www.catholic.org/encyclopedia/view.php?id=3832
http://www.history.com/topics/bartolomeu-dias

Vasco da Gama: India (1498)
http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/explorer-and-navigator-vasco-da-gama-completes-his-voyage-round-cape-good-hope-india
http://www.history.com/topics/vasco-da-gama
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/da_gama_vasco.shtml
Da Gama extended article (BBC History)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/vasco_da_gama_01.shtml


Spain
Spanish exploration next
Spanish colonization of the Americas

Extremadura, Spain: Land of the Conquistadors (Telegraph)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/spain/9458239/Extremadura-Spain-Land-of-the-Conquistadors.html

Christopher Columbus (1492)

Christopher Columbus (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/explorers-and-leaders/christopher-columbus

Christopher Columbus and his legacy (BBC History)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/columbus_legacy_01.shtml

Spanish Inquisition
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/Jews-Banished-From-Spain-During-Spanish-Inquisition.html

Sailed west to reach Asia.
Landed in Bahamas on first voyage. Four voyages in all
Believed he reached East Indies—called the natives "Indians."
Never realized he discovered a whole new world.

Top Things to Know About Columbus Day (Time Magazine)
http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2024740_2024739,00.html

See also:

American Journeys
http://www.americanjourneys.org/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/07/website-spotlight-american-journeys.html

Letter from Columbus to Ferdinand and Isabella Concerning the Colonization and Commerce of Española (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-064/summary/index.asp

The Black Legend, Native Americans, and Spaniards: Crash Course US History #1 - YouTube

Seeking Columbus’s Origins, With a Swab (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/08/us/08columbus.html?_r=1&ref=christophercolumbus&pagewanted=all

Christopher Columbus: Introduction to 1492: An Ongoing Voyage (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/1492/

Christopher Columbus (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug03.html

Columbus Day (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct12.html

Christopher Columbus (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Columbus-Lands-in-Caribbean.html

Same time as Columbus left Spain,Jews Banished from Spain (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/Jews-Banished-From-Spain-During-Spanish-Inquisition.html

Amerigo Vespucci (History.com)
http://www.history.com/topics/amerigo-vespucci

How did America get its name?

http://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2016/07/how-did-america-get-its-name/?loclr=ealocb



Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

Treaty of Tordesillas
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Tordesillas

Treaty of Tordesillas (Google Images)
http://bit.ly/NNoPwc

Pope divided land claims between Portugal and Spain
Portugal got Africa and Brazil
Spain got remainder of New World


Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange: Crash Course World History #23 - YouTube

The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/columbianb.htm

Alfred Crosby on the Columbian Exchange (Smithsonian)
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Alfred-W-Crosby-on-the-Columbian-Exchange.html

Columbian Exchange (Alfred Crosby)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/american-indians/essays/columbian-exchange



Hernán Cortés (1519–1521)

Conquistadors [particularly Hernan Cortes] (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/conquistadors/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/09/website-spotlight-conquistadors.html

The Story of the Conquistadors (Michael Wood)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/conquistadors_01.shtml

Conqueror of Aztec empire in Mexico

Malinche. Translator and mistress to Cortes
Sold by her Aztec mother as a slave to Mayans (where Cortes landed)
Caught between several worlds
Is she a hero or a traitor to Mexicans?


Other explorers to remember:

Ponce de Leon (1513).

Florida: Fountain of Youth

Ponce de Leon (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep27.html

Juan Ponce de León
http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/lessons/de_leon/de_leon1.htm

Ponce de Leon (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-095/summary/index.asp



Ferdinand Magellan (1519–1522).

Sailed around the globe.

Magellan voyage map (Google Images)
http://bit.ly/P8SCtz

Ferdinand Magellan (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/magellan

Ferdinand Magellan (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/On-this-Day--Explorer-Ferdinand-Magellan-Killed-by-Philippine-Tribe.html

Ferdinand Magellan
https://youtu.be/r3f539pYIyU
http://exploration.marinersmuseum.org/subject/ferdinand-magellan/

Magellan GPS system
http://magellan.factoryoutletstore.com/cat/20606/Magellan-RoadMate-GPS-Systems.html


Hernando de Soto (1539–42).

Southeastern United States

Hernando de Soto Map (Google Images)
http://bit.ly/RaL765

Parallel histories exhibit
https://memory.loc.gov/intldl/eshtml/es-1/es-1-2-2.html

De Soto Expedition (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/exploration/text1/desoto.pdf

DeSoto's Discovery of the Mississippi (Gilder Lehrman)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/exploration/resources/de-soto%E2%80%99s-discovery-mississippi-1541

Hernando de Soto National Memorial
http://www.nps.gov/deso/historyculture/index.htm

De Soto reaches the Mississippi (History.com This Day in History | 5/8/1541)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/de-soto-reaches-the-mississippi

De Soto dies in the American wilderness (History.com This Day in History | 5/21/1542)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/de-soto-dies-in-the-american-wilderness

Hernando de Soto (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-021/summary/index.asp
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-023/index.asp


Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (1540–1542).

Southwestern United States

Francisco de Coronado map (Google Images)
http://bit.ly/U1PTH3

The West
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/
See my Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-west.html

Coronado's Report to the King of Spain (PBS, The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/one/corona9.htm

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (PBS, The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/coronado.htm

Map of his travels (PBS,The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/places/trails_ter/coronado.htm

Coronado Expedition (Handbook of Texas online)
http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/upcpt



English Exploration

England would not be bound by the Treaty of Tordesillas.
But tried to explore initially in areas not claimed by Spanish or Portuguese.

John Cabot (1497)
Basis of later English claims.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cabot

John Cabot (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/explorers-and-leaders/john-and-sebastian-cabot

Cabot Project (Bristol University)
http://www.bristol.ac.uk/history/research/cabot.html

The Voyages of John Cabot (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-069/summary/index.asp

John Cabot, Italian Bankers, and the New World (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/19/science/john-cabot-italian-bankers-and-the-new-world.html?pagewanted=all




Francis Drake

Francis Drake (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Francis-Drake-Sets-Out-to-Circumnavigate-the-World-.html

Francis Drake (Golden Hind)
http://www.goldenhind.co.uk/voyage-golden-hind.php

Account of Sir Francis Drake's landing in California (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/contact/text5/drake.pdf

Drake claims California for England (History.com This Day in History | 6/17/1579)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/drake-claims-california-for-england

Francis Drake (American Journeys)
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-032/summary/index.asp

Francis Drake (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/drake


Spanish Armada (1588)

Rivalry between Spain and England
Spain was hard–core Catholic
Spain hated Protestant England.
Spanish naval Armada (fleet) attempted to invade England
A major battle in world history.
English defeated the Spanish.

Great map showing defeat of the Spanish Armada
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_mwh2005_0618377115_p156_f01.jpg

Roanoke Island (in present-day North Carolina

Attempted base from which to harass Spanish treasure fleets.
Resupply voyage stopped because of Spanish Armada

Spanish Armada prevented resupply to Roanoke Colony

Roanoke Island

Present-day North Carolina
English colonization attempt.

Native America before Columbus
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7FItlStGMY4

England on the Eve of Colonization (Paul Hammer)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/imperial-rivalries/essays/england-eve-colonization

Historical Background on Roanoke Island (Time Team America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/opb/timeteam/sites/ft_raleigh/history.php

Promoted by Sir Walter Raleigh

Walter Raleigh (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/explorers-and-leaders/sir-walter-ralegh/190

Attempted base from which to harass Spanish treasure fleets.
Resupply voyage stopped because of Spanish Armada

Despite three tries, the colony at Roanoke failed.

John White's Attempt to Rescue the Colonists at Roanoke (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/exploration/text6/white.pdf

See also:

Ancient map gives clue to fate of 'Lost Colony' (Telegraph)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/9244947/Ancient-map-gives-clue-to-fate-of-Lost-Colony.html

New Clue to Mystery of the Lost Colony (Fox News)
http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2012/05/07/new-clue-to-mystery-lost-roanoke-colony/

The Roanoke Island Colony: Lost, and Found?
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/11/science/the-roanoke-colonists-lost-and-found.html

Roanoke Colonies (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Roanoke_Colonies_The


Spanish Armada

Great map showing defeat of the Spanish Armada
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_mwh2005_0618377115_p156_f01.jpg

Rivalry between Spain and England
Spain was hard–core Catholic
Spain hated Protestant England.
Spanish naval Armada (fleet) attempted to invade England
A major battle in world history.
English defeated the Spanish.

Spanish Armada prevented resupply to the Lost Colony.

See also:

Spanish Armada (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/navies-and-warships/the-spanish-armada

God Blew and They Were Scattered (UK National Archives)
http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/lesson39.htm

Elizabeth I and the Spanish Armada (British Library)
http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/uk/armada/intro.html

Elizabeth I [more on her]

The Spanish Armada (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/adams_armada_01.shtml


Native Americans

Map: Routes of the First Americans
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI001.jpg

Native Americans originally came to America from Asia
Land bridge from Siberia across the Bering Straits.

Early cultures: fishing, hunting, and gathering for mere subsistence.

Settled agriculture (corn, beans, squash) more sophisticated civilizations.

Indian tribes adapted to different geographic settings.

Map: Location of Major Groups of First Americans
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI006.jpg

Five million Indians in North America at time of European arrival.

Over two hundred language groups.

Indians not organized into tribes but into hundreds of bands

Seldom did a "chief" hold significant power.

Bands quarreled with each other

Used Europeans to help them fight their enemies

Early North American civilizations:

Mound Builders (Ohio river region)
Anasazi (Arizona and New Mexico)
Mississippians (Midwest and Southeast U.S.). Cahokia.




Use of the term "Indian

1. "American Indian" or "Native American"?
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/fts/bismarck_200504A16.html

2. Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian
http://www.nmai.si.edu/

3. Edward S. Curtis's North American Indian (American Memory, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ienhtml/curthome.html

4. American Indians: The Image of the Indian (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indimage.htm



African Societies

Map: Trade Routes in Africa
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI007.jpg

Slavery. An internal traffic in slaves had existed long before European contact.

Trading factories:

Europeans restricted to trading posts on the coast.

Europeans did not venture far inland

Strength of African military groups

Death of Europeans from African diseases [reverse of pattern with Indians]