EYES ABROAD MODULE

Learning Objectives:

What is imperialism?
Describe American foreign policy in the 1890s.
Why did the U.S. intervene in Cuba and the Philippines?
Did the U.S. have the right to issue the Open Door policy?
Was the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine necessary?
What were some of the leading arguments in favor of overseas expansion?
Did the anti-imperialists' argument that the United States could maintain a strong foreign trade without subjugating foreign people offer a viable option?



Add in below



Protestant missions in China
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protestant_missions_in_China_1807%E2%80%931953

Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity
http://www.bdcconline.net/en/







Worldwide scramble for empire

1. 1890 census declared the frontier "closed."

2. College professor Frederick Jackson Turner: Frontier thesis (The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/turner.htm

See also:
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl2.html
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text1/turner.pdf

3. Many looked to overseas expansion.

4. Great powers measured their greatness by the colonies they acquired
a. Britain, Germany, and France divided up Africa
b. Looked to do the same in Asia

5. America will eventually get in on the act.

Let's take a look at several maps.

World Colonial Empires, 1900
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI445.jpg

American Empire, 1900
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI444.jpg

6. Alfred Thayer Mahan
President of the Naval War College

Alfred Thayer Mahan obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0927.html
.
Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power upon History (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/mahan

In this important book, Mahan's argument ran as follows:

He argued that national greatness and prosperity depended on naval power.
Mahan urged the Navy to shift from wood construction to steel
Overproduction: More produced than domestic market could absorb.
Overseas markets needed to dispose of surplus
Overseas markets implied distant ports
Reaching distant ports required large merchant marine
Merchant marine needed protection of powerful navy
Ships needed coaling stations and repair yards
Coaling stations implied secure stops: colonies
Canal across Panama needed to link East coast with Pacific Ocean



Alaska (1867)

1. Secretary of State William H. Seward foresaw a large American empire.
2. U.S purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. [Sarah Palin can see Russia!]
3. Steward criticized: Seward's Folly, Seward's Ice-Box

See also:

Alaska Purchase (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/alaska-purchase

Seward's Folly (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar30.html

Alaska Purchase (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--The-United-States-Purchases-Alaska.html



Dreams of Empire

1. The Question of an American Empire (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/question-american-empire#sect-background

2. Albert Beveridge, The March of the Flag (Internet History Sourcebook)
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1898beveridge.asp

1. U.S. Foreign Relations
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/foreignrelations.html
Read the portions: "To Annex Hawaii" and "Turkey and Armenia"

2. Work through this great material from Mapping History website:
Toward Empire: Overseas Expansion
Introduction
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US30-00.html
The United States in the Pacific: Introduction
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US30-02.html
The United States in the Pacific: 1850-1911
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US30-03.html



Hawaii

Hawaii: Footholds in the Pacific (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/hawaii.html

Annexation of Hawaii (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/hawaii

Jan. 17, 1893 | Hawaiian Monarchy Overthrown by America-Backed Businessmen (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/17/jan-17-1893-hawaiian-monarchy-overthrown-by-america-backed-businessmen/

Cook discovers Hawaii (History.com This Day in History | 1/18/1778)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/cook-discovers-hawaii

1. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived.
2. Their offspring became powerful sugar planters in Hawaii.
3. By 1875, a treaty between the U.S. and Hawaii tightened the links between the two:
a. Allowed Hawaiian sugar to enter the U.S. free of customs duties;
b. Required Hawaiian monarchy to make no territorial or economic concessions to other countries.
4. In 1890 McKinley Tariff ended special status given to Hawaiian sugar.
5. By this time, Caucasian Americans owned three–quarters of the islands' wealth, though they represented a mere 2.1 percent of the population.
6. In 1891, a strongly nationalistic Queen Liliuokalani ascended to the throne and tried to restore greater power to Hawaiian natives.
7. In 1893, Americans overthrew Queen Liliuokalani, set up a provisional government, and asked to become an American state—so that their sugar would be classified as domestic and would avoid tariffs.

Queen Liliuokalani Deposed from Throne 1893 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0117.html#article

8. Annexation took place in 1898 during the Spanish–American War.

See also:

The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hawaii-petition/

Protesting the Annexation of Hawaii (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=1219
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=54



Nelly Bly (1889)

Nellie Bly (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan25.html

Nellie Bly obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0505.html

Nellie Bly (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Nellie-Bly-Starts-Her-Around-the-World-Journey.html

Nellie Bly (New York Times Learning Network)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/14/nov-14-1889-nellie-bly-begins-trip-around-the-world/

See also:

Globe Trotting (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan25.html


Spanish-American War (1898)

Spanish-American War (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/spanish-american-war

The World of 1898: Spanish-American War (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/index.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-world-of-1898-spanish.html

Hip Hughes History
Brain Wrinkling the Spanish American War - YouTube

William McKinley (Foreign Affairs issues)
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley/essays/biography/5







II. Then go to this Crucible of Empire website
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/

Note to myself [DEL]:
Complete Crucible of Empire video on YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YacDfVlDPY8&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Crucible of Empire: The Spanish American War
http://youtu.be/8g8NpQsmxj4

a. Go to Site Map to get Timeline entries
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_timeline.html

b. Read through each of these short sketches:

1868-1878: Ten Years' War in Cuba
1893: Turner's Thesis
1895: Cuban War for Independence
February, 1896: Reconcentration Policy
August 1896: Revolt in the Philippines
March 4, 1897: President McKinley Inaugurated
April 16, 1897: T. Roosevelt Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy
December, 1897: McKinley Asks Congress for Aid to Cuba
February 9, 1898: Dupuy de Lôme Letter Scandal
February 16 1898: Battleship U.S.S. Maine Explodes
March 17, 1898: Senator Proctor Exposes Spain's Brutality in Cuba
April 25, 1898: Congress Declares War

May 1, 1898: Commodore Dewey's Victory in the Philippines

George Dewey (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/dec26.html

May 15, 1898: Theodore Roosevelt resigns as Ass. Sec. of the Navy
June 22, 1898: U.S. troops land in Cuba

July 1, 1898: Victory in San Juan Heights

San Juan Hill (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul01.html

July 17, 1898: Spanish surrender Santiago
August 12, 1898: Spain signs Peace Protocol
December 10, 1898: Treaty of Paris signed
January 1899: Senate Debate over Ratification of the Treaty of Paris
February 6, 1899: Treaty of Paris ratified
March 4, 1901: McKinley inaugurated for 2nd term; Roosevelt becomes Vice-President
March 23, 1901: Aguinaldo captured by U.S. troops
September, 1901: President McKinley assassinated
July 4, 1902: Philippine War declared over

II .Yellow Journalism:
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html

a. Read the material on this introductory page. [Same URL for the four sections]
b. Read the biographies of William Randolph Hearst and Richard Harding Davis
c. Click on Headline Gallery and read the items there.
d. Click on Cartoon Gallery and view the items there.

Yellow Journalism (Historian of the State Department)
http://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/Yellow_journalism





Spanish–American War (1898-1902)

Motives for war:

[Underlying versus immediate] [How does this compare to today?]

U.S. had sizable economic interests in Cuba and a lobbying group of 100,000 Cubans who lived in the U.S.

1. Humanitarians. Believed Spain too cruel in fighting rebels.

2. Hawks (jingoes). Believed America should chastise Spain

3. "Yellow journalism." Circulation war: Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/headlines.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/15/weekinreview/the-world-remember-yellow-journalism.html

Yellow Journalism
http://www.smplanet.com/teaching/imperialism/#SAW1-1

Yellow Journalism:
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html

a. Read the material on this introductory page. [Same URL for the four sections]
b. Read the biographies of William Randolph Hearst and Richard Harding Davis
c. Click on Headline Gallery and read the items there.
d. Click on Cartoon Gallery and view the items there.

Yellow Journalism (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/yellow-journalism

Remember Yellow Journalism [written in 1998 on 100th anniversary of the war]
http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/15/weekinreview/the-world-remember-yellow-journalism.html

Bio: William Randolph Hearst
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/bio_hearst.html

bio: Richard Harding Davis
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/bio_davis.html

[note to me: use Yellow Journalism Headline Gallery and Cartoon Gallery in class next Tuesday
Headline Gallery
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/headlines.html
Cartoon Gallery
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/cartoons.html]

4. De Lome letter—Spanish Ambassador to U.S. criticized McKinley
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl9.html

5. Sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine.
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/remember.html

Blown up in Havana harbor. Probably an internal explosion.
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl10.html

Battleship Maine (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb15.html

Letter from the Captain of the USS Maine (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=215#2011

Sailors, Soldiers, and Marines in the Spanish-American War (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/spanish-american-war-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/spanish-american-war-2.html




Timeline

1. 1868-1878: Ten Years' War in Cuba
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl1.html
2. 1895: Cuban War for Independence
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl3.html
3. February, 1896: Reconcentration Policy
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl4.html
4. March 4, 1897: President McKinley Inaugurated
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl6.html
5. April 16, 1897: T. Roosevelt Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl7.html
6. December, 1897: McKinley Asks Congress for Aid to Cuba
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl8.html
7. February 9, 1898: Dupuy de Lôme Letter Scandal
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl9.html
8. February 16 1898: Battleship U.S.S. Maine Explodes
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl10.html
9. March 17, 1898: Senator Proctor Exposes Spain's Brutality in Cuba
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl11.html
10. April 25, 1898: Congress Declares War
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl12.html
11. May 1, 1898: Commodore Dewey's Victory in the Philippines
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl13.html
12. May 15, 1898: Theodore Roosevelt resigns as Assistant Secretary of the Navy
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl14.html
13. June 22, 1898: U.S. troops land in Cuba
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl15.html
14. July 1, 1898: Victory in San Juan Heights
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl16.html
15. January 1899: Senate Debate over Ratification of the Treaty of Paris
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl17.html
16. February 6, 1899: Treaty of Paris ratified
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl18.html
17. March 4, 1901: McKinley inaugurated for 2nd term; Roosevelt becomes Vice-President
September, 1901: President McKinley assassinated
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl20.html

[note to me: I used the Site Map to get Timeline]



The War Itself

Teller Amendment.
U.S. had no intention of taking possession of Cuba.

U.S. Declares War on Spain (1898) (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html

1. Short and glorious—"a splendid little war."

A Splendid Little War (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/splendid.html

Spanish-American war—essay by David Trask
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/trask.html

A Spanish view of the Spanish-American War
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/ojeda.html

Cuba in 1898
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/hernandez.html

2. Major battles:

Excellent map:
http://spanishamericanwar.info/Cubamap3.gif

a. Manila. George Dewey defeated Spanish fleet in Manila.
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/newspaper.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/peopleevents/pande1.html

George Dewey (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/dec26.html

b. San Juan Hill. Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders.
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl16.html

Theodore Roosevelt's Request for the Medal of Honor (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=1027
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/roosevelt-and-medal-of-honor-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/roosevelt-and-medal-of-honor-2.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/roosevelt-and-medal-of-honor-3.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/roosevelt-and-medal-of-honor-4.html

3. U.S. defeated Spain.

4. Beginning of a U.S. empire.

Treaty of Paris (1898)

1. Guam: to the U.S.

2. Puerto Rico: to the U.S.

Puerto Rico invaded (History.com This Day in History |7/25/1898)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/puerto-rico-invaded

3. Cuba: granted independence by Spain

4. Platt Amendment permited U.S. intervention in Cuba's internal affairs

Platt Amendment (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/yellow-journalism

5. Philippines: U.S. paid $20 million to Spain.

See also:

Spanish-American War Ends (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Aug/Spanish-American-War-Ends.html

Nurses in the Spanish-American War (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/fall/band-of-angels-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/fall/band-of-angels-2.html


Philippines:
The proposed treaty sparked an important debate:
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl17.html

Website of Jim Zwick on anti-imperialism documents
http://www.antiimperialist.com/about

1. Those in favor of acquiring Philippines: imperialist case. Advocated an empire.

Advocates of empire appealed to motives of
Patriotism
Manifest destiny
Commerce.

2. Those against acquiring Philippines: anti–imperialist case.

Many felt imperialism counter to U.S. principles.
Other felt U.S. could expand markets without ruling other countries.
Labor unions felt they would be undercut by importation of low–wage contract workers.

The Birth of an American Empire: The Matter of the Philippines
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/birth-american-empire-lesson-3-matter-philippines#sect-background

A Gift from the Gods (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/gift.html

Senate Debate over Ratification of the Treaty of Paris (January 1899)
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl17.html

"Aguinaldo's Case Against the United States.
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text9/filipino.pdf

Albert Beveridge, "March of the Flag," Address to a state Republican Party meeting
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text5/beveridge.pdf

Anti-Imperialism in the United States
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/filmmore/reference/interview/lafeber_antiimperialism.html

William McKinley documents on Imperialism
Read only the “Benevolent Assimilation” Proclamation and Home Market Club portions
http://www.schlagergroup.com/mdal_sample.php




Philippine–American war (1898–1902)

Philippine-American War (Historian of the State Department)
http://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/War

Images from the Philippine-United States War
http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/USA/twenty/filipino.html

1. Emiliano Aguinaldo's army had helped U.S. against the Spanish.

2. Aguinaldo expected to be president of an independent Philippines.

3. U.S. decided not to permit him to be President.

4. Aguinaldo led a guerrilla war against the occupying U.S. military.

5. War foreshadowed tactics and atrocities of Vietnam.

6. Aguinaldo finally captured. The revolt ended.
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl19.html

b. Maps

Southeast Asia
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map_of_southeast_asia.htm

Philippines
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/philippines-political-map.htm

Philippine-American War (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/war

American soldiers in the Philippines write home about the war
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/58/

"Civilizing" the Filipinos
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/filmmore/reference/interview/lafeber_civilizingfilipino.html

Revolt in the Philippines
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl5.html

U.S. subsequent role in the Philippines (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/19/world/bush-cites-philippines-as-model-in-rebuilding-iraq.html

A Gift from the Gods (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/gift.html

The Matter of the Philippines (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/birth-american-empire-lesson-3-matter-philippines#sect-background

Q&A: 'Honor in the Dust' Author on U.S.-Philippine History (TIME)
http://battleland.blogs.time.com/2012/02/16/the-u-s-and-the-philippines-a-century-ago-dashed-dreams-of-empire/

U.S. Counterinsurgency in Iraq: Lessons from the Philippine War
http://www.newamericancentury.org/defense-20031103.htm




Open Door in China

Open Door Notes (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/hay-and-china

As a trading nation, the U.S. opposed barriers to international commerce and demanded equal access to markets.
Secretary of State John Hay
  • 1st Open Door Note (1899): all nations guarantee free trade in China.
  • Boxer Rebellion (1900). U.S. and others rescue foreigners in Peking.
  • 2nd Open Door Note (1900): all nations protect China's territorial integrity

Imperialism and the Open Door (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/lesson-4-imperialism-and-open-door#sect-background

Maps: Spheres of Influence

a. Colonial Powers Carve up China
Get a good map

b. Spheres of Influence and Treaty Ports
Get a good map



Boxer Rebellion (1900)

Boxer Rebellion (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/lesson-4-imperialism-and-open-door#sect-background

Boxer Rebellion (Sound Smart video)
http://youtu.be/AcwbMmUWHGw

Video: Boxer Rebellion
China's Boxer Rebellion - YouTube

Boxer Rebellion, Spheres of Influence, Fists of Righteous Harmony (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/fists.html

On This Day: June 9, 1900 Boxer's Rebellion (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0609.html

U.S. Marines in the Boxer Rebellion (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1999/winter/boxer-rebellion-1.html

Foreign Troops in the Forbidden City 1900 (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=1128#2010

Future President Hoover caught in Boxer Rebellion (History.com This Day in History | 6/1/1900)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/future-president-hoover-caught-in-boxer-rebellion

The Eagle and the Dragon: Boxer Rebellion (Herbert Hoover Presidential Library exhibition)
http://hoover.archives.gov/exhibits/China/Political%20Evolution/1900/index.html

Protestant missions in China
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protestant_missions_in_China_1807%E2%80%931953

"There is hard sledding ahead for the missionaries."
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6647

Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity
http://www.bdcconline.net/en/

Chinese Revolution of 1911
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/chinese-rev


Assassination of President McKinley (1901)

McKinley assassination (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep06.html

September 6, 1901| President McKinley Assassinated (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/06/september-6-1901-president-mckinley-assassinated/

President McKinley Fatally Shot by Anarchist (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--President-McKinley-Fatally-Shot-By-Anarchist.html

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb03.html

Theodore Roosevelt (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/2
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/4
Foreign Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/5

Roosevelt Corollary (1904)

Roosevelt Corollary (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/roosevelt-and-monroe-doctrine

U.S. Intervention in Latin America [read "Teddy's Legacy" and "End of an era"]
http://www.smplanet.com/teaching/imperialism/#intervention

1. What was the Monroe Doctrine
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1801-1829/monroe

2. What was the Roosevelt Corollary [to the Monroe Doctrine]

Speak softly but carry a big stick
President Roosevelt warned Latin American nations to keep their affairs in order or face American intervention.

3. U.S. would assume the role of an international police power, a 911 number—whether requested or not.

Theodore Roosevelt (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Reread the "Roosevelt Corollary" paragraph
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/5

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (National Archives)
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=56



Japanese rivalry with U.S.

Japanese-American Relations, 1900-1922 (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/japanese-relations

Beginnings of a Japanese empire

First Sino–Japanese War (1894-1895)
http://sinojapanesewar.com/

Japan beat China: gained Taiwan

Russo-Japanese war (1905)

Japan beat Russia: gained Korea
TR helped negotiate treaty. Won Nobel Peace Prize.

Japan became dominant power in Asia
Japan wanted to include China in its sphere of influence.
U.S. resisted.

Portsmouth Treaty and the Russo-Japanese War (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/portsmouth-treaty

Portsmouth Treaty
http://portsmouthpeacetreaty.org/process/index.html

Admiral Yamamoto: A Reluctant Enemy (New York Times)
Note his participation in the Battle of Tsushima
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/07/opinion/a-reluctant-enemy.html?pagewanted=all
http://portsmouthpeacetreaty.org/process/war/war5.html

Note (a) the American observers to the Japanese Imperial Army and (b) the war correspondents--including Richard Harding Davis-- in this listing:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_attach%C3%A9s_and_observers_in_the_Russo-Japanese_War

In connection with Douglas MacArthur's participation, see the following:
Japanese landing at Inchon
http://portsmouthpeacetreaty.org/process/war/index.html

See also:

Japan-in-America: Russo-Japanese War
http://www.indiana.edu/~jia1915/war.html

MIT Visualizing Cultures
http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/asia_rising/ar_essay01.html



U.S.–Japanese relations in America were touchy.
Anti–Japanese bias in California (school board segregation; Japanese prohibited from land purchase) made relations chilly.

San Francisco school segregation of Asian students (1906)

Segregation of Japanese students in S.F 1906 (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%208_Progressivism/Japanese%20Segregation%20in%20San%20Francisco%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Segregation of Japanese students in S.F 1906
On This Day, 10 November 1906 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/1110.html

Gentlemen's Agreement reduces Japanese immigration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentlemen's_Agreement_of_1907

San Francisco earthquake (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0418.html#article

S.F. Earthquake (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr18.html

April 18, 1906 | Earthquake Destroys Much of San Francisco (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/18/april-18-1906-earthquake-destroys-much-of-san-francisco/



Great White Fleet (1907)

U.S. navy made world tour to impress the Japanese.
Japanese increased their military budget as a result.

The Great White Fleet (Mapping US History)
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US30-04.html

Great White Fleet [read "Background and Purpose]
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_White_Fleet





Panama Canal (1904-1914)

Spanish–American War demonstrated need for a Panama Canal
Shift naval forces quickly from Atlantic to Pacific.
Panama originally a province of Columbia.
Columbia rejected proposed canal route treaty with the U.S. in 1903
Wanted more money
Treaty infringed on their sovereignty.
Almost immediately, Panama declared its independence from Columbia
With the help and approval of TR).
U.S. signed a treaty with Panama (1903).
Canal completed in 1914.

Building the Panama Canal
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/panama-canal

Panama Canal Opens (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Panama-Canal-Opens-for-Business.html

Map of Panama
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/panama_relief.jpg

The Panama Canal (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/joining.html



U.S. Troops invade Mexico (1914)

“Avoid the Use of the Word Intervention”: Wilson and Lansing on the U.S. Invasion of Mexico (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4947

Woodrow Wilson (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson/essays/biography/2
Foreign Affairs [read down through Moral Diplomacy]
http://millercenter.org/president/biography/wilson-foreign-affairs

General Pershing [stop reading when you get to WWI: "Named head of AEF"]
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0913.html

The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1997/fall/mexican-punitive-expedition-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1997/winter/mexican-punitive-expedition-2.html