GREAT DEPRESSION MODULE

My most updated material for this World War Two module is on the following page of our wiki:
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+386+Content



My Website Spotlight blog posts that pertain to this module

Civilian Conservation Corps (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/ccc/
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-civilian-conservation.html

Riding the Rails (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/rails/
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-riding-rails.html

Seabiscuit (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/seabiscuit/
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-seabiscuit.html

Surviving the Dust Bowl (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/dustbowl/
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-surviving-dust-bowl.html

Route 66
http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthemove/exhibition/exhibition_10_1.html
http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2011/11/09/captured-the-85th-anniversary-of-u-s-route-66/5078/
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-route-66.html

America in the 1930s
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~1930s/front.html
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-america-in-1930s.html

Farming in the 1930s
http://livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/farminginthe1930s.html
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-farming-in-1930s.html




Websites which provide an overview of this module:

America in the 1930s (UVA). This is terrific.

1. Timeline—by year. Check out how incredible this is!!
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~1930s2/Time/1929/1929fr.html

2. Depression Slang
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA04/hess/Slang/kids.html#Joe
Deal particularly with these two parts:
a. Click on "Shoot Some Soda Jerk Slang" and work through that section.
b. Click on "Don't Be Dead Between the Ears, Check Out Some Jivin' Slang" and work through that section.

History Now The Great Depression (entire issue)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/03_2009/index.php

1930s today: interview with Jonathan Alter
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/interview/30s-today-jonathan-alter/



BUSINESS DID WELL IN THE 1920S

1. Presidents.

All three were Republicans: Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover.

President Warren G. Harding obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1102.html

President Calvin Coolidge obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0704.html

Calvin Coolidge Passes - 1933 | Today in History | 5 Jan
http://youtu.be/huAmXAQDBvk

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: President Coolidge Delivers First Presidential Address Broadcast on Radio
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/December/President-Coolidge-Delivers-First-State-of-the-Union-Broadcast-on-Radio.html

Alfred Smith obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1230.html

President Herbert Hoover obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0810.html

Herbert Hoover
Miller Center (University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/hoover
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-herbert-hoover.html

All three were pro–business ("The business of America is business").

2. Supreme Court.

Protected business and private property as it had in the Gilded Age.
Sheltered business from government regulation
Hindered organized labor from striking.

3. Congress. Responsive to corporate lobbying.

4. Welfare capitalism.

Corporations countered the appeal of unions by offering pensions, profit–sharing, picnics, and company-sponsored sports teams.

5. Consumerism

[We will see a replay of this consumerism when we look later at the 1950s.]

Consumer society.

Number of consumers increased by advertising (increased sophistication plus increased expenditures), credit, and higher wages

6. Automobile

Ford Model T

a. The car altered American life as much as the railroad had 75 years earlier.
b. Car registrations went from 8 to 23 million in the 1920s.
c. Car prices more affordable: mass production and competition
d. Automobile industry fostered growth of other industries

  • Items to make cars: steel, glass, rubber, textiles.
  • Roads: "good roads" movement.
  • Motels and diners
  • Oil drilling
  • Gas stations




STOCK MARKET CRASH (1929)

Black Tuesday, Stock Market Crash Ushers in Great Depression (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day---Black-Tuesday--Stock-Market-Crash-Ushers-in-Great-Depression.html

Photo Gallery
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/crash/photoGallery/

Crash of 1929 (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/crash/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-crash-of-1929.html

Crash of 1929
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/crash/

The Crash of 1929 & The Great Depression (PBS) 1of6
http://youtu.be/ccNilnpvbJg

(A) Business context

1. Increasing flow of consumer goods: autos, radios, and household appliances

2. Installment credit increased sales

3. Optimism in the air
Unlimited prosperity would never end
"Blue skies keep smiling on me"

Irving Kaufman - Blue Skies (1927)
http://youtu.be/V7cPcEa4e8I

4. But the consumer–goods revolution contained seeds of its own collapse.

  • Factories produced more than country could consume.
  • Workers had insufficient purchasing power.
  • Farmers were particularly suffering.

5. Mild recession in 1927

  • Business should have heeded warning
  • Should have raised wages
  • Should have lowered prices.
  • Government should have tightened installment buying.

(B) Investment issues

1. Stocks could be bought on margin:

$100 down could buy stock worth $1,000.

2. Stocks rose more on speculation than on underlying company value.

3. Corporations focused on profits, dividends, and expansion

4. Not enough money went to the workers—who were also consumers.

5. Stock market crash in October 1929 burst the bubble.

29 October 1929 Stock Prices Collapse (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1029.html#article

(C) After the Stock Market crash

1. Beginning of the depression.

2. Between 1929 and 1932, industrial production declined by almost 45%
Decline of production led to plant closings and unemployment.

3. Unemployment rose quickly:

  • 1930—5 million (15% unemployment)
  • 1931—9 million (25%)
  • 1932—12 million (40%)

4. Bank failures rose steadily.

5. Protectionism

Smoot–Hawley tariff raised U.S. import duties to an all–time high.

Protectionism: The Battle of Smoot-Hawley (Economist)
http://www.economist.com/node/12798595

Ben Stein's take on Smoot-Hawley (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/10/business/10every.html

Difficult for other countries to sell their products in U.S.
Difficult for them to earn dollars to buy American products.
Other countries raised their tariffs in retaliation.

6. Depression became world–wide.



Impact of the depression

Depression dominated American life for 10 years (1929–1939).
People postponed marriage; married couples postponed having children.
Malnutrition and deteriorating diets made people susceptible to disease.
Out–of–work fathers felt ashamed of their diminished roles.



President Herbert Hoover
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover

Google Images: Herbert Hoover
http://bit.ly/wihkgC

Google Images: Herbert Hoover political cartoons
http://bit.ly/xgiX2W

Time Capsule
http://dmarie.com/timecap/
6 February 1929



1928 Presidential Election

Hoover won the 1928 election against Al Smith

Dirty Campaigning in the Roaring Twenties: Herbert Hoover vs. Al Smith - Mental Floss
http://www.mentalfloss.com/blogs/archives/19391

Should a Catholic Be President?: A Contemporary View of the 1928 Election
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5074

Al Smith’s Address of Acceptance of the Democratic Presidential Nomination (1928)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/al-smiths-address-of-acceptance-of-the-democratic-presidential-nomination/text

Hoover's administration
Not too successful.
Remedies relied upon self–help, not government assistance.
Traditional: tried to balance the budget
Vetoed several relief measures.

Hooverville (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoovervilles

See also:

The Ordeal of Herbert Hoover (2 part series)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/summer/hoover-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/summer/hoover-2.html



Bonus Army March (1932)

Google Image Search
http://bit.ly/wInmQR

Bonus Army (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonus_Army
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dWvCCxOUsM8&feature=channel_page

Bonus Expeditionary Force

World War I veterans (15,000) camped in Washington

Demanded payment immediately of promised (1945) cash bonuses

President Hoover ordered the army to evict the veterans

Army, commanded by Douglas MacArthur, operated harshly
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/peopleevents/pandeAMEX89.html

"Cheered in 1917, Jeered in 1932"

Bonus Army march
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm203.html

Bonus Army (Library of Congress)
Scroll down 2/3 of the way
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul28.html

1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles
(Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul30.html




The Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)

Franklin D. Roosevelt (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt

Google Images: Franklin Roosevelt
http://bit.ly/wgOWay

Election of 1932. FDR won easily over Hoover.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1932

Paralyzed nation strengthened by physically–handicapped President
Google Images: Franklin Roosevelt and polio
http://bit.ly/Axrtg8


Eleanor Roosevelt. Details on her life.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_Roosevelt
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/r/eleanor-roosevelt.html

Google Images: Eleanor Roosevelt
http://bit.ly/zfqYio

Great advocate of social justice; admired by blacks.

Marching on Washington: Marion Anderson
http://www.pbs.org/pov/brotheroutsider/march/pastmarches03_anderson.html

Eleanor Roosevelt letter resigning from the Daughters of the American Revolution
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/eleanor.html


Four–month transition a problem.
Partially solved by 20th Amendment (1933)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20th_Amendment


New Deal

The Great Depression (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul08.html

The First 100 Days of the New Deal
(Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun16.html

First 100 Days

Congress was in session for one hundred days before it adjourned.
During this period, FDR went fifteen for fifteen in major legislation.
Subsequent presidents are measured by this impossible standard.

Saving the Banks
Context: prior bank failures
FDR issued a decree closing all banks in America.
This approach called a "banking holiday"

Emergency Banking Relief Act.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergency_Banking_Act
Provided for government supervision and assistance to banks
Strong ones would be reopened with federal support.
Weak ones would be closed
Deposit insurance ($5,000) would be available

Fireside chats
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fireside_chats
FDR made great use of radio to reach public.



Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_Adjustment_Administration

Farming in the 1930s
http://livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/farminginthe1930s.html
Click through each of the seven modules

Three million people left farms in the 1930s.

Agricultural Adjustment Act was designed to help farm problems:

Overproduction
Low prices paid for crops
Low income of farmers
Difficulty of paying mortgages
Rise in farm foreclosures

The act provided for the following:

Government paid subsidies to farmers who

a) Restricted crop acreage: wheat, cotton, corn, rice, or tobacco

b)Reduced number of livestock, particularly pigs.


Great Depression: How Young Americans Survived the Hard Times
http://www.erroluys.com/HowAmericansHelpedEachOtherDuringtheGreatDepression.htm



Dust Bowl

Dust Bowl (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May/Great-Plains-Hit-With-Devastating-Dust-Storm.html

Drought and poor farming techniques led to dust storms.
Many from Oklahoma (Okies) and Arkansas (Arkies) fled to California.

Surviving The Dust Bowl - YouTube

Use "Dust Bowl 1930" as search term in Google Images.
http://bit.ly/wzsbYY

Digression: Iran hostage rescue force ran into a vast dust cloud:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Eagle_Claw
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haboob

American Experience: Dust Bowl
Surviving the Dust Bowl
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/dustbowl/
Then go to Photo Gallery.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/dustbowl/

See also:

The Dust Bowl of the 1930s
http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/water_02.html

Surviving the Dust Bowl
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/interview/dustbowl-worster/

Dust Bowl Legacy
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/dustbowl/legacy/

Interactive Dust Bowl
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/dustbowl/interactive/

Dust Bowl Biographies
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/dustbowl/bios/

Dust Bowl Photo Gallery
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/dustbowl/photos/

Dust Bowl: Woodie Guthrie film clip
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/dustbowl/watch-videos/#2250832371

Black Sunday dust storm
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Sunday_(storm)

Woody Guthrie Dust Bowl ballads
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCDE6EDFA72C89CA0



Grapes of Wrath

Grapes of Wrath
Plot summary
Clip about the movie

Grapes of Wrath "Two for a Penny" Movie Clip
http://youtu.be/CPI7QbqPj9E

Discussing 'The Grapes of Wrath' - CornellCast
http://www.cornell.edu/video/discussing-the-grapes-of-wrath

The Grapes of Wrath - Setting | Steinbeck in the Schools | San Jose State University
http://sits.sjsu.edu/curriculum-resources/the-grapes-of-wrath/setting/

Grapes of Wrath
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm143.html



U.S. Route 66

America on the Move | The People's Highway: Route 66
http://americanhistory.si.edu/onthemove/exhibition/exhibition_10_1.html

Photos: The 85th Anniversary of U.S. Route 66
http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2011/11/09/captured-the-85th-anniversary-of-u-s-route-66/5078/

First drive-in movie theater opens — History.com This Day in History — 6/6/1933
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-drive-in-movie-theater-opens

A postman wrote a Route 66 travel guide for black people (Green Book)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-38370631

8 Things You May Not Know About Route 66
http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-route-66



Seabiscuit

Google Images
http://bit.ly/xY3Bz2

Seabiscuit (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/seabiscuit/

Seabiscuit
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/seabiscuit-rivalry/

Seabiscuit
https://youtu.be/HAXTMOvLElA

Seabiscuit part 1
http://youtu.be/MdXme8s-SCE



Riding the Rails

Google Images
http://bit.ly/wJj6OJ

Riding the Rails (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/rails/

Great Depression -- Letters from Boxcar Boys and Girls of the 1930s
http://www.erroluys.com/HoboLettersfromRidingtheRails.htm

Teaching about the Great Depression
http://www.erroluys.com/RidingtheRails.htm

Riding the Rails during the Great Depression
http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/water_07.html

Riding the Rails
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/further-reading/rails-further-reading/

Riding the Rails: Hobo Kids during Great Depression 1/5
http://youtu.be/pIblZmwvGww




Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civilian_Conservation_Corps

Job corps for white men, aged 18–25.
Supervised by U.S. army.
Workers paid $30 per month, of which $25 had to be sent to family.
Pumped $2 billion into economy (equivalent to $200 billion today).
Work planned by National Park Service:
Tree planting (North Dakota to Texas), flood control, road construction.

American Experience: Civilian Conservation Corps
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/ccc/
Go to Photo Gallery. Click through the photos there.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/ccc/

See also:

Civilian Conservation Corps (National Archives, Prologue magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2006/fall/ccc.html

Civilian Conservation Corps
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/ccc/

Civilian Conservation Corps
http://youtu.be/Jsg8hQK4EK8



National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Industrial_Recovery_Act

Industrial cornerstone for New Deal.
Corporations were to hold down prices.
Labor was to accept wages offered.
Shows faith in planning.
Section 7 (a) of the NIRA encouraged labor unionizing.

Google Image Search under NRA Blue Eagle
http://bit.ly/yfPAeP

See also:

National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/national-industrial-recovery-act

Our Documents - National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=66

Blue Eagle
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Eagle


Opposition to the New Deal
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critics_of_the_New_Deal

a) Conservative critics. Republicans did not like government control of the economy.

b) Liberal critics:

1) Father Charles Coughlin.

Catholic priest from Detroit
Weekly radio sermons (30 million audience)
Criticized the New Deal
Proposed a National Union for Social Justice to counter the New Deal.
Anti-Semite: depression caused by international Jewish bankers.
Expressed support for Hitler's approach to running Germany.

Charles E. Coughlin (Holocaust Museum bio)
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005516
Reverend Charles E. Coughlin
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/holocaust/peopleevents/pandeAMEX96.html

American Rhetoric Speech Bank: Roosevelt or Ruin
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/charlescoughlinrooseveltorruin.htm

Charles Coughlin the radio priest
https://youtu.be/pyGs5qQXtQY

2) Dr. Francis E. Townsend

http://www.ssa.gov/history/towns5.html
http://www.ssa.gov/history/tpcart.html

Proposed an Old Age Revolving Pensions plan
Every person over age 60 would get a $200 per month pension.
His plan would cost 50% of national income to help 7% of population.

3) Huey Long.

Former Governor of and Democratic Senator from Louisiana.
Proposed a Share Our Wealth Society
Tax rich people heavily
Furnish each family an annual income of $2,500
Assassinated in 1935

Huey Long
https://youtu.be/z40jiA0ZOo8

Huey Long: "Every Man a King" Address (1934)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/huey-longs-every-man-a-king-address

Every Man a King
American Rhetoric Speech Bank
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/hueyplongking.htm

Huey Long: “Share Our Wealth” Address (1935)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/huey-longs-share-our-wealth-address

Share Our Wealth
American Rhetoric Speech Bank
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/hueyplongshare.htm

FDR and the Kingfish
http://www.americanheritage.com/content/fdr-and-kingfish?page=show




Social Security Act

FICA deduction today.
Designed to prevent more radical alternatives (Townsend and Long)
Workers required to pay into it
Answer to critics of "relief"
Worker's payment matched by employer

See also:

Congress and the New Deal: Social Security
https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/page_19.html

Social Security (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%2010_New%20Deal%20and%20World%20War%20II/Social%20Security%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Social Security Act (1935)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/social-security-act

Social Security Act (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Congress-Passes-Social-Security-Act.html

Frances Perkins
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frances_Perkins



Second phase of New Deal:

Emphasized underconsumption.
Massive public works programs for the jobless
Home relief (the dole) versus work relief.


Works Progress Administration (WPA)

WPA (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr08.html

Webquest: Posters from the WPA
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wpaposters/highlights.html
Employed 3 million men as manual laborers: roads, hospitals, bridges.

Employed educated persons: Federal Art, Writers', Theater Projects
Federal Music Project (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Music_Project
Federal Theatre Project (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Theatre_Project
Federal Writers' Project (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Writers%27_Project

Criticized by conservatives as make-work

Library of Congress: American Memory Timeline
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/depwwii/depress/wparoad.html
Section entitled "Great Depression and World War Two
Go to the following section: "Americans React to the Great Depression"
Go to article entitled "WPA Road"




Presidential Election of 1936
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1936_presidential_election
FDR won a second term easily

Results in U.S. House of Representatives
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_of_Representatives_elections,_1936
Results in U.S. Senate
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Senate_elections,_1936


Supreme Court: FDR attempt at "Court Packing"

Court Packing Bill (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court_packing
Court Packing (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Feb/On-This-Day--FDR-Suggests--Court-Packing--Plan.html

Court declared AAA and NIRA unconstitutional on 5-4 votes.
FDR wanted to appoint pro–New Deal justices
Proposed six new ones (one for every member over age 70).
Congress (both parties) opposed the plan
Felt he was overreaching and looking like a dictator.

Issue became moot: a swing justice changed his voting pattern.
The so-called "switch in time that saved nine"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_switch_in_time_that_saved_nine
Owen Roberts (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Roberts

Soon thereafter, several older justices retired.

FDR and the Supreme Court special exhibit
http://www.presidentialtimeline.org/#/exhibit/32/02

History Now FDR's Court-Packing Plan
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/04_2008/historian4.php


Recession of 1937–1939
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roosevelt_Recession

Seeing a temporary economic improvement, FDR stopped deficit spending; the economy took a dive.
Shows FDR conservatism.

People talk today about the need for more stimulus and the merits/demerits of cost cutting.


Presidential Election of 1940
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1940

War had started in Europe on 1 September 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland.
FDR won historic third term.


New Deal coalition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Deal_coalition

Democratic Party consisted of the following:

Farmers
Urban immigrants
Organized labor

White southerners

Northern blacks
Ever since the Civil War, blacks had usually voted Republican.
Big shift occurred during the New Deal: blacks began voting for Democrats

This New Deal coalition held together until the 1960s, when the civil rights movement created internal tension in the Democratic Party.


New Deal assessed

Liberal, evolutionary reform program
New Deal was not a revolutionary break with the past.
New Deal ideas (TVA & Social Security) had been around for decades.
New Dealers had been active in reform movements since Progressive era.

New Deal failed in its fundamental purpose: to put people back to work and end the depression.
Depression only ended due to World War II.

But New Deal gave Americans back their psychological will to overcome.

In the past, federal government had served as an economic regulator.
During New Deal, it became an economic guarantor and stimulator as well.

Congressional Republicans are currently trying to limit the size of government, much of which began with the New Deal.