In class today: new material

Gettysburg Address

President Lincoln Delivers Gettysburg Address (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Video: Gettysburg Address (start at 6:49)

Battle of Atlanta (July 1864)

Union victory.

Ensured Lincoln's reelection in 1864..

Video: Total War: William T. Sherman and Atlanta

Harper's Week | Elections 1860-1912

1864 Election (Harper's Week)

Sherman's March through Georgia (March to the sea) (November-December 1864)

Union victory
Sherman operated in deep South
Across Georgia: Atlanta to Savannah
Destroyed everything in a path 50 miles wide, 200 miles long

Video: Sherman's march to the sea (from Atlanta to Savannah)


Sherman's March to the Sea (Eyewitness to History)

Marching through Georgia
Music: Tennessee Ernie Ford

Appomattox (9 April 1865)

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant

Video: Surrender at Appomattox

When Johnny comes marching home

Lincoln assassination: 14 April 1865
Video: Assassination of Lincoln: A Memestory (Mr. Betts)

Legacy of the Civil War

Total deaths 620,000===(360,000 North; 260,000 South)

The vacant chair: Kathy Mattea

Four million slaves in the South were free. What to do about them?

Reconstruction (1865-1877)

Place of ex-slaves in southern society

Four million slaves in the South were free. What to do about them?

The civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr., has been called the Second Reconstruction.

Consider also the powerful feelings that arise even today over the issue of affirmative action.

Video: Reconstruction

Reconstruction Plans:

How to bring the Southern states back into America

Post World War II comparison: former Nazi leaders

Prodigal son comparison [Luke 15:11-32 NIV]

Presidential Reconstruction Plan

a. Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan

Lincoln was assassinated (April 1865) before he got to do much.

His Vice President was Andrew Johnson.
Andrew Johnson took over
From Tennessee
Former slave owner himself

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Andrew Johnson

b. Johnson's Reconstruction Plan

Northerners hoped he would remove Old South leaders from power
Through most of 1865, Johnson alone controlled Reconstruction policy
Congress recessed shortly before he became President (April)
Congress did not meet again until December 1865
Congress angered at lenient presidential Reconstruction policy

Video: Presidential Reconstruction of the South

Congress attempted (unsuccessfully) to impeach Johnson

Video:Andrew Johnson's "Under Pressure" (Queen Parody) (Mr. Betts Class)

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson (Harper's Week)

Congressional reconstruction plan

Congress believed it had constitutional role in Reconstruction
Congress controlled by Republican party
Congressional Republicans wanted the Southern states that came back into the Union to be Republican

Radical Republicans (former abolitionists) wanted to go farther than most
They wanted to transform southern society (sort of like the issue today of "nation building")

They also wanted to keep out Southern states until this transformation.

Election of 1876/Compromise of 1877

On This Day: Rutherford B. Hayes Named Winner Over Samuel Tilden in 1876 Presidential Election

Video: Compromise of 1877

This so-called Compromise of 1877 effectively ended Reconstruction

In class today: new material

Major Battles of the Civil War

Map of the Civil War, 1861-1862

Map of the Civil War, 1863-1865

Bull Run (July 1861)

South won.
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname.

Stonewall Jackson profile

Video: Battle of Bull Run (Johnny Horton)

Shiloh (April 1862)

Union barely won.
Large casualties revealed the horrible nature of modern warfare.

Video: Battle of Shiloh

Antietam (September 1862)

Battle a draw.
First time South invaded North.
Antietam and Gettysburg the only major battles outside the South.

Video: Confederates invade western Maryland

Video: George McClellan's failure to act at Antietam
Tie to McClellan song

Marching Along (97th regimental string band)
[Use with General McClellan}

Fredericksburg (December 1862)

Union lost big.

Made 14 charges against well–entrenched Confederates.

Video: Battle of Fredericksburg

Chancellorsville (May 1863)

Confederates won battle.

But lost their great general, Stonewall Jackson, who was killed by friendly fire.

Video: Battle of Chancellorsville

Stonewall Jackson Shot by His Own Men at Chancellorsville

Vicksburg (July 1863)

Union victory.
Union gained complete control of Mississippi River.
Western part of Confederacy cut off.

Video: Siege of Vicksburg

Gettysburg (July 1863)

Second time South invaded North.
Union victory.
"High tide" of Confederacy.
Pickett's charge
Turning point of the war for the South.

Video: Gettysburg: General Lee & General Meade comparison

Video: Gettysburg: Pickett's charge

Video: Canister shot
Use with Pickett's charge

Ist day: Union took the high ground; Jeb Stuart's cavalry arrived too late.

2nd day: Rebels tried to take Big and Little Round Tops but Union held.

3rd day: Pickett's hopeless charge against the middle of Union lines.

Battle of Gettysburg Begins (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Gettysburg Address

President Lincoln Delivers Gettysburg Address (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Video: Gettysburg Address

Battle of Atlanta (July 1864)

Union victory.

Ensured Lincoln's 1864

Harper's Week | Elections 1860-1912

1864 Election (Harper's Week)

Video: 1864 Lincoln's re-election and General Sherman

Video: Total War: William T. Sherman and Atlanta

Sherman's March through Georgia (March to the sea) (November-December 1864)

Union victory
Sherman operated in deep South
Across Georgia: Atlanta to Savannah
Destroyed everything in a path 50 miles wide, 200 miles long

Video: Sherman's march to the sea


Sherman's March to the Sea (Eyewitness to History)

Marching through Georgia
Music: Tennessee Ernie Ford

Appomattox (9 April 1865)

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant

Video: Surrender at Appomattox

When Johnny comes marching home

Lincoln assassination: 14 April 1865

Video: Assassination of Lincoln: A Memestory (Mr. Betts)

In class today: new material

Southern Leaders continued:

3. Stonewall Jackson

4. J.E.B. Stuart

Video: Jeb Stuart

Civil War: comparisons of the opposing sides

a. Northern advantages:

1. Larger population

2. Greater industrial production

3. More railroads and canals

b. Southern advantages:

1. Greater emotion

Great songs, for instance:


Johnny Reb

The Southern Soldier

Bonnie Blue Flag:

2. Excellent military commanders

3. Better cavalry at the beginning of the war

Union military strategy

Anaconda plan:

a. Advance along the Mississippi
b. Pressure on Richmond and Virginia
c. Union naval blockade

Confederate military strategy

Offensive defensive:

a. Attack when possible
b. Mostly play defense
c. Use interior lines of transportation
d. Concentrate its forces at crucial points of Union attack

Union diplomatic strategy:

Lincoln tried hard to prevent Britain and France from aiding the Confederacy

Video: Threat of foreign intervention in Civil War

Trent Affair (November 1861)

A Union ship stopped the British ship Trent at sea
The Union navy took off two Confederate diplomats: James Mason and John Slidell.

Britain protested.

Eventually, the North released the two men.

Video: Trent Affair

Trent Affair (Historian of the State Department)

Confederate diplomatic strategy

"King Cotton" diplomacy

Hoped that Britain and France would aid South to get southern cotton
It did not happen
Both countries developed other supply sources

Military Life

a. Soldiers had to deal with mass violence, live on little food and sleep, and endure all kinds of weather.

b. Rifle and the minie ball. Straight–ahead charges were stupid in light of the more effective killing range of the rifle and the power of the minie ball.

Civil War camp life

Song: Just before the battle, mother

Women in the Civil War

Video: Women in the Civil War (Sound Smart)

Video: Women in the Civil War

Women soldiers in the Civil War (National Archives magazine)

Black Union soldiers

Racism in the Union army was strong.
Black soldiers in the Union army (120,000) fought for acceptance from their white comrades

Video: African-Americans in the Union Army

Religion in the Civil War

A. Was God on the side of the North?
Religion in the North during the Civil War (National Humanities Center)

1. the special place of America in world history
2. a Northern victory as a prelude to the millennium
3. the issue of slavery.

B. Was God mad at the South because of slavery?
Religion in the South during the Civil War (National Humanities Center)

South believed it was more religious and God-fearing than the North.
Role of Stonewall Jackson as a pious example

Emancipation of the slaves

a. Lincoln's approach

Hoped to achieve a peace treaty compromise with the South
Tried to balance conflicting parts of his Republican party coalition
Radical Republicans wanted immediate emancipation
Others (especially border slave states) did not
Set his priority to preserve the Union, not end slavery
But needed to keep Britain and France from aiding the Confederacy

The Civil War and emancipation (Africans in America)

b. Jefferson Davis's approach

Preserving Confederate independence was the key
Would free the slaves if it preserved Confederate independence
An effort was made to emancipate: too little, too late

The Enslaved and the Civil War (NHC lesson plan)

In class today: new material

John Brown at Harper's Ferry (1859)

Video:John Brown"s Raid (Mr. Betts)

John Brown had slain proslavery settlers in Bleeding Kansas
Using both whites & blacks, John Brown attacked federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry
Brown hoped to arm slaves and trigger a slave rebellion
Brown failed: captured, tried, and executed
Northern abolitionists saw him as a Jesus figure
South bothered by this adulation; thought all northerners endorsed him

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): John Brown's Raid (1859)

The raid on Harpers Ferry

Election of 1860

Video: Election of Lincoln and Southern Secession

Lincoln got no southern electoral votes but still won the election.,_1860

Lincoln's analysis
"You in the south think slavery is right and ought to be expanded. We think it is wrong and ought to be restricted."

Secession of the South from the United States

Map of secession:

Secession of South Carolina (December 20, 1860)

After South Carolina, came two waves of secession:

a) Deep South: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas

b) Upper South: Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia

Several slave states remained committed to the North:
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware

Confederate States of America

Confederacy was a separate country for these four years.

It had problems similar to those of the Articles of Confederation government we studied earlier.

Jefferson Davis chosen as President of the Confederate States of America.

Video: Jefferson Davis mini bio

Capital of the Confederacy

Initially in Montgomery, Alabama.

Then moved for remainder of war to Richmond, Virginia.

Fort Sumter (South Carolina) (April 1861)

Lincoln decided to resupply the federal fort in Charleston harbor.

Confederates fired on the fort and thereby began the Civil War.

Video: Fort Sumter (Sound Smart)

Crisis at Fort Sumter

War aims

North: Preserve the Union. Not free the slaves

South: Preserve slavery==the southern way of life

Names used to describe each side:

North=Federals=Yankees=Union=Billy Yank=Blue

South=Confederates=Rebels=Secessionists=Johnny Reb=Gray

Key Leader/Generals for the North:

1. Abraham Lincoln

Video: Abraham Lincoln bio

2. Ulysses Grant

3.William Tecumseh Sherman

4. George Meade

5. George McClellan

Key Leaders/Generals for the South: Confederate States of America (CSA)

1. Jefferson Davis

Video: Jefferson Davis mini bio

2. Robert E. Lee

Video: Robert E. Lee - Mini Bio

Video: God Bless Robert E. Lee (Johnny Cash)

3. Stonewall Jackson

Video: Stonewall Jackson (Johnny Horton)

4. J.E.B. Stuart

Video: Jeb Stuart

In class today: new material

Missouri Compromise (1820)

Video: Missouri Compromise Tom Richey ("Gin and Juice" Parody)

Video: Missouri Compromise

Map of Missouri Compromise provisions

(1) Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine (formerly part of Massachusetts) as free

(2) except for Missouri, slavery was to be excluded from the Louisiana Purchase lands north of latitude 36°30?.

Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

Video: Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 (Sound Smart)

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): Kansas-Nebraska Bill (1854)

Provisions of Kansas-Nebraska Act

Kansas-Nebraska Act undid the Missouri Compromise which set the 36°30' line of latitude to be the separation of free and slave states

Senator Stephen Douglas
Introduced a bill to establish the Kansas and Nebraska territories.
Wanted Chicago to be the terminus of a transcontinental railroad;
No railroad would build through unorganized land.
He needed southern votes
The bill used the popular sovereignty formula
Effectively implied repeal of the Missouri Compromise.

Shifting Political Landscape
Three great maps: Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act

Bleeding Kansas

Popular sovereignty feature of the Kansas–Nebraska Act
Civil war erupted in Kansas between
Those who wanted to bring slavery to Kansas
Those who wanted to prevent slavery there.

Bleeding Kansas

Video: Bleeding Kansas (Sound Smart)

Video: John Brown and Bleeding Kansas (2:13)

Anthony Burns (1854)

Anthony Burns captured (1854)
[use this]
He hired himself out

Republican party (1854)

New party—not connected to the earlier Jeffersonian Republican party.
Formed in reaction to the Kansas–Nebraska Act.
A purely sectional third party based in the North.
Dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories.

Video: Origin of the Republican Party

Nativism: American Party=Know Nothings

Video: Know Nothings and nativism

Know-Nothing Party

Sumner–Brooks incident (1856)

Sen. Charles Sumner (Mass.) an abolitionist
His antislavery remarks an insult to Rep. Preston Brooks (S.C.)
Brooks beat Sumner with a cane—in Senate chamber

South seemed to condone violence to have its way
South sent Brooks more canes
Northerners shocked at this southern assault on free speech

Video: Caning of Charles Sumner

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): The Caning of Sumner (May 1856)

The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner (US Senate)

Dred Scott decision (1857)

Supreme Court attempted to decide issue of slavery in the territories
Five of the nine Supreme Court justices were southerners

Dred Scott case (Sound Smart)

The case ruled as follows:
  • Blacks could not be U.S. citizens
  • Congress could not prohibit slavery in a territory
  • This implied a repeal of the Missouri Compromise
  • South delighted; North outraged

Compare to Supreme Court involvement in 2000 presidential election

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): Dred Scott (1857)

Supreme Court Rules Against Dred Scott (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Panic of 1857 (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858

Video: Lincoln-Douglas debates (Sound Smart)

Lincoln-Douglass Debates
Who: Abraham Lincoln, challenger, Republican
Free Soil, slavery should not be permitted in territories
Slavery a moral evil

Who: Stephen Douglass, incumbent US Senator from Illinois, Democrat
Popular sovereignty should decide
Did not declare slavery a moral evil

What: 7 debates within Illinois
When: 1858 US Senatorial election
Where: Illinois
Why: How to deal with the possible spread of slavery
How: First speaker one hour; rebuttal hour and a half; first speaker half hour
Result: Douglass was re-elected to the US Senate

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Begin (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

In class today: new material

THE 1850S

Crucial interplay of several factors

Acquisition of new territories turned slavery into a major constitutional standoff between 1848-1861.

Slavery's existence and territorial expansion

Should new states be slave or free?

"If slavery was the sore spot in the body politic, territorial disputes were salt rubbed into the wound."

Frames of reference of North and South toward each other:

Northerners: feared an evil Southern Slave Power wanting to take over U.S.

Southerners: felt that northerners were all abolitionists--wanting to oppress the South

A North–South division was deepening

Slavery in the territories colored every other national issue

The first sectional battle of the decade involved California

California's request to enter Union as free state caused political conflict

Compromise of 1850 became a temporary armistice in the slavery issue

Compromise of 1850

Video: Compromise of 1850 (Sound Smart)

Video: Compromise of 1850 ("Shake It Off" Parody) - @MrBettsClass

Major provisions of the Compromise of 1850:

a. California entered the Union as a free state

California becomes the 31st state in record time ( This Day in History | 9/9/1850)

Slavery and the Admission of California into the Union

b. Popular sovereignty allowed in Utah & New Mexico Territories

Let the people in each state decide on whether they would permit slavery.

Popular Sovereignty (US

c. Trading and auction of slaves abolished in Washington, D.C

Slavery itself was still permitted

d. Fugitive Slave Act

Stronger than past ones
Citizens must help capture and return runaway slaves
Suspected runaways denied trial by jury

Video: Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (Sound Smart)

Video: Fugitive Slave Act and Uncle Tom's Cabin

The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act (Africans in America)

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Video: Who is Harriet Beecher Stowe?

Famous as the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852).

Her book a reaction to Fugitive Slave Act

Harriet Beecher Stowe's portrait of slave suffering made southerners mad.

Harriet Beecher Stowe (God in America)

Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)

Uncle Tom's Cabin's_Cabin

Slave narratives and Uncle Tom's Cabin

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture website

Children's Hymns

Southern defense of slavery: George Fitzhugh

Southern slaves better off than northern workers

Northern workers were "wage" slaves

Worked harder than Southern slaves

Were laid off if they got sick or too old

A Pro-Slavery Argument, 1857 (NHC lesson plan)

In class today: new material


Video: Slavery: All Night Forever (Ken Burns Civil War video)

North American slave trade

Slavery and sugar shifted focus of world economy from Asia and the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
Being black did not initially mean being a slave.
By the 1670s, mainland colonists imported large numbers of Africans
Only a few Quakers had any moral problem with using slaves.
Slave trade made many merchants wealthy.

Check out this map on where slaves came from and to where they were sold:

Middle Passage

The middle passage: voyage from Africa to America.

Amazing Grace

John Newton was a slave trader who converted to Christianity and wrote the hymn entitled "Amazing Grace."

Put in a Video on song and lyrics

Slavery in the South

By 1720, Africans were 20% of overall population.

Relationship between the large number of slaves in South Carolina and the survival of African culture.

Gospel According to Gullah (Los Angeles Times)

New Testament Translated into the Gullah language.

Slavery in the north

North had fewer slaves (personal servants; dock workers)
In some cities, slaves 10 % of population.
Low northern slave population accentuated differences with South

Description of the South

Old South or Antebellum South (before the Civil War) (1800-1860)

North grew and changed

South just grew
  • Remained a rural, agrarian society
  • Thin population distribution
  • Few cities
  • Small number of factories

Rise of the Cotton South

Several factors increased the growth of slave–supplied cotton plantations:

1. Cotton gin [before gin:10 hours for 1 pound; after: 1000 pounds/day]

Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin (Africans in America)

Eli Whitney

Video: Cotton Gin

2. Short–staple cotton

3. English and northern U.S. textile factories need for cotton

Southern society

Remember: Some 75% of white southern families owned NO slaves at all.

But the slave society influenced all aspects of southern culture.

Planters: Most planters owned fewer than 10 slaves. Big planters set the tone for southern society.

Planter paternalism

Men treated both women and slaves in a domineering manner
Racism in the master–slave relationship
Sexism in the male–female relationship

Women raised to be wife, mother, and subordinate companion to men
Wives helped oversee the plantation household

Wives had to tolerate husbands' sexual infidelities with female slaves

Controversy Over Mascots at Ole Miss (New York Times)

Black codes

Slaveholders saw free blacks as potential instigators of rebellion
Southern states wanted free blacks to move away to the North

Black codes regulated free blacks who remained in the South

Black codes required
  • Black skilled laborers to be licensed
  • Banned blacks form specific jobs (such as river boat captains)
  • Forbade blacks to assemble in public
  • Prohibited teaching blacks to read and write

Slave life

Food generally adequate, but plain and monotonous
Slaves owned few clothes and lived in small, one–room cabins

Slaves worth more healthy than sick
Women as child bearers were particularly valuable to owner

Slaves treated as property:
Pledged for a debt
Gambled away in a card game

White crimes against slaves went unpunished
Slaves could not testify against whites

Slave quarters on St. Georges Island

Slave work routine

1. House slaves

2. Field slaves

Most field slaves worked in the gang system
White overseer: compensated on how much he produced
Black slave drivers: foremen to keep down dissension

3. Some slaves worked the task system

In urban settings and on some rice plantations
Assigned daily tasks to complete at their own pace
Remainder of the time was their own

4. Slave hire system

Some skilled slaves were able to hire themselves out
They could keep most of their wages
Often used proceeds to purchase their freedom

The Varieties of Slave Labor (National Humanities Center)

Slave religion

Most white southerners were religious
Most believed they should help slaves become Christians
[I wonder how prevalent Islam was among slaves.]

But they did so on their own terms
Whites used religion as a form of control:
God commanded slaves to serve and obey their masters

Slaves felt there must be a real Bible somewhere
One not written by their white owners

Many whites unwilling to accept slaves as brothers and sisters in Christ.

Christianity helped slaves cope with bondage
Slaves used religion as a refuge
Inner sense of personal worth and dignity
Slaves hoped for deliverance from bondage
Surely in heaven but hopefully in this lifetime

Slave religion

Slave family life

Slaves tried to be monogamous
Slave marriages had no legal basis
Slaves still had marriage ceremonies
Vows were changed to "till death or distance do us part"

Family was central to slave life
Worst fear was family separation by sale
At any moment, the master could
a. Sell a slave husband or wife
b. Die in debt, forcing a division of his property
c. Give a slave child away as a wedding present

Husbands tried to provide for their wife and children
Could not protect the females from sexual exploitation by the master

The Family Life of the Enslaved (NHC lesson plan)

How Slavery Affected African American Families (National Humanities Center)

Slave attitudes toward whites

Most slaves suspicious of white motives
Slaves hated their oppression
Whites stereotyped slaves as docile Sambos

To keep from being whipped
Slaves learned to act subservient
Slaves spoke respectfully to their masters

Slave resistance

Few violent rebellions
Whites had firepower, slave patrols, militia, and federal troops

Slave Resistance (National Humanities Center)

Slaves tried to preserve mental independence and self–respect

Coping mechanisms
  • Trickster tales
  • Nonviolent forms of resistance
  • Stealing food
  • Temporarily running away
  • Slacking off at work

The Trickster in African American Literature (National Humanities Center)

Nat Turner slave rebellion in Virginia (1831)

Turner an educated black lay preacher
Key slave rebellion—a violent one
Caused an intense white reaction in the south

Video: Nat Turner bio (3:35)

Nat Turner

Virginia legislature slavery debate (1832)

White advocates of gradual abolition of slavery forced a debate
Arguing that slavery was injurious to Virginia's modernization
Motion favoring abolition lost
Last public debate on slavery in the antebellum South

In class today: new material


The Religious Roots of Abolition (NHC lesson plan)

Abolition - The African-American Mosaic Exhibition | Exhibitions (Library of Congress)

We should all ask ourselves the question: Would I have been an abolitionist?

Compare to feelings about immigration these days.

Antislavery was not a unified movement at first

Its adherents differed over several issues:
  • a. How hard to push the issue
  • b. The rights of women
  • c. The place of free blacks in American society

The issue of slavery eventually became so compelling that it consumed all the other reforms we have discussed.

Gradual emancipation:

1. American Colonization Society (founded in 1816)

American Colonization Society

2. Advocated gradual emancipation of former slaves

3. Suggested resettlement in Africa

4. Liberia was set up for this purpose

Map of Africa showing location of Liberia:

Its capital, Monrovia, named for President James Monroe

Immediate emancipation

Immediatism surpassed gradualism as dominant anti-slavery approach
  • a. Immediate—right now
  • b. Complete—no other labor contract
  • c. Uncompensated—owners not paid a thing

Contrast between:
"old" abolitionism: American Colonization Society
"new" abolitionism: Garrison and American Anti–Slavery society

American Anti-Slavery Society (Ohio History online)

William Lloyd Garrison

William Lloyd Garrison

Videos: William Lloyd Garrison

Garrison was a white abolitionist

He argued for immediate emancipation

His newspaper, The Liberator, began publication in 1831

Women abolitionists
  • Women more prominent in abolition than other movements
  • Women could not vote
  • Women expected to "keep their place" in the background

Angelina and Sarah Grimke

White daughters of a South Carolina slave owner
Moved to the North
Became involved in anti-slavery and women's rights
Attacked the concept of subordination of women to me

Free blacks

Almost 250,000 in south by 1860

Highly discriminated against by whites
Legal status somewhere between slave and free
Whites feared free blacks would lead slave uprisings
States enacted "Black codes" to control movement of free blacks

Black abolitionists

Much of abolitionism was run by free blacks

By 1830, blacks had organized some 50 abolitionist societies

Notable free blacks:

1. Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglas
Noted escaped slave
Famous for his Autobiography

Video: Frederick Douglass bio

Frederick Douglass

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): John Brown's Raid (1859)

2. Harriet Tubman: "the Moses of her people"

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman | National Women's History Museum

Harriet Tubman

Video: Harriet Tubman bio

3. Sojourner Truth: "Ain't I a woman"

Sojourner Truth

Sojourner Truth | National Women's History Museum

Sojourner Truth

Kerry Washington reads Sojourner Truth (thanks to Myia for this link)

Video: Sojourner Truth bio

Underground Railroad:


Underground Railroad (Africans in America)

Video: Underground Railroad (Mr. Betts)

Levi Coffin House - Underground Railroad's "Grand Central Station"

The Underground Railroad (NHC lesson plan)

Opposition to abolitionists:

Murder of Elijah Lovejoy

Many white Americans violently opposed abolitionism
They did not want to compete with freed blacks
Hostile whites threatened abolitionist editors and speakers
An example of this opposition was the murder of Elijah Lovejoy
He was a white abolitionist newspaper editor
Murdered by a mob in Alton, Illinois (1837).

Northerners outraged:
Not because they supported abolition
But because they wanted to preserve free speech

In the South, mobs blocked distribution of antislavery pamphlets

Gag rule

Many Northern church women signed anti-slavery petitions

Sent these petitions to Congress

From 1836 to 1844, Congress refused even to open or read the petitions
Southerners were happy

Northerners felt their free speech was violated.

Mood music:

Charles Wesley hymns:

Christ the Lord is Risen Today

And Can It Be That I Should Gain

Love Divine, All Loves Excelling

Oh, For a Thousand Tongues to Sing

In class today: new materal>>>Second Great Awakening

Second Great Awakening

Began around 1800
Democratized American religion—as voting was being democratized
Rejected doctrine of predestination

Video: Second Great Awakening (2:30)
Professor Christine Leigh-Heyrman

A. On the frontier: West and South

Focus on individual salvation; no impulse to reform society

Baptist lay preachers and Methodist circuit riders

1. Camp meetings

Attended by thousands

Most notable one: Cane Ridge (1801): 10,000 participants

Religion and the New Republic (Library of Congress)

Camp Meetings

Video: Cane Ridge, Kentucky (700 Club) (1:32)

Video: Cane Ridge: Leaders and legends (10:440

2. Circuit riders

Methodist Circuit Riders (Google Images)

Nothing but Crows and Methodist Preachers

Video: Circuit Riders (3:07)

A modern-day circuit rider

B. In the north

Congregationalists and Presbyterians
Small to medium-sized towns
Northern revivals led to an impulse to reform society

Charles G. Finney

Key name in Second Great Awakening

Charles Finney (God in America, PBS)

Charles Finney (Christianity Today)

New York lawyer
Converted (1821)
Finney became a full–time evangelist
"I have a retainer from Jesus to plead his case"
Focused initially on the small towns in western New York.

Arminianism==Free will
A more democratic version of Christianity than predestination.
Any person who wanted to be saved could be saved.

Finney's evangelistic approach: New Measures

New Measures: controversial for its time

a. Protracted meetings. Revivals continued nightly for a week or more.

b. Anxious bench

"Almost saved" would sit up front
Made an object of special prayer.

c. Women allowed to speak aloud and pray for male relatives

Converts organized into voluntary associations

a. 1810—Foreign Missions Board

Students at Williams College: Haystack Prayer Meeting

Note to me: show both of these videos

Video: Haystack prayer meeting (2:56)

Video: Haystack prayer meeting (3:52)

b. 1816—American Bible Society—distributed Bibles in the West

2016 was the 200th anniversary of the founding of the American Bible Society.

c. 1825—American Tract Society—to seamen and urban poor

Cult of Domesticity

The Cult of Domesticity (NHC lesson plan)

Women, Temperance, and Domesticity (NHC lesson plan)

In class today: new material

Wilmot Proviso (1846)

a. Many northerners opposed the war with Mexico
b. They saw in a war an evil design by slave owners to increase possible slave territory
c. Democrat Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a bill that would outlaw slavery in any territory won from Mexico.
d. His proposal did not pass Congress.
e. But the Wilmot Proviso became a rallying cry for abolitionists & those against spread of slavery.
f. Most white northerners were racists, not abolitionists.
g. Whites wanted to protect themselves—not southern blacks—from the Slave power.
h. They wanted to keep this new land only for free white people

Free–Soil Party

Formed in 1848 to prevent slavery in the territories won from Mexico.

Free Soilers did not necessarily want to abolish slavery.

They simply wanted to prevent its spread into the Western territories.

Party slogan was Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men.

Free Soil party was made up of
1. Northern Democrats committed to the Wilmot proviso
2. Antislavery ("Conscience" as opposed to "Cotton") Whigs


Mexican-American War Video (129:00)

US-Mexican War: A Concise History

Mexican War Regular Map:

1. Mexico felt annexation of Texas cause for war

American sent forces into disputed region to provoke a Mexican attack
Mexicans did attack
America declared war

Some in U.S. opposed war:

Many northerners opposed the war with Mexico
They saw in a war an evil design by slave owners to increase possible slave territory

Two of those who opposed the war: Henry Clay; Abraham Lincoln

2. American interest in California--then a part of Mexico:

Bartered manufactured goods for cowhides
Boston companies set up resident agents in California
Agents' reports back East sparked interest in California

a. Richard Henry Dana's Two Year Before the Mast: a best seller (1840)

Richard Henry Dana

His ship was named the Pilgrim

b. Sutter's Fort. Sacramento. At end of Overland Trail.

3. Bear Flag Revolt (June 14, 1846)

When war with Mexico seemed likely, U.S. claimed California

Key names: William B. Ide; John Fremont; Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo

Separate country for less than a month

Bear Flag Republic

U.S. Forces in Mexico

Army Life: U.S. Army

Army Life: Mexican Army

a) General Zachary Taylor: invaded Mexico from north

Battle of Buena Vista

b) General Winfield Scott: invaded Mexico from seacoast

Battle of Cerro Gordo
Battle of Chapultepec

Halls of Montezuma
Marines raised U.S. flag over National Palace in Mexico City

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

U.S. paid Mexico $15 million
Present states: California, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona
U.S. territory enlarged by 20%

Territorial Acquisitions Map

Legacy of the Mexican-American War

$100 million in military costs
13,000 Americans died
Training ground for military officers later famous in Civil War
Gold discovered in California (1848): a few months before treaty signed
Continuing controversy over extension of slavery in land won from Mexico

Mood Music:

Marty Robbins: Ballad of the Alamo

Alamo: Deguello

Mexican Army drums

Green Leaves of Summer

In class today: new material



Video: American settlers move into Texas

Americans moved into Spanish, then Mexican Tejas
Panic of 1819 pushed some Americans westward
Mexico gained its independence from Spain (1821)

Spain gave land grants to Moses Austin
Mexico continued the same deal with his son, Stephen Austin (1824)

Americans not happy with three aspects of life in Mexico:

1. Catholicism: Settlers either converted superficially or ignored requirement

2. Slavery

In 1829, Mexico freed its slaves
Colonists freed their slaves but signed them to lifelong indentured servant contract

3. Self government

Texas part of Mexican Coahuila (Texas outnumbered 3 to 1)
Americans demanded a Mexican state of their own

Dictator Santa Anna abolished separate Mexican states (1834)

Texas revolution (1836)

By 1835, Texas population: 30,000 Americans; 3,000 Mexicans
"War party" declared Texas independent in1836
Guests who rebelled against their hosts

Video: Texans revolt against Mexico

Video: Texas and Mexican War (Mr. Betts)

Main battles of the Texas Revolution:


a. Alamo:

187 all died (including some famous persons: Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, William Travis)

Video: Alamo (2:25)

Video: Alamo and Goliad (1:06)

Video: Johnny Cash: Remember the Alamo (2:52)

The Alamo Came Under Attack (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Key people who died at the Alamo

1. Davy Crockett

Ballad of Davy Crockett (Fess Parker) (2:14)

2. Jim Bowie

3. William Travis

b. Goliad: 350 captured Americans were massacred

c. San Jacinto: (today's Houston, Texas

Video: San Jacinto (0:53)

Sam Houston attacked Mexicans during a siesta
630 Mexicans killed
Santa Anna captured

Texas: the Lone Star Republic (1836–1845)

Texas a separate country during the period 1836-1845

Sam Houston the first president.

Video: Sam Houston (1:44)

Population increased from 30,000 to 142,000

Annexation delayed until 1845: volatility of the slavery issue

Territorial Acquisitions Map

In class today: new material

Oregon Trail (1843)

"Oregon fever" began after the Panic of 1837
Fremont mapped the trail (1842)
1843—major increase in migration over the Trail

Map and pictures of landmarks

Independence, Missouri to Oregon/California
Trip was 2,000 miles; took 6 months

Video: Oregon Fever (10:44)

Oregon Trail:

a. Introduction
b. Route West
c. "Jumping off"
d. Power
e. Hardships
f. Buffalo
Buffalo chip lady
g. Native Americans
Read only the section entitled "Relationships"

Manifest destiny

Term first used by editor John L. O'Sullivan (1845)

Manifest Destiny
Famous painting analysis (John Gast)

American expansion westward and southward was

a. Inevitable
b. Just
c. Divinely ordained

In accordance with this view:

a. Native Americans: savages, best eliminated

b. Hispanics: inferior peoples, best controlled or conquered

Oregon Country

Northwest boundary dispute

U. S. negotiated for Oregon Country (1846).
U.S. went to brink of war with Britain over Oregon boundary.
President James K. Polk's campaign slogan: Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
U.S. could not fight Mexico and Britain at same time

Boundary dispute map:

Territorial Acquisitions Map: Oregon Country

California Gold Rush (1849)

Video: Gold Rush (8:47)

1. Discovery of gold (1848) (2 months before Mexican-American war treaty)

California Gold Rush (1849)
Overland trail plus passage around South America
100,000 arrived in one year

2. California statehood (1850)

Gold discovered at Sutter's Mill

President Polk sparks the California Gold Rush

Mood music:

Video: Hail to the Chief medley
Video: 50 Patriotic Songs medley

In class today: new material

War Hawk's desire to take British Canada

A "mere matter of marching" [Harvard Law School student story]
Americans were unsuccessful.

Let's watch the following video clip (6:38):

British Blockade.

British navy blockaded American ports
American trade declined nearly 90 percent.
Loss of customs revenue threatened to bankrupt federal government.

Key battles of the War of 1812:

1. Washington, D.C.

British captured the city.

Video: British burn Washington, 1814

British Troops Burn White House and Capitol (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

2. Baltimore

British bombarded; Americans held out.

Francis Scott Key Writes “The Star-Spangled Banner” (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

"Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?"

3. Horseshoe Bend (in today's Alabama)

Andrew Jackson (future American president) defeated the Creek Indians.

He forced them to sign away most of their land.

Andrew Jackson's Victory in Creek War (Today in History, Library of Congress)

4. New Orleans (8 Jan 1815)

Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British.

British: 300 killed, 1300 wounded, 500 captured
Americans: 30 killed, 40 wounded

Video: Battle of New Orleans (6:58)

Battle of New Orleans video: Johnny Horton (2:38)

Battle of New Orleans

Hartford Convention (15 Dec 1814—5 Jan 1815)

Federalist delegates from New England
Unhappy with the war's stoppage of New England trade
Seemed treasonous during wartime.
Led to demise of Federalist Party
News arrived in Washington at same time as that of New Orleans

Treaty of Ghent (24 December 1814)

Did not specifically address any of the issues for which America went to war.
Merely restored the prewar status quo.

Consequences of War of 1812

1. Affirmed the freedom won in the Revolutionary war
2. Strengthened America's resolve to avoid European politics
3. Dealt a serious blow to Indian resistance to American expansion
4. Increased nationalism—renewed feeling of confidence and assertiveness
5. Stimulated economy (capitalists began to invest in home manufactures)
6. Sealed the fate of the Federalists

Election of 1824.

Video: Corrupt Bargain of 1824

John Quincy Adams versus Andrew Jackson
Jackson won plurality (not majority) of electoral votes and popular vote
House of Representatives chose the president
It chose Adams.
Adams accused of having made a "corrupt bargain" with Henry Clay.
Jackson immediately began to run for election of 1828.

John Quincy Adams. Compared to Bush family. George, Sr., apparently refers to George, Jr. as Quincy. Father and son presidents.

Election of 1828.

1829 inauguration of Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson won the election over John Quincy Adams.
Adams can write; Jackson can fight.
Jackson's party: Democrats
After the demise of Federalists and the one-party Era of Good Feelings
Democrats became the first well–organized national political party.

ANDREW JACKSON. Details of his life and career.

Andrew Jackson biography

The Hermitage (Jackson's plantation in Nashville)

Andrew Jackson's Heritage

The Expansion of Democracy during the Jacksonian Era (NHC lesson plan)

Spoils system. To the victors belong the spoils. Rotation in office.

"Kitchen Cabinet." Jackson relied on political friends, not Cabinet, for advice.

Native American Resistance and Removal

Most whites wanted land
Most whites were racist: had little respect for Indians' rights and culture
Indians always seemed to be in the way of whites' land hunger
Some whites: physically separate Indians and white settlers
Other whites: "civilize" Indians and assimilate them into American culture

Removal Act of 1830

Video: Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act

The government forced the Five Civilized Tribes to move west of the Mississippi River.


Five Civilized tribes: Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, Seminole

Indian Removal


Cherokees. If civilizing Indians was the American goal, no tribe met that test better than the Cherokees


Video: Sequoya and the Cherokees

Bilingual tribal newspaper
Formal government complete with legislature and court system
Written constitution modeled after that of the U.S.
Ownership of black slaves
Almost total conversion to Christianity.

Cherokee Trail of Tears

One part, a sad one, of the overall Indian removal.

Some 4,000 of the 13,000 Cherokees died along the way.

Billy Ray Cyrus - Trail Of Tears

Google image search: Trail of Tears motorcycle ride

Trail of Tears yearly memorial ride home page

Indian Removal

In class today: new material

Louisiana Purchase (1803)

Great Map:

The obstacle to the "empire of liberty" posed by the French was the first to be overcome.

Louisiana Purchase (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase (NHC lesson plan)

U.S. paid $15 million to France.
Doubled the size of America.

Jefferson compromised his strict constructionist views

Lewis and Clark Expedition (May 1804-Sept 1806)

Here is a terrific map of the total route:

4,000 Miles.
Explored extent of Louisiana Purchase: rivers that drain into Mississippi.
Began in St. Louis; up the Missouri River to its source
Across the Rocky Mountains (Continental Divide)
Rivers running east go to Mississippi, those to West to Pacific Ocean
Winter camp in Astoria, Oregon

Video: The Corps of Discovery

Meriwether Lewis (The West)

Sacagawea (The West)

War with Barbary pirates (1801-1815)

Barbary States: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripoli (today's Libya).

Video: Thomas Jefferson, Barbary Coast, Louisiana Purchase

Pirates attacked U.S. ships in the Mediterranean
U.S. got tired of paying protection money
U.S. built up its naval and marine capacity
Pirates defeated by 1815; no more protection money

Marine Corps Hymn: "To the shores of Tripoli":
From the Halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli;
We fight our country's battles in the air, on land and sea;
First to fight for right and freedom and to keep our honor clean;
We are proud to claim the title of United States Marine.

Presidency of James Madison

Video: James Madison bio

Video: James Madison as President

Preserving American trading rights and neutral status in a world at war


World War b/n England and France started up again in 1803.
U.S. was the chief supplier of food to both sides for a while.
By 1805, France and Britain began blockading each other's ports.
As a trading partner of both countries, the U.S. paid a high price.

Chesapeake Affair (1807)

British warship Leonard; American warship Chesapeake
British attacked, boarded, (and killed 3 Americans) in American waters.
Exposed American military weakness
Intensified American objections to impressment.
Sparked American demands to go to war
Jefferson—with Congress not in session—able to resist war demands.


Jefferson did not want a military fight with British
He was generally pacifistic; war cost big bucks for a small nation
He fought with "peaceable economic coercion."
Embargo Act of 1807 prohibited all exports from the U.S.
Policy was well–intentioned, but unpopular and unsuccessful.
Mocked as "OGRABME"
American economy collapsed
British not hurt at all
Only bright spot: U. S. manufactures—textile mills—received a boost
Domestic market became exclusively American.

WAR OF 1812

Video: War of 1812 (Crash Course)

Remember: Britain and France locked in a world war

Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812.

"1812 Overture"

Written to commemorate Russian defense of Moscow against Napoleon.

Here is the finale of the 1812 Overture!

American grievances with British:

1. Impressment

Britain's navy suffered a severe shortage of sailors.
Britain stopped American ships
Forcible draft of American sailors.

2. Desire to defend American independence and honor

The vote for war

Congress deeply divided over whether to go to war with Britain.
Federalists in New England did not want to go to war.
Many Federalist considered conflict to be "Mr. Madison's War."
Raising troops in New England was difficult.
People in west wanted to go to war.

War Hawks

Their fathers had fought in the Revolution.
They themselves wanted to prove themselves in war

Key names:

a. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina

b. Henry Clay of Kentucky

In class today: new material

The Presidency of John Adams:

Election of 1796 won by John Adams, but a quirk in Electoral College made Jefferson (opposite political grouping) vice president.

Video: 1796 Election of John Adams

XYZ affair (1798)

Video: XYZ Affair/Alien and Sedition Acts

Jay's treaty (between Britain and America) made France jealous
France began capturing American ships carrying British goods
President Adams sent three commissioners to ask France to stop
French demanded a bribe of $250,000 prior to any discussions
Americans took this as evidence of French disrespect
Anti–French sentiment—even cries for war—swept the country
Remember: partisanship between Federalists and Democrat-Republicans
Adams held off demand for war

Video: The XYZ Affair ("Careless Whisper" parody) (Mr. Betts)

Quasi–War with France:

An undeclared naval war began in the Caribbean between warships of the U.S. navy and French privateers seeking to capture American merchant vessels.

French–American Convention (1800):

Ended the Quasi–War
Freed America from French Treaty of Alliance
Peaceful settlement cost Adams re–election
Laid foundation for Louisiana Purchase (1803)

Alien and Sedition Acts (1798):

Video: XYZ Affair/Alien and Sedition Acts

Federalist attempt to muzzle Jeffersonian-Republicans
Political criticism defined as treasonous
No concept of loyal opposition
First major crisis over civil liberties

Sedition Act of 1798 Becomes Law (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Kentucky and Virginia resolutions:

Video: Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

How could Democrat-Republicans combat Alien and Sedition Acts
National-level institutions (President, Congress, Court) controlled by Federalists
They therefore turned to only other forum available for protest: state legislatures
We the People or We the States
Claimed Constitution a compact among states (and not individual citizens)
How far could states go in opposing the national government?
How could a conflict between the two be resolved?
This line of reasoning background to Nullification controversy and Civil War

Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

From 1801–1824, all three American presidents were Republicans and Virginians:

Thomas Jefferson (8 yrs.)
James Madison (8 yrs.)
James Monroe (8 yrs).

Video: Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson the person

Virtual Field Trip to Monticello: Thomas Jefferson's day

Jefferson and music

Musical side of Thomas Jefferson
Video: Colonial Violins
Video: Jefferson's favorite music
Video: Music and the Revolution

Jefferson's Empire of liberty

Jefferson shared with other Americans the belief that the U.S. was destined to expand its "empire of liberty."
Most past empires had been run by dictators.

Four obstacles to America's empire of liberty would have to be confronted:

a. French in New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory
b. Spanish in Florida and Mexico
c. British in Canada
d. Native Americans throughout the continent.

Presidential Election of 1800

Hamilton Musical: The Election of 1800

Video: 1800 Election of Thomas Jefferson
Video: Election of 1800

Republicans Jefferson and Burr tied for the election
Jefferson selected by Federalist–controlled House of Representatives
Peaceful transition of power between political parties
New Congress controlled by Democrat-Republicans

Jefferson won election of 1800 (Today in History, Library of Congress)

The Revolution of 1800 (NHC lesson plan)

Mood Music:

Video: George Washington: playlist of music for the first President

In class today: new material

First political party system:

Both groupings gradually divided into two opposing camps, each accusing the other of having sold out the principles of the Revolution.

I. Federalists

Key person: Alexander Hamilton

Hamilton project

Hamilton bio

They began calling themselves Federalists to link themselves with the federal Constitution.

(Washington and Adams were both Federalists.)

Federalist Party (Ohio History Central)

Supporters: Those in favor of the Constitution during ratification
Concentrated in New England

Federalists believed in the following:

a. For a strong national government
b. For Central economic planning
c. For a National Bank
d. For Internal improvements (roads, harbors)
e. Wanted a commercially-oriented America: for manufacturing
f. In favor of protective tariffs (a tax on imported goods—to protect American industry)
g. Who should hold power?: social elite—best interests of the people
h. Wanted more order, less liberty: protection of property rights
i. For a broad construction==loose interpretation of the Constitution
j. Foreign policy: wanted closer ties with Great Britain

II. Democrat-Republicans

Key person: Thomas Jefferson.
James Madison his principal associate.

Democrat-Republican Party (Ohio History Central)

They began calling themselves Republicans, contending that they were the true heirs of the Revolution and that Hamilton was plotting to subvert republican principles.


Anti-federalists during ratification process
Southern planters
Small farmers south of New England
Non–English ethnic groups—Irish, Scots, and Germans

Their policies were generally the opposite of the Federalists on almost every domestic and foreign policy issue

a. Wanted a limited national government; favored States rights
b. Against a National Bank
c. Against Internal improvements (roads, harbors)
d. Against manufacturing—it would cause slums in cities
e. Against protective tariffs
f. Wanted an America based more on farming than on factories
g. Who should hold power?: the people
h. Wanted more liberty, less order
i. For a limited construction==tight interpretation of the Constitution
j. Foreign policy: wanted closer ties with France

Hamilton's economic program

a. Report on Public Credit (1790)

Approved by Congress
Consolidate debts at national level==power to national level
Debt holders will want national government to
Fund foreign and domestic debt at full face value
Speculators who paid 10% of face value would get rich
Assume remaining debts owed by states
Those who had paid off already were mad
Deal made to move U.S. capitol to Washington, D.C.

Video: 22 "Hamilton" lyrics explained

Hamilton Musical: Cabinet Battle #1

b. Defense of the Constitutionality of the Bank (1790)

Congress approved it
Hamilton liked the British system: Bank of England
Said U.S. need a central bank to facilitate money movements
Hamilton: a bank is permitted: loose construction view
Can make laws necessary for commerce, taxation, war, etc.
Implied powers argument
Jefferson: a bank not permitted: strict constitutional view

c. Report on Manufactures (Dec 1791)

Congress did not approve it
Reverse reliance on Europe for manufactured goods
Encourage infant U.S. industries (shoes and textiles) with govt subsidies
Tariffs to protect infant industries
Promote immigration of technicians and laborer.

Whiskey rebellion (1794)

Video: Whiskey Rebellion

Whiskey Rebellion

Hamilton's economic program required tax on whiskey to fund debt
Farmers turned grain into whiskey (easier to ship)
Farmers (mostly Democrat-Republicans) in western Pa. refused to pay
Challenge to national authority had to be confronted
Army sent to disperse the "rebellion" which "faded away like a vapor"
Washington believed rebellion politically motivated by Jeffersonians
Jeffersonians believed military response unnecessary

Whiskey Rebellion Illustrated - @MrBettsClass

French Revolution

Meanwhile, developments in foreign affairs magnified the domestic disagreements.
Disagreements over the American response to the French revolution led to partisan disagreements.
U.S. initially welcomed the French revolution but was bothered by its excesses.
(Remember: U.S. was first independent country without a king.)

Hamilton Musical: Cabinet Battle #2

French Revolution (Historian of the State Department)

Genet Affair (1793)

Video: Genet Affair

Genet Affair (1793)

Proclamation of Neutrality (April 1793)

Video: Proclamation of Neutrality

Proclamation of Neutrality issued by George Washington.
U.S. a small nation; caught in world war between Britain and France
U.S. wanted to remain neutral; continue trade with everyone
U.S. would act "friendly and impartial" toward the warring powers

Democratic–Republican societies:

A republic==consensus==no factions or disagreements
Composed chiefly of artisans and craftsmen
Members: Jefferson followers; sympathetic to French Revolution
Some 40 such societies organized (1793-1800)
Saw themselves as heirs of the Sons of Liberty
First grassroots political organizations
Opposed to Washington's administration; first formal political dissent

Washington's Farewell Address

"The great rule of our conduct in regard to foreign nations is to have with them as little political connection as possible."

"It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world."

Hamilton Musical: One Last Time (Washington's Farewell Address)

The Presidency of George Washington

Video: George Washington: election, precedents, cabinet

Hail Columbia! with Lyrics; First American National Anthem
Hail, Columbia,_Columbia

Columbia: origin of name

Note: country of Colombia is spelled differently

Adidas apologizes for spelling error!

"Royals" Parody by George Washington - @MrBettsClass

George Washington

Video: George Washington bio

Mount Vernon virtual tour

Mount Vernon aerial view

Washington elected unanimously

Vice President John Adams

Washington acted cautiously
Aware of precedents for the future
Only used his veto power when he felt a bill was unconstitutional

First Congress (April 1789):

Members were Federalists—generally

Congress succeeded at its four immediate tasks:

a. Revenue Act of 1789.

Congress adopted a 5 percent tariff on certain imports.
Raised sufficient revenue to support the new government.

b. Bill of Rights

Responding to state ratification conventions' call for a bill of rights.
James Madison took the lead.
First ten amendments to the Constitution passed.

c. Beginnings of a "Cabinet"

Video: The First Cabinet

1. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson

2. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton

Video: Alexander Hamilton

‘Hamilton’ Is Known For Its Music, but What Did Alexander Hamilton Listen To?

3. Secretary of War Henry Knox

4. Attorney General Edmund Randolph

d. Judiciary Act of 1789.

Organized the federal judiciary.
Supreme Court (6 members)
District courts (13)
Circuit courts of appeal (3)