Take-home Mid-term Exam

Paper due by 5 pm on Friday, 2 March.

Paper should be 5-7 pages, double-spaced. If you need more pages, go for it. But make sure that your prose is tight, not bla-bla-bla.

Grading will be by means of the material on this wiki page:
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Grading+Rubric

What I am looking for is how much you have learned this semester: how well you concentrated in class and how much of the reading you completed and absorbed.

What then are your takeaways from each of the sections in BOLD CAPS below?






GILDED AGE

Video: The Emergence of Modern America: The Gilded Age (33:26)
http://youtu.be/yCZtNE3g_sQ

Video: Gilded Age Politics (Crash Course US History 26) (13:50)
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=Spgdy3HkcSs&feature=youtu.be

Video: Gilded Age Review (Mr. Betts)
https://youtu.be/ISNYstqOET8



CITIES

Political Machines/Political Bosses

Urban growth strained city government.

Video: Political Machines (5:08)
https://youtu.be/QJiJUlIKO-Y

Political machines and their bosses filled in the cracks for immigrants
Solving problems of everyday life:
Son arrested
Husband needed a job
Family needed coal for furnace
Traded such favors for votes

Political bosses made money on:
Public contracts (trash collection, for example)
Utility or streetcar franchises
Distribution of city jobs

Video: Boss Tweed (Justin Bieber's "Baby" Parody) (Mr. Betts)
http://youtu.be/BKRkEKi0Qw0

Video: Thomas Nast's crusade against Boss Tweed: exploring the power of the editorial cartoon
https://m.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtu.be&v=Xz6I-Nk3Tas

George Washington Plunkitt of Tammany Hall (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text7/plunkitt.pdf

George Washington Plunkett
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Plunkitt

Social workers: Settlement Houses

Video: Jane Addams
https://youtu.be/Tw4GZeABlNI

Key name: Jane Addams

Hull House in Chicago (1889).

Located in center–city, immigrant neighborhoods.
Staffers: young; middle–class; college–educated; white women.

Emphasis placed on:.
English language classes
Courses in cooking, sewing, and household skills
Infant welfare clinics
Bathhouses

Jane Addams | National Women's History Museum
http://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biographies/jane-addams

Video: Jane Addams & The Hull House
http://youtu.be/11QWd-1thPQ

Vaudeville

Learn about Vaudeville
http://www.virtualvaudeville.com/hypermediaNotes/WhatIsVaudevilleF.html

Vaudeville: A History
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma02/easton/vaudeville/vaudevillemain.html

Video: What is Vaudeville?
https://youtu.be/6BHyx8DzlA0

Video: Before there was television, there was vaudeville
https://youtu.be/Rm4uiALzTcs



IMMIGRATION

Roman Catholics and Immigration in Nineteenth-Century America (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/nromcath.htm

Antwerp to Ellis Island: Journey of a Lifetime
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/28/arts/design/antwerp-to-ellis-island-journey-of-a-lifetime.html

Video: Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25
https://youtu.be/RRhjqqe750A

Push factors:of immigration

Wars
Unemployment
Food shortages
Anti–Semitism (Poland and Russia).
German Jews versus Polish/Russian Jews

Pull factors:

America as a land of opportunity
Patterns of settlement and adaptation.
Role of chain migration.
Role of return migration.

The "new" immigration.

Change in origin:
Scotch-Irish and German earlier
Irish during famine time (1848)

The new immigrants (1880-1920)
Catholic and Jewish
http://www.ushistory.org/us/38c.asp

U.S. has always had immigration: Asylum of liberty.

Source of immigration changed.
Prior immigrants: northern and western Europe and the British Isles.
New immigrants: eastern and southern Europe.

Characteristics of newer immigrants (1890-1900)

Generally poor
Often illiterate
Jewish or Catholic
Catholicism became largest American religion
Had very different customs.
Most settled in eastern cities
Few settled in South.

Immigrant cultures

Role of ethnic enclaves: preserve culture

Ethnic associations
Newspapers
Schools (tied to religion: parochial and rabbinical)
Churches
Restaurants
Stores

How to strike a balance between assimilation and ethnic identity
Melting pot or salad bowl as appropriate metaphor?

Generational divide

First generation: not speak English
Second generation: not speak native tongue
Third generation: aware of heritage

Angel Island: Pacific Coast equivalent to Ellis Island

Video: Story behind the poems at Angel Island
https://youtu.be/f_EQY-0ThOM

Mark Twain on Chinese immigration
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/twain.html

Denis Kearney
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/holton.html

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882:
Video
https://youtu.be/lQ8FJY-Ylxs
Text
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/chinese-immigration

Social Darwinism versus Social Gospel (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text9/text9read.htm

Nativism response to immigration

Distrust of foreigners by "natives" a consistent theme in U.S. history.

New immigrants were particularly seen as utterly alien
Threaten "American" values based on their language, religion, and culture.

Protestant Paranoia: The American Protective Association Oath
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5351/



GROWTH OF BIG BUSINESS

Video: American innovation (7:18)
https://youtu.be/COdwYw39MAI

Video: The age of big business (7:47)
https://youtu.be/7RmmdZuSOmI

U.S. had extensive natural resources
  • Coal, iron, timber, petroleum, and waterpower.

U.S. had abundant labor
  • Ex–farm families
  • Immigrants.

U.S. became the largest free trade market in the world.
  • Role of the railroad in knitting the country together.
  • A nationwide transportation network.

Investors liked the profit outlook.

Government at all levels helped business:
  • Money
  • Land
  • Stability
  • Upheld private property
  • Laissez–faire approach.

Accelerated technological innovation: new inventions

U.S. had capable business leadership

  • Called captains of industry by their admirers
  • Called robber barons by their critic

Horatio Alger

Rags to Riches stories

Horatio Alger
https://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/prod/depts/dp/pennies/1860_alger.html

John D. Rockefeller=oil

Video: John D. Rockefeller bio (9:13)
https://youtu.be/rv9AcwHHUCw

First Oil Well in U.S. Strikes Oil
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--First-Oil-Well-in-U-S--Strikes-Oil.html

Standard Oil Ordered to Dissolve
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Standard-Oil-Ordered-to-Dissolve.html

Andrew Carnegie=steel

Video: Andrew Carnegie (8:39)
https://youtu.be/3ye1-6X-NrE

Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/progress/text7/carnegie.pdf

J.P. Morgan=investment banking

J.P. Morgan
[Read down to the heading "Unsuccessful Ventures"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._P._Morgan

Video: JP Morgan (9:55)
https://youtu.be/CGDvFBJ2aKU

Henry Ford=Mass production of the automobile.

Henry Ford (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul30.html

Assembly–line methods (1913)
Model T cars cheap and readily available.

The First Model-T Ford Is Produced
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--The-First-Model-T-Ford-Is-Produced.html

Cornelius Vanderbilt=railroads

Cornelius Vanderbilt as Robber Barron
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/29/books/29garn.html?pagewanted=all

Video: Cornelius Vandebilt (6:32)
https://youtu.be/FwH0ekDc01A

Thomas Edison

Video: Thomas Edison (Bio.com)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQ2RJC1a8T0

Thomas Edison Develops Incandescent Light-Bulb
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Oct/Thomas-Edison-Develops-Incandescent-Light-Bulb.html

Thomas Edison Announces Invention of Phonograph
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/science/On-This-Day--Thomas-Edison-Announces-Invention-of-Phonograph.html

Frederick Taylor=efficiency expert

Emphasis on efficient production using
Scientific management methods
Time studies.

Frederick Taylor
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0320.html



LABOR

Video: Workers and labor unions (6:00)
https://youtu.be/l_tE26TUNgc

Changing status of labor
  • Industrialization changed the nature of work
  • Power of employers increased
  • Worker independence and self-respect declined
  • Industrial workers were employees rather than crafts persons
  • Robot-like tasks made them feel like machines.
  • Emphasis on quantity over quality dehumanized the workplace
  • Workers resisted these trends
  • Worker resistance only led employers to tighten restrictions

Iron law of wages
  • Employees paid according to conditions of supply and demand.
  • Employers would set wages as low as possible

At a level where some persons would accept the work

Companies hired women and children to further cut costs
  • Prevailing free–market views stifled protective legislation for workers
  • Employers denied responsibility for employees' well–being.
  • Repetitive work decreased concentration and caused industrial accidents.

No workers' comp at the time.
If you got hurt, tough luck.
  • Is beating down the worker a prerequisite for industrialization? Should we care how Thailand runs its factories today?
  • Courts reinforced iron law of wages

Denied workers the right to bargain collectively
Wages a private negotiation b/n employee & employer.

THE UNION MOVEMENT

Out of frustration, some workers began to participate in unions
Unionization efforts took various directions

A. Knights of Labor

Key name: Terence Powderly

Terence V. Powderly
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=307

Knights of Labor was broadly based: Accepted all workers

Knights of LaboR
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=910&nm=Knights-of-Labor

Skilled
Unskilled
Women
African–Americans
  • Opposed the idea of strikes.
  • Envisioned a cooperative society

Laborers would own the companies

B. American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Key name: Samuel Gompers

Samuel Gompers
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=158&nm=Samuel-Gompers

American Federation of Labor was a craft (skill) union.

American Federation of Labor
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=835&nm=American-Federation-of-Labor

Did not accept unskilled workers
Pressed for concrete goals:

Higher wages
Shorter hours
Right to collective bargaining.

Willing to work within the capitalist system.

Haymarket Riot (1886) (Chicago)

Riot protested police brutality against labor demonstrators.
Police killed by a bomb thrown by supposed anarchists (want no govt)
Revived middle–class fears of unions.

Video: Haymarket Riot (Sound Smart)
https://youtu.be/ZT_ZWCB_1cM

The Homestead (1892) Strike

Video: Homestead Strike (22:00)
https://youtu.be/njBIcYa4F6M

8-Hour Work Day
https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/august-20/



GILDED AGE POLITICS

Party Politics
  • Politics was the most popular form of local recreation,

More popular than baseball, vaudeville, or circuses.
  • Political torchlight parades, picnics, and speeches were exciting.
  • Close political party balance.
  • [Commentators compared the 2000 election results to that during the Gilded Age.
  • Neither political party gained clear control for any sizable time.
  • Presidential elections were close
  • Swing states (New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois) made the difference.
  • Political party choice dependent on religion and ethnicity.

Republican party
  • Party of evangelical Protestants.
  • Believed government could be an agent of moral reform
  • World must be purged of evil
  • Legislation necessary to protect people from sin.
  • Opposed parochial schools.
  • Supported prohibition of liquor.

Democratic party

Party of immigrant Catholics and Jews.
Opposed interference by government in

Matters of personal liberty
Use of leisure time
Celebration of Sunday.
  • Supported parochial schools
  • Opposed prohibition of liquor



ELECTION OF 1896

Video: Karl Rove and the Election of 1896 (46:02)
https://youtu.be/So2gCW659SE

William McKinley

What does McKinley’s election in 1896 teach us about today?
https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/what-does-mckinleys-election-in-1896-teach-us-about-today/2015/12/08/640ee8a6-7ce0-11e5-beba-927fd8634498_story.html?utm_term=.4dca0a6c809f

William Jennings Bryan

William Jennings Bryan (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar19.html

Details of the election

Major realigning election in U.S. history
Winner: William McKinley—a Republican

McKinley conducted a traditional "front porch" campaign
McKinley supported the gold standard.
Republican platform emphasized
  • Federal government support of the economy
  • The virtues of the urban–industrial society
  • Progress and prosperity: a full dinner pail
  • Loser: William Jennings Bryan—a Democrat

Bryan broke with tradition; traveled across the country
Bryan supported free silver
Bryan argued for an older America
  • Farms as important as factories,
  • Rural and religious life outweighed sinfulness of the city
  • Common people, not corporations, still ruled.
  • Election of 1896 realigned national politics.

Old split: North versus South

Election of 1896
The "Bloody Shirt"
Vote as you shot
Reconciliation after Civil War
Lost Cause
Connection to monuments discussion these days

New split:

East versus West
City versus farm



William McKinley assassination

Video: Assassination (1:06)
https://youtu.be/bK4Qeri2x9Y

President McKinley Assassinated (1901)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--President-McKinley-Fatally-Shot-By-Anarchist.html

Anarchists

Anarchy in the US
http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/history_lesson/2000/04/anarchy_in_the_us.html

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/2
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/4

Video: Theodore Roosevelt biography (3:57) (Bio.com)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rzm2EBYfyDg&sns=em

Video: Theodore Roosevelt bio (4:49) (American Experience)
https://youtu.be/7_I6xUG0FeE

New Nationalism

Motto of the Theodore Roosevelt presidency
  • TR believed government should direct national affairs
  • Government should coordinate and regulate big business
  • Government should not destroy big business.
  • Government should act as an umpire.
  • Roosevelt was a Republican, party of big business.

He was thus in an awkward position.

Regulation of trusts

Major issue in the Roosevelt presidency
  • Industrialization had led to a concentration of great power.
  • Large–scale business combinations were then called "trusts";

Today we would call them conglomerates or multinationals.
  • By 1904, for example, trusts controlled much of American business:

6 large financial groups dominated the railroad industry;
Rockefeller's Standard Oil owned 85% of the oil business.
  • No one really clear on how to deal with trusts:

Let trusts alone since big business is an inevitable part of progress
Distinguish between good and bad trusts
Regulate good trusts (if so, who should be the regulators)
Break up bad trusts into smaller companies.
Theodore Roosevelt sought to regulate the abuses of the worst trusts—the railroads, oil companies, and the meatpacking monopolies.
We still do not have a solution.
We vary between regulation and deregulation



AMERICAN EYES ABROAD

Alaska

Alaska Purchase (1867)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/alaska-purchase

Alaska Purchase
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--The-United-States-Purchases-Alaska.html

Nellie Bly

Video: Nellie Bly, Globe-trotting Journalist (2:03)
https://youtu.be/pBq0I0Ml5go

Nellie Bly's trip around the world (1889)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Nellie-Bly-Starts-Her-Around-the-World-Journey.html

Imperialism

Video: American Imperialism: Crash Course US History #28
https://youtu.be/QfsfoFqsFk4

Video: Goals of American Imperialism
https://youtu.be/dW5lYA1CYc0

1. In 1890, the US census declared the frontier "closed."

2. Many in America began to believe we had to expand abroad.

Frederick Jackson Turner
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/turner.htm

3. Great powers measured their greatness by the colonies they acquired.

World Colonial Empires, 1900
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI445.jpg

4. Britain, Germany, and France divided up Africa. They wanted to carve up Asia as well.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Video: Alfred T. Mahan (1:11)
https://youtu.be/28PZVZQfBPg

Alfred Thayer Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power upon History
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/mahan

Mahan was for many years the President of the Naval War College.

Mahan's argument ran as follows:

~National greatness and prosperity depended on naval power.
~Mahan urged the Navy to shift from wood construction to steel
~Overproduction: In the US, more produced than domestic market could absorb.
~Hence, overseas markets needed to dispose of surplus
~Overseas markets implied distant ports
~Reaching distant ports required large merchant marine
~Merchant marine needed protection of powerful navy
~Ships needed coaling stations and repair yards
~Coaling stations implied secure stops: colonies
~Canal across Panama needed to link East coast with Pacific Ocean

Hawaii

Video: Attempted overthrow of the Hawaiian kingdom, 1893 (5:20)
https://youtu.be/QmavRFmJG_U

Footholds in the Pacific: Hawaii
http://www.smplanet.com/teaching/imperialism/#EP2

1. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived.

2. Their offspring became powerful sugar planters in Hawaii.

3. By 1875, a treaty between the U.S. and Hawaii tightened the links between the two:

a. Allowed Hawaiian sugar to enter the U.S. free of customs duties;
b. Required Hawaiian monarchy to make no territorial or economic concessions to other countries.

4. In 1890 McKinley Tariff ended special status given to Hawaiian sugar.

5. By this time, Caucasian Americans owned three–quarters of the islands' wealth, though they represented a mere 2.1 percent of the population.

6. In 1891, a strongly nationalistic Queen Liliuokalani ascended to the throne and tried to restore greater power to Hawaiian natives.

7. In 1893, Americans overthrew Queen Liliuokalani, set up a provisional government, and asked to become an American state—so that their sugar would be classified as domestic and would avoid tariffs.

Hawaiian Monarchy Overthrown by America-Backed Businessmen (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/17/jan-17-1893-hawaiian-monarchy-overthrown-by-america-backed-businessmen/

8. Annexation of Hawaii to the United States took place in 1898 during the Spanish–American War