HIST 151 EXAM #1

There will be 50 multiple-choice questions taken from the material on this page.

Historical Analysis: sourcing, contextualization, corroboration

a. Sourcing
1.Who wrote the source?
2.When was it written?
3.Where was it written?
4.Is the author in a position to know first-hand, or is the account based on hearsay?
5.Can the source be believed? Is the author trustworthy. What will he stand to gain or lose?

b. Contextualization
1. What else was happening at the time this was written? (The burning issues of the day).
2. What was different back then? What was the same?
3. What would it look like through the eyes of someone who lived back then?

c. Corroboration
1. What are the real facts?
2. Comparing different accounts
3. What is common to the various accounts?
4. When do they disagree?
5. What might explain these discrepancies?
6. How might the accounts be reconciled?

European Exploration

Luxury goods in Asia: silk, dyes, perfumes, jewels, and gold.

Spices in Asia: pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
Spice Islands [Moluccas in today's Indonesia]

Earlier role of Italy as middlemen in European overland trade with China.

Marco Polo's Travels (1275) to China. Published in 1477.
Marco Polo traveled overland.

Constantinople (1453). Fell to the Muslim Turks.

Muslims then controlled overland trade routes from Catholic Europe to Asia.

Europeans sought all–water trade route to Asia to outflank Muslims .

Voyages of Exploration:


Will try to reach Asia by sailing east.
The other European countries will try to reach Asia by sailing west
America gets in their way and becomes the heart of our story.
Portugal began explorations first:
Portuguese sailed around Africa to reach Asia (Dias, Da Gama)


Role of Columbus :

Sailed west to reach Asia.
Landed in Bahamas on first voyage. Four voyages in all
Believed he reached East Indies—called the natives "Indians."
Never realized he discovered a whole new world.

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

Pope divided land claims between Portugal and Spain
Portugal got Africa and Brazil
Spain got remainder of New World

Spanish Armada (1588)

Rivalry between Spain and England
Spain was hard–core Catholic
Spain hated Protestant England.
Spanish naval Armada (fleet) attempted to invade England
A major battle in world history.
English defeated the Spanish.

Martin Luther

(Lutherans): Protestant Reformation (1517)

In 2017 we will celebrate the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation.

People saved by faith alone (Not by pilgrimages, indulgences)
Priesthood of all believers replaced monasticism as the ideal
Neither priests nor Latin Bible should keep people from the Word

Martin Luther (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Protestant Reformation in England (1533)

English King Henry VIII [House of Tudor]

Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1533.
Under Henry, Protestantism hardly differed from Catholicism.

Edward VI

Son of Henry VIII was Protestant, but died as a teenager.

Mary I

One daughter of Henry VIII, Mary I ("Bloody" Mary), was Catholic.

Mary burned many Protestants at the stake.
Other Protestants fled to safety of Frankfurt and Geneva
There they absorbed radical Calvinist doctrines.
They returned to England after the death of Mary.
Eager to "purify" English church of any hint of Catholicism.

John Calvin (Calvinists) :
God alone decided who would be saved—predestination.
Act as if you were one of the elect by strict morality and hard work
Laymen governed church through elders and ministers (presbytery)

John Calvin biographical sketch (Calvin College)

Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

Other daughter of Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, was Protestant:

Church settlement.
Church of England became clearly Protestant, but in its own way.
Latin liturgy translated into the English Book of Common Prayer.
Cult of saints dropped.
Clergy permitted to marry.
Calvinists, however, did not think these reforms went far enough.
Puritans versus Separatists

King James I (1603-1625)

New royal family: House of Stuart

During his reign, the Pilgrims fled to Netherlands and then from there to Plymouth colony

Jamestown (1607) named for him

In 2011 was celebrated the 400th anniversary of King James Bible.

King Charles I (1625-1649)

He was the son of James I
His own sons were Charles II and James II [we will meet up with them later in our semester]

Intolerant of Puritans
Believed in divine right of kings
Puritan dissenters decided to flee from England to Massachusetts Bay colony (1630)

Roanoke Island (in present-day North Carolina)

Attempted base from which to harass Spanish treasure fleets.
Resupply voyage stopped because of Spanish Armada

Spanish Armada prevented resupply to Roanoke Colony

Ancient map gives clue to fate of 'Lost Colony' (Telegraph)


Reverend Robert Hunt (National Park Service, Jamestown)

According to the material we discussed in class about "Who is buried in Jamestown," the Reverend Robert Hunt was buried with his head facing east.

John Smith's Bold Endeavor (NOVA)

The Powhatan Indian World
[read down to the paragraph opposite the image entitled "The Powhatan Indians attack the English"

A. Anglican Church in Virginia

Church of England (Episcopalians today).

Religion in Early Virginia

B. House of Burgesses (1619):

First Legislative Assembly in America
Virginia began the tradition of local representative government
New Spain, New France, and New Netherlands had autocratic rule

C. Tobacco

Basis of Virginia's success
Key cash crop
Required much land
Required continuous labor

John Rolfe (National Park Service, Jamestown)
[only the last three paragraphs]

Tobacco in Jamestown

The History of 18th Century Tobacco Plantations in Coastal Virginia

D. Headrights:

Land grants to individuals
Settlers could claim 50 acres of land for themselves
50 acres for those whom they paid passage (including servants).
Enabled some to build a large estate of landed wealth

E. Indentured servitude:

Need for laborers
Tobacco cultivation required many laborers
English began with indentured servants (7 years) from England
Slaves cost three times as much for initial outlay
Life was hard on servants; not much easier for owners
Diet of pork and corn
Not much material wealth (not like today's Williamsburg)
Servant might not live through his indenture
If he lived through it, he could become a landowner himself

Virginia Families

Predominance of males, servitude, high mortality rates caused
Fewer, smaller (1–3 healthy children), and shorter–lived families.
Most children had step–parents: death of parent and remarriage.
Parents had less control of their children in Virginia than in New England.

Rich families began by 1700 to control the colony
They were intermarried, wealthy, powerful
The same people were Burgesses, militia, church vestry, county court.


Maryland (initially) a sanctuary for Catholics
Catholics were severely persecuted in England.

Maryland: The Catholic Experiment (US History.org)

Maryland similar to Virginia:

Indentured servitude and slavery.

Maryland was a Proprietorship. A personal possession.

Land grant from King Charles I to Calvert family (Lord Baltimore).


a. Plymouth Colony
(Notice the date: 1620)

Separatist Puritans
Called "Pilgrims"
Wanted to leave the Church of England entirely.

Key name: William Bradford

God in America: Pilgrims

Faith of the Pilgrims

Pokanoket Indians (compare to Powhatans) help Pilgrims.
Squanto (compare him to Malinche) helps Pilgrims.

b. Massachusetts Bay Colony
(Notice the date: 1630)

(Non Separatist) Puritans

The Puritans (God in America, PBS)

Key name: Governor John Winthrop (God in America, PBS)

Religious intolerance in treatment of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson:

Roger Williams (God in America, PBS)

Anne Hutchinson (God in America, PBS)

Covenant theology
God covenanted with the Puritans and they with Him.
People covenanted together to form a church.

Puritan church became known as Congregationalists

New England towns

No headright system as in Virginia.
Land distributed to groups, not individuals.
Grants of land led to growth of communities not large personal estates.

New England families

Numerous, large (5–7 healthy children), and long–lived.
Even grandparents appeared.
Parents exercised control over their adult children
Allocation of land
Need for children's labor to support them.
Contrast with Chesapeake.


Crash Course US History:
The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies

Pennsylvania (1681)

Charles II gave William Penn a proprietary land grant
Penn saw this land as a refuge for Quakers—a "holy experiment"
Pennsylvania became known for its religious toleration.
Religious diversity: Quakers, German Reformed, Lutherans, Mennonites
Penn actively promoted his colony—to Germans (Deutsch) particularly
Pennsylvania became grain producing area of colonial America

Video: Germans in colonial Pennsylvania (4:28)

William Penn (God in America)


Society of Friends, founded in England by George Fox.

a. Quakers believed everyone could be saved—all were children of God and could experience his inner light.
b. No need of a formal priesthood or liturgy.
c. Women were allowed an important role in ministry.
d. Refused to swear oaths on the Bible—it would imply they were not telling the truth on other occasions.
e. Pacifists. Refused to perform militia service or pay taxes for self–defense.
f. Related well to the Indians. Could history have developed differently if we had learned from Quakers?

America as a Religious Refuge (Part 2) (Library of Congress) Read the portions entitled "The Quakers"
and "The Pennsylvania Germans"

First Great Awakening

Religion in 18th century America (Library of Congress)
[Scroll down halfway and begin at "The Emergence of American Evangelicalism: The Great Awakening"

Video: First Great Awakening (6:39)

First Great Awakening: a reaction to the decline of religious intensity in the American colonies

Began in Massachusetts in 1730s; in all colonies by 1760s.

Jonathan Edwards

Great Awakening began in Northampton, Massachusetts (1734–35) with Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Edwards (God in America, PBS)

He noticed a remarkable number of conversions among the youth of his church to a message based on Calvinist principles, a recognition of their own depraved natures, and the need to surrender completely to God's will.

George Whitefield

The effects of such conversions remained isolated until 1739, when George Whitefield, an English Anglican clergyman, arrived in America.
For fifteen months he toured the colonies.
Preached to large audiences from Georgia to New England.
His journey: new interconnection among the previously distinct colonies.

George Whitefield (God in America, PBS)

Impact of the Great Awakening:

Challenged deference, introduced egalitarianism to the colonies.

The Great Awakening divided churches over several issues:
  • Were pastors clearly born again?
  • How much education did pastors need?
  • Was itinerant evangelism allowable?

Denominations split into New Lights and Old Lights (Presbyterians) and Old Sides and New Sides (Congregationalists).