In class today: new material

Gettysburg Address

President Lincoln Delivers Gettysburg Address (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Video: Gettysburg Address (start at 6:49)

Battle of Atlanta (July 1864)

Union victory.

Ensured Lincoln's reelection in 1864..

Video: Total War: William T. Sherman and Atlanta

Harper's Week | Elections 1860-1912

1864 Election (Harper's Week)

Sherman's March through Georgia (March to the sea) (November-December 1864)

Union victory
Sherman operated in deep South
Across Georgia: Atlanta to Savannah
Destroyed everything in a path 50 miles wide, 200 miles long

Video: Sherman's march to the sea (from Atlanta to Savannah)


Sherman's March to the Sea (Eyewitness to History)

Marching through Georgia
Music: Tennessee Ernie Ford

Appomattox (9 April 1865)

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant

Video: Surrender at Appomattox

When Johnny comes marching home

Lincoln assassination: 14 April 1865
Video: Assassination of Lincoln: A Memestory (Mr. Betts)

Legacy of the Civil War

Total deaths 620,000===(360,000 North; 260,000 South)

The vacant chair: Kathy Mattea

Four million slaves in the South were free. What to do about them?

Reconstruction (1865-1877)

Place of ex-slaves in southern society

Four million slaves in the South were free. What to do about them?

The civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr., has been called the Second Reconstruction.

Consider also the powerful feelings that arise even today over the issue of affirmative action.

Video: Reconstruction

Reconstruction Plans:

How to bring the Southern states back into America

Post World War II comparison: former Nazi leaders

Prodigal son comparison [Luke 15:11-32 NIV]

Presidential Reconstruction Plan

a. Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan

Lincoln was assassinated (April 1865) before he got to do much.

His Vice President was Andrew Johnson.
Andrew Johnson took over
From Tennessee
Former slave owner himself

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Andrew Johnson

b. Johnson's Reconstruction Plan

Northerners hoped he would remove Old South leaders from power
Through most of 1865, Johnson alone controlled Reconstruction policy
Congress recessed shortly before he became President (April)
Congress did not meet again until December 1865
Congress angered at lenient presidential Reconstruction policy

Video: Presidential Reconstruction of the South

Congress attempted (unsuccessfully) to impeach Johnson

Video:Andrew Johnson's "Under Pressure" (Queen Parody) (Mr. Betts Class)

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson (Harper's Week)

Congressional reconstruction plan

Congress believed it had constitutional role in Reconstruction
Congress controlled by Republican party
Congressional Republicans wanted the Southern states that came back into the Union to be Republican

Radical Republicans (former abolitionists) wanted to go farther than most
They wanted to transform southern society (sort of like the issue today of "nation building")

They also wanted to keep out Southern states until this transformation.

Election of 1876/Compromise of 1877

On This Day: Rutherford B. Hayes Named Winner Over Samuel Tilden in 1876 Presidential Election

Video: Compromise of 1877

This so-called Compromise of 1877 effectively ended Reconstruction

In class today: new material

Major Battles of the Civil War

Map of the Civil War, 1861-1862

Map of the Civil War, 1863-1865

Bull Run (July 1861)

South won.
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname.

Stonewall Jackson profile

Video: Battle of Bull Run (Johnny Horton)

Shiloh (April 1862)

Union barely won.
Large casualties revealed the horrible nature of modern warfare.

Video: Battle of Shiloh

Antietam (September 1862)

Battle a draw.
First time South invaded North.
Antietam and Gettysburg the only major battles outside the South.

Video: Confederates invade western Maryland

Video: George McClellan's failure to act at Antietam
Tie to McClellan song

Marching Along (97th regimental string band)
[Use with General McClellan}

Fredericksburg (December 1862)

Union lost big.

Made 14 charges against well–entrenched Confederates.

Video: Battle of Fredericksburg

Chancellorsville (May 1863)

Confederates won battle.

But lost their great general, Stonewall Jackson, who was killed by friendly fire.

Video: Battle of Chancellorsville

Stonewall Jackson Shot by His Own Men at Chancellorsville

Vicksburg (July 1863)

Union victory.
Union gained complete control of Mississippi River.
Western part of Confederacy cut off.

Video: Siege of Vicksburg

Gettysburg (July 1863)

Second time South invaded North.
Union victory.
"High tide" of Confederacy.
Pickett's charge
Turning point of the war for the South.

Video: Gettysburg: General Lee & General Meade comparison

Video: Gettysburg: Pickett's charge

Video: Canister shot
Use with Pickett's charge

Ist day: Union took the high ground; Jeb Stuart's cavalry arrived too late.

2nd day: Rebels tried to take Big and Little Round Tops but Union held.

3rd day: Pickett's hopeless charge against the middle of Union lines.

Battle of Gettysburg Begins (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Gettysburg Address

President Lincoln Delivers Gettysburg Address (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Video: Gettysburg Address

Battle of Atlanta (July 1864)

Union victory.

Ensured Lincoln's 1864

Harper's Week | Elections 1860-1912

1864 Election (Harper's Week)

Video: 1864 Lincoln's re-election and General Sherman

Video: Total War: William T. Sherman and Atlanta

Sherman's March through Georgia (March to the sea) (November-December 1864)

Union victory
Sherman operated in deep South
Across Georgia: Atlanta to Savannah
Destroyed everything in a path 50 miles wide, 200 miles long

Video: Sherman's march to the sea


Sherman's March to the Sea (Eyewitness to History)

Marching through Georgia
Music: Tennessee Ernie Ford

Appomattox (9 April 1865)

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant

Video: Surrender at Appomattox

When Johnny comes marching home

Lincoln assassination: 14 April 1865

Video: Assassination of Lincoln: A Memestory (Mr. Betts)

In class today: new material

Southern Leaders continued:

3. Stonewall Jackson

4. J.E.B. Stuart

Video: Jeb Stuart

Civil War: comparisons of the opposing sides

a. Northern advantages:

1. Larger population

2. Greater industrial production

3. More railroads and canals

b. Southern advantages:

1. Greater emotion

Great songs, for instance:


Johnny Reb

The Southern Soldier

Bonnie Blue Flag:

2. Excellent military commanders

3. Better cavalry at the beginning of the war

Union military strategy

Anaconda plan:

a. Advance along the Mississippi
b. Pressure on Richmond and Virginia
c. Union naval blockade

Confederate military strategy

Offensive defensive:

a. Attack when possible
b. Mostly play defense
c. Use interior lines of transportation
d. Concentrate its forces at crucial points of Union attack

Union diplomatic strategy:

Lincoln tried hard to prevent Britain and France from aiding the Confederacy

Video: Threat of foreign intervention in Civil War

Trent Affair (November 1861)

A Union ship stopped the British ship Trent at sea
The Union navy took off two Confederate diplomats: James Mason and John Slidell.

Britain protested.

Eventually, the North released the two men.

Video: Trent Affair

Trent Affair (Historian of the State Department)

Confederate diplomatic strategy

"King Cotton" diplomacy

Hoped that Britain and France would aid South to get southern cotton
It did not happen
Both countries developed other supply sources

Military Life

a. Soldiers had to deal with mass violence, live on little food and sleep, and endure all kinds of weather.

b. Rifle and the minie ball. Straight–ahead charges were stupid in light of the more effective killing range of the rifle and the power of the minie ball.

Civil War camp life

Song: Just before the battle, mother

Women in the Civil War

Video: Women in the Civil War (Sound Smart)

Video: Women in the Civil War

Women soldiers in the Civil War (National Archives magazine)

Black Union soldiers

Racism in the Union army was strong.
Black soldiers in the Union army (120,000) fought for acceptance from their white comrades

Video: African-Americans in the Union Army

Religion in the Civil War

A. Was God on the side of the North?
Religion in the North during the Civil War (National Humanities Center)

1. the special place of America in world history
2. a Northern victory as a prelude to the millennium
3. the issue of slavery.

B. Was God mad at the South because of slavery?
Religion in the South during the Civil War (National Humanities Center)

South believed it was more religious and God-fearing than the North.
Role of Stonewall Jackson as a pious example

Emancipation of the slaves

a. Lincoln's approach

Hoped to achieve a peace treaty compromise with the South
Tried to balance conflicting parts of his Republican party coalition
Radical Republicans wanted immediate emancipation
Others (especially border slave states) did not
Set his priority to preserve the Union, not end slavery
But needed to keep Britain and France from aiding the Confederacy

The Civil War and emancipation (Africans in America)

b. Jefferson Davis's approach

Preserving Confederate independence was the key
Would free the slaves if it preserved Confederate independence
An effort was made to emancipate: too little, too late

The Enslaved and the Civil War (NHC lesson plan)

In class today: new material

John Brown at Harper's Ferry (1859)

Video:John Brown"s Raid (Mr. Betts)

John Brown had slain proslavery settlers in Bleeding Kansas
Using both whites & blacks, John Brown attacked federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry
Brown hoped to arm slaves and trigger a slave rebellion
Brown failed: captured, tried, and executed
Northern abolitionists saw him as a Jesus figure
South bothered by this adulation; thought all northerners endorsed him

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): John Brown's Raid (1859)

The raid on Harpers Ferry

Election of 1860

Video: Election of Lincoln and Southern Secession

Lincoln got no southern electoral votes but still won the election.,_1860

Lincoln's analysis
"You in the south think slavery is right and ought to be expanded. We think it is wrong and ought to be restricted."

Secession of the South from the United States

Map of secession:

Secession of South Carolina (December 20, 1860)

After South Carolina, came two waves of secession:

a) Deep South: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas

b) Upper South: Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia

Several slave states remained committed to the North:
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware

Confederate States of America

Confederacy was a separate country for these four years.

It had problems similar to those of the Articles of Confederation government we studied earlier.

Jefferson Davis chosen as President of the Confederate States of America.

Video: Jefferson Davis mini bio

Capital of the Confederacy

Initially in Montgomery, Alabama.

Then moved for remainder of war to Richmond, Virginia.

Fort Sumter (South Carolina) (April 1861)

Lincoln decided to resupply the federal fort in Charleston harbor.

Confederates fired on the fort and thereby began the Civil War.

Video: Fort Sumter (Sound Smart)

Crisis at Fort Sumter

War aims

North: Preserve the Union. Not free the slaves

South: Preserve slavery==the southern way of life

Names used to describe each side:

North=Federals=Yankees=Union=Billy Yank=Blue

South=Confederates=Rebels=Secessionists=Johnny Reb=Gray

Key Leader/Generals for the North:

1. Abraham Lincoln

Video: Abraham Lincoln bio

2. Ulysses Grant

3.William Tecumseh Sherman

4. George Meade

5. George McClellan

Key Leaders/Generals for the South: Confederate States of America (CSA)

1. Jefferson Davis

Video: Jefferson Davis mini bio

2. Robert E. Lee

Video: Robert E. Lee - Mini Bio

Video: God Bless Robert E. Lee (Johnny Cash)

3. Stonewall Jackson

Video: Stonewall Jackson (Johnny Horton)

4. J.E.B. Stuart

Video: Jeb Stuart

In class today: new material

Missouri Compromise (1820)

Video: Missouri Compromise Tom Richey ("Gin and Juice" Parody)

Video: Missouri Compromise

Map of Missouri Compromise provisions

(1) Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine (formerly part of Massachusetts) as free

(2) except for Missouri, slavery was to be excluded from the Louisiana Purchase lands north of latitude 36°30?.

Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

Video: Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 (Sound Smart)

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): Kansas-Nebraska Bill (1854)

Provisions of Kansas-Nebraska Act

Kansas-Nebraska Act undid the Missouri Compromise which set the 36°30' line of latitude to be the separation of free and slave states

Senator Stephen Douglas
Introduced a bill to establish the Kansas and Nebraska territories.
Wanted Chicago to be the terminus of a transcontinental railroad;
No railroad would build through unorganized land.
He needed southern votes
The bill used the popular sovereignty formula
Effectively implied repeal of the Missouri Compromise.

Shifting Political Landscape
Three great maps: Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act

Bleeding Kansas

Popular sovereignty feature of the Kansas–Nebraska Act
Civil war erupted in Kansas between
Those who wanted to bring slavery to Kansas
Those who wanted to prevent slavery there.

Bleeding Kansas

Video: Bleeding Kansas (Sound Smart)

Video: John Brown and Bleeding Kansas (2:13)

Anthony Burns (1854)

Anthony Burns captured (1854)
[use this]
He hired himself out

Republican party (1854)

New party—not connected to the earlier Jeffersonian Republican party.
Formed in reaction to the Kansas–Nebraska Act.
A purely sectional third party based in the North.
Dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories.

Video: Origin of the Republican Party

Nativism: American Party=Know Nothings

Video: Know Nothings and nativism

Know-Nothing Party

Sumner–Brooks incident (1856)

Sen. Charles Sumner (Mass.) an abolitionist
His antislavery remarks an insult to Rep. Preston Brooks (S.C.)
Brooks beat Sumner with a cane—in Senate chamber

South seemed to condone violence to have its way
South sent Brooks more canes
Northerners shocked at this southern assault on free speech

Video: Caning of Charles Sumner

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): The Caning of Sumner (May 1856)

The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner (US Senate)

Dred Scott decision (1857)

Supreme Court attempted to decide issue of slavery in the territories
Five of the nine Supreme Court justices were southerners

Dred Scott case (Sound Smart)

The case ruled as follows:
  • Blacks could not be U.S. citizens
  • Congress could not prohibit slavery in a territory
  • This implied a repeal of the Missouri Compromise
  • South delighted; North outraged

Compare to Supreme Court involvement in 2000 presidential election

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): Dred Scott (1857)

Supreme Court Rules Against Dred Scott (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Panic of 1857 (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858

Video: Lincoln-Douglas debates (Sound Smart)

Lincoln-Douglass Debates
Who: Abraham Lincoln, challenger, Republican
Free Soil, slavery should not be permitted in territories
Slavery a moral evil

Who: Stephen Douglass, incumbent US Senator from Illinois, Democrat
Popular sovereignty should decide
Did not declare slavery a moral evil

What: 7 debates within Illinois
When: 1858 US Senatorial election
Where: Illinois
Why: How to deal with the possible spread of slavery
How: First speaker one hour; rebuttal hour and a half; first speaker half hour
Result: Douglass was re-elected to the US Senate

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Begin (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

In class today: new material

THE 1850S

Crucial interplay of several factors

Acquisition of new territories turned slavery into a major constitutional standoff between 1848-1861.

Slavery's existence and territorial expansion

Should new states be slave or free?

"If slavery was the sore spot in the body politic, territorial disputes were salt rubbed into the wound."

Frames of reference of North and South toward each other:

Northerners: feared an evil Southern Slave Power wanting to take over U.S.

Southerners: felt that northerners were all abolitionists--wanting to oppress the South

A North–South division was deepening

Slavery in the territories colored every other national issue

The first sectional battle of the decade involved California

California's request to enter Union as free state caused political conflict

Compromise of 1850 became a temporary armistice in the slavery issue

Compromise of 1850

Video: Compromise of 1850 (Sound Smart)

Video: Compromise of 1850 ("Shake It Off" Parody) - @MrBettsClass

Major provisions of the Compromise of 1850:

a. California entered the Union as a free state

California becomes the 31st state in record time ( This Day in History | 9/9/1850)

Slavery and the Admission of California into the Union

b. Popular sovereignty allowed in Utah & New Mexico Territories

Let the people in each state decide on whether they would permit slavery.

Popular Sovereignty (US

c. Trading and auction of slaves abolished in Washington, D.C

Slavery itself was still permitted

d. Fugitive Slave Act

Stronger than past ones
Citizens must help capture and return runaway slaves
Suspected runaways denied trial by jury

Video: Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (Sound Smart)

Video: Fugitive Slave Act and Uncle Tom's Cabin

The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act (Africans in America)

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Video: Who is Harriet Beecher Stowe?

Famous as the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852).

Her book a reaction to Fugitive Slave Act

Harriet Beecher Stowe's portrait of slave suffering made southerners mad.

Harriet Beecher Stowe (God in America)

Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)

Uncle Tom's Cabin's_Cabin

Slave narratives and Uncle Tom's Cabin

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture website

Children's Hymns

Southern defense of slavery: George Fitzhugh

Southern slaves better off than northern workers

Northern workers were "wage" slaves

Worked harder than Southern slaves

Were laid off if they got sick or too old

A Pro-Slavery Argument, 1857 (NHC lesson plan)

In class today: new material


Video: Slavery: All Night Forever (Ken Burns Civil War video)

North American slave trade

Slavery and sugar shifted focus of world economy from Asia and the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
Being black did not initially mean being a slave.
By the 1670s, mainland colonists imported large numbers of Africans
Only a few Quakers had any moral problem with using slaves.
Slave trade made many merchants wealthy.

Check out this map on where slaves came from and to where they were sold:

Middle Passage

The middle passage: voyage from Africa to America.

Amazing Grace

John Newton was a slave trader who converted to Christianity and wrote the hymn entitled "Amazing Grace."

Put in a Video on song and lyrics

Slavery in the South

By 1720, Africans were 20% of overall population.

Relationship between the large number of slaves in South Carolina and the survival of African culture.

Gospel According to Gullah (Los Angeles Times)

New Testament Translated into the Gullah language.

Slavery in the north

North had fewer slaves (personal servants; dock workers)
In some cities, slaves 10 % of population.
Low northern slave population accentuated differences with South

Description of the South

Old South or Antebellum South (before the Civil War) (1800-1860)

North grew and changed

South just grew
  • Remained a rural, agrarian society
  • Thin population distribution
  • Few cities
  • Small number of factories

Rise of the Cotton South

Several factors increased the growth of slave–supplied cotton plantations:

1. Cotton gin [before gin:10 hours for 1 pound; after: 1000 pounds/day]

Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin (Africans in America)

Eli Whitney

Video: Cotton Gin

2. Short–staple cotton

3. English and northern U.S. textile factories need for cotton

Southern society

Remember: Some 75% of white southern families owned NO slaves at all.

But the slave society influenced all aspects of southern culture.

Planters: Most planters owned fewer than 10 slaves. Big planters set the tone for southern society.

Planter paternalism

Men treated both women and slaves in a domineering manner
Racism in the master–slave relationship
Sexism in the male–female relationship

Women raised to be wife, mother, and subordinate companion to men
Wives helped oversee the plantation household

Wives had to tolerate husbands' sexual infidelities with female slaves

Controversy Over Mascots at Ole Miss (New York Times)

Black codes

Slaveholders saw free blacks as potential instigators of rebellion
Southern states wanted free blacks to move away to the North

Black codes regulated free blacks who remained in the South

Black codes required
  • Black skilled laborers to be licensed
  • Banned blacks form specific jobs (such as river boat captains)
  • Forbade blacks to assemble in public
  • Prohibited teaching blacks to read and write

Slave life

Food generally adequate, but plain and monotonous
Slaves owned few clothes and lived in small, one–room cabins

Slaves worth more healthy than sick
Women as child bearers were particularly valuable to owner

Slaves treated as property:
Pledged for a debt
Gambled away in a card game

White crimes against slaves went unpunished
Slaves could not testify against whites

Slave quarters on St. Georges Island

Slave work routine

1. House slaves

2. Field slaves

Most field slaves worked in the gang system
White overseer: compensated on how much he produced
Black slave drivers: foremen to keep down dissension

3. Some slaves worked the task system

In urban settings and on some rice plantations
Assigned daily tasks to complete at their own pace
Remainder of the time was their own

4. Slave hire system

Some skilled slaves were able to hire themselves out
They could keep most of their wages
Often used proceeds to purchase their freedom

The Varieties of Slave Labor (National Humanities Center)

Slave religion

Most white southerners were religious
Most believed they should help slaves become Christians
[I wonder how prevalent Islam was among slaves.]

But they did so on their own terms
Whites used religion as a form of control:
God commanded slaves to serve and obey their masters

Slaves felt there must be a real Bible somewhere
One not written by their white owners

Many whites unwilling to accept slaves as brothers and sisters in Christ.

Christianity helped slaves cope with bondage
Slaves used religion as a refuge
Inner sense of personal worth and dignity
Slaves hoped for deliverance from bondage
Surely in heaven but hopefully in this lifetime

Slave religion

Slave family life

Slaves tried to be monogamous
Slave marriages had no legal basis
Slaves still had marriage ceremonies
Vows were changed to "till death or distance do us part"

Family was central to slave life
Worst fear was family separation by sale
At any moment, the master could
a. Sell a slave husband or wife
b. Die in debt, forcing a division of his property
c. Give a slave child away as a wedding present

Husbands tried to provide for their wife and children
Could not protect the females from sexual exploitation by the master

The Family Life of the Enslaved (NHC lesson plan)

How Slavery Affected African American Families (National Humanities Center)

Slave attitudes toward whites

Most slaves suspicious of white motives
Slaves hated their oppression
Whites stereotyped slaves as docile Sambos

To keep from being whipped
Slaves learned to act subservient
Slaves spoke respectfully to their masters

Slave resistance

Few violent rebellions
Whites had firepower, slave patrols, militia, and federal troops

Slave Resistance (National Humanities Center)

Slaves tried to preserve mental independence and self–respect

Coping mechanisms
  • Trickster tales
  • Nonviolent forms of resistance
  • Stealing food
  • Temporarily running away
  • Slacking off at work

The Trickster in African American Literature (National Humanities Center)

Nat Turner slave rebellion in Virginia (1831)

Turner an educated black lay preacher
Key slave rebellion—a violent one
Caused an intense white reaction in the south

Video: Nat Turner bio (3:35)

Nat Turner

Virginia legislature slavery debate (1832)

White advocates of gradual abolition of slavery forced a debate
Arguing that slavery was injurious to Virginia's modernization
Motion favoring abolition lost
Last public debate on slavery in the antebellum South

In class today: new material


The Religious Roots of Abolition (NHC lesson plan)

Abolition - The African-American Mosaic Exhibition | Exhibitions (Library of Congress)

We should all ask ourselves the question: Would I have been an abolitionist?

Compare to feelings about immigration these days.

Antislavery was not a unified movement at first

Its adherents differed over several issues:
  • a. How hard to push the issue
  • b. The rights of women
  • c. The place of free blacks in American society

The issue of slavery eventually became so compelling that it consumed all the other reforms we have discussed.

Gradual emancipation:

1. American Colonization Society (founded in 1816)

American Colonization Society

2. Advocated gradual emancipation of former slaves

3. Suggested resettlement in Africa

4. Liberia was set up for this purpose

Map of Africa showing location of Liberia:

Its capital, Monrovia, named for President James Monroe

Immediate emancipation

Immediatism surpassed gradualism as dominant anti-slavery approach
  • a. Immediate—right now
  • b. Complete—no other labor contract
  • c. Uncompensated—owners not paid a thing

Contrast between:
"old" abolitionism: American Colonization Society
"new" abolitionism: Garrison and American Anti–Slavery society

American Anti-Slavery Society (Ohio History online)

William Lloyd Garrison

William Lloyd Garrison

Videos: William Lloyd Garrison

Garrison was a white abolitionist

He argued for immediate emancipation

His newspaper, The Liberator, began publication in 1831

Women abolitionists
  • Women more prominent in abolition than other movements
  • Women could not vote
  • Women expected to "keep their place" in the background

Angelina and Sarah Grimke

White daughters of a South Carolina slave owner
Moved to the North
Became involved in anti-slavery and women's rights
Attacked the concept of subordination of women to me

Free blacks

Almost 250,000 in south by 1860

Highly discriminated against by whites
Legal status somewhere between slave and free
Whites feared free blacks would lead slave uprisings
States enacted "Black codes" to control movement of free blacks

Black abolitionists

Much of abolitionism was run by free blacks

By 1830, blacks had organized some 50 abolitionist societies

Notable free blacks:

1. Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglas
Noted escaped slave
Famous for his Autobiography

Video: Frederick Douglass bio

Frederick Douglass

Secession Era Editorials Project (Furman): John Brown's Raid (1859)

2. Harriet Tubman: "the Moses of her people"

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman | National Women's History Museum

Harriet Tubman

Video: Harriet Tubman bio

3. Sojourner Truth: "Ain't I a woman"

Sojourner Truth

Sojourner Truth | National Women's History Museum

Sojourner Truth

Kerry Washington reads Sojourner Truth (thanks to Myia for this link)

Video: Sojourner Truth bio

Underground Railroad:


Underground Railroad (Africans in America)

Video: Underground Railroad (Mr. Betts)

Levi Coffin House - Underground Railroad's "Grand Central Station"

The Underground Railroad (NHC lesson plan)

Opposition to abolitionists:

Murder of Elijah Lovejoy

Many white Americans violently opposed abolitionism
They did not want to compete with freed blacks
Hostile whites threatened abolitionist editors and speakers
An example of this opposition was the murder of Elijah Lovejoy
He was a white abolitionist newspaper editor
Murdered by a mob in Alton, Illinois (1837).

Northerners outraged:
Not because they supported abolition
But because they wanted to preserve free speech

In the South, mobs blocked distribution of antislavery pamphlets

Gag rule

Many Northern church women signed anti-slavery petitions

Sent these petitions to Congress

From 1836 to 1844, Congress refused even to open or read the petitions
Southerners were happy

Northerners felt their free speech was violated.

Mood music:

Charles Wesley hymns:

Christ the Lord is Risen Today

And Can It Be That I Should Gain

Love Divine, All Loves Excelling

Oh, For a Thousand Tongues to Sing

In class today: new materal>>>Second Great Awakening

Second Great Awakening

Began around 1800
Democratized American religion—as voting was being democratized
Rejected doctrine of predestination

Video: Second Great Awakening (2:30)
Professor Christine Leigh-Heyrman

A. On the frontier: West and South

Focus on individual salvation; no impulse to reform society

Baptist lay preachers and Methodist circuit riders

1. Camp meetings

Attended by thousands

Most notable one: Cane Ridge (1801): 10,000 participants

Religion and the New Republic (Library of Congress)

Camp Meetings

Video: Cane Ridge, Kentucky (700 Club) (1:32)

Video: Cane Ridge: Leaders and legends (10:440

2. Circuit riders

Methodist Circuit Riders (Google Images)

Nothing but Crows and Methodist Preachers

Video: Circuit Riders (3:07)

A modern-day circuit rider

B. In the north

Congregationalists and Presbyterians
Small to medium-sized towns
Northern revivals led to an impulse to reform society

Charles G. Finney

Key name in Second Great Awakening

Charles Finney (God in America, PBS)

Charles Finney (Christianity Today)

New York lawyer
Converted (1821)
Finney became a full–time evangelist
"I have a retainer from Jesus to plead his case"
Focused initially on the small towns in western New York.

Arminianism==Free will
A more democratic version of Christianity than predestination.
Any person who wanted to be saved could be saved.

Finney's evangelistic approach: New Measures

New Measures: controversial for its time

a. Protracted meetings. Revivals continued nightly for a week or more.

b. Anxious bench

"Almost saved" would sit up front
Made an object of special prayer.

c. Women allowed to speak aloud and pray for male relatives

Converts organized into voluntary associations

a. 1810—Foreign Missions Board

Students at Williams College: Haystack Prayer Meeting

Note to me: show both of these videos

Video: Haystack prayer meeting (2:56)

Video: Haystack prayer meeting (3:52)

b. 1816—American Bible Society—distributed Bibles in the West

2016 was the 200th anniversary of the founding of the American Bible Society.

c. 1825—American Tract Society—to seamen and urban poor

Cult of Domesticity

The Cult of Domesticity (NHC lesson plan)

Women, Temperance, and Domesticity (NHC lesson plan)

In class today: new material

Wilmot Proviso (1846)

a. Many northerners opposed the war with Mexico
b. They saw in a war an evil design by slave owners to increase possible slave territory
c. Democrat Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a bill that would outlaw slavery in any territory won from Mexico.
d. His proposal did not pass Congress.
e. But the Wilmot Proviso became a rallying cry for abolitionists & those against spread of slavery.
f. Most white northerners were racists, not abolitionists.
g. Whites wanted to protect themselves—not southern blacks—from the Slave power.
h. They wanted to keep this new land only for free white people

Free–Soil Party

Formed in 1848 to prevent slavery in the territories won from Mexico.

Free Soilers did not necessarily want to abolish slavery.

They simply wanted to prevent its spread into the Western territories.

Party slogan was Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men.

Free Soil party was made up of
1. Northern Democrats committed to the Wilmot proviso
2. Antislavery ("Conscience" as opposed to "Cotton") Whigs


Mexican-American War Video (129:00)

US-Mexican War: A Concise History

Mexican War Regular Map:

1. Mexico felt annexation of Texas cause for war

American sent forces into disputed region to provoke a Mexican attack
Mexicans did attack
America declared war

Some in U.S. opposed war:

Many northerners opposed the war with Mexico
They saw in a war an evil design by slave owners to increase possible slave territory

Two of those who opposed the war: Henry Clay; Abraham Lincoln

2. American interest in California--then a part of Mexico:

Bartered manufactured goods for cowhides
Boston companies set up resident agents in California
Agents' reports back East sparked interest in California

a. Richard Henry Dana's Two Year Before the Mast: a best seller (1840)

Richard Henry Dana

His ship was named the Pilgrim

b. Sutter's Fort. Sacramento. At end of Overland Trail.

3. Bear Flag Revolt (June 14, 1846)

When war with Mexico seemed likely, U.S. claimed California

Key names: William B. Ide; John Fremont; Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo

Separate country for less than a month

Bear Flag Republic

U.S. Forces in Mexico

Army Life: U.S. Army

Army Life: Mexican Army

a) General Zachary Taylor: invaded Mexico from north

Battle of Buena Vista

b) General Winfield Scott: invaded Mexico from seacoast

Battle of Cerro Gordo
Battle of Chapultepec

Halls of Montezuma
Marines raised U.S. flag over National Palace in Mexico City

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

U.S. paid Mexico $15 million
Present states: California, Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona
U.S. territory enlarged by 20%

Territorial Acquisitions Map

Legacy of the Mexican-American War

$100 million in military costs
13,000 Americans died
Training ground for military officers later famous in Civil War
Gold discovered in California (1848): a few months before treaty signed
Continuing controversy over extension of slavery in land won from Mexico

Mood Music:

Marty Robbins: Ballad of the Alamo

Alamo: Deguello

Mexican Army drums

Green Leaves of Summer

In class today: new material



Video: American settlers move into Texas

Americans moved into Spanish, then Mexican Tejas
Panic of 1819 pushed some Americans westward
Mexico gained its independence from Spain (1821)

Spain gave land grants to Moses Austin
Mexico continued the same deal with his son, Stephen Austin (1824)

Americans not happy with three aspects of life in Mexico:

1. Catholicism: Settlers either converted superficially or ignored requirement

2. Slavery

In 1829, Mexico freed its slaves
Colonists freed their slaves but signed them to lifelong indentured servant contract

3. Self government

Texas part of Mexican Coahuila (Texas outnumbered 3 to 1)
Americans demanded a Mexican state of their own

Dictator Santa Anna abolished separate Mexican states (1834)

Texas revolution (1836)

By 1835, Texas population: 30,000 Americans; 3,000 Mexicans
"War party" declared Texas independent in1836
Guests who rebelled against their hosts

Video: Texans revolt against Mexico

Video: Texas and Mexican War (Mr. Betts)

Main battles of the Texas Revolution:


a. Alamo:

187 all died (including some famous persons: Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, William Travis)

Video: Alamo (2:25)

Video: Alamo and Goliad (1:06)

Video: Johnny Cash: Remember the Alamo (2:52)

The Alamo Came Under Attack (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

Key people who died at the Alamo

1. Davy Crockett

Ballad of Davy Crockett (Fess Parker) (2:14)

2. Jim Bowie

3. William Travis

b. Goliad: 350 captured Americans were massacred

c. San Jacinto: (today's Houston, Texas

Video: San Jacinto (0:53)

Sam Houston attacked Mexicans during a siesta
630 Mexicans killed
Santa Anna captured

Texas: the Lone Star Republic (1836–1845)

Texas a separate country during the period 1836-1845

Sam Houston the first president.

Video: Sam Houston (1:44)

Population increased from 30,000 to 142,000

Annexation delayed until 1845: volatility of the slavery issue

Territorial Acquisitions Map

In class today: new material

Oregon Trail (1843)

"Oregon fever" began after the Panic of 1837
Fremont mapped the trail (1842)
1843—major increase in migration over the Trail

Map and pictures of landmarks

Independence, Missouri to Oregon/California
Trip was 2,000 miles; took 6 months

Video: Oregon Fever (10:44)

Oregon Trail:

a. Introduction
b. Route West
c. "Jumping off"
d. Power
e. Hardships
f. Buffalo
Buffalo chip lady
g. Native Americans
Read only the section entitled "Relationships"

Manifest destiny

Term first used by editor John L. O'Sullivan (1845)

Manifest Destiny
Famous painting analysis (John Gast)

American expansion westward and southward was

a. Inevitable
b. Just
c. Divinely ordained

In accordance with this view:

a. Native Americans: savages, best eliminated

b. Hispanics: inferior peoples, best controlled or conquered

Oregon Country

Northwest boundary dispute

U. S. negotiated for Oregon Country (1846).
U.S. went to brink of war with Britain over Oregon boundary.
President James K. Polk's campaign slogan: Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
U.S. could not fight Mexico and Britain at same time

Boundary dispute map:

Territorial Acquisitions Map: Oregon Country

California Gold Rush (1849)

Video: Gold Rush (8:47)

1. Discovery of gold (1848) (2 months before Mexican-American war treaty)

California Gold Rush (1849)
Overland trail plus passage around South America
100,000 arrived in one year

2. California statehood (1850)

Gold discovered at Sutter's Mill

President Polk sparks the California Gold Rush

Mood music:

Video: Hail to the Chief medley
Video: 50 Patriotic Songs medley

In class today: new material

War Hawk's desire to take British Canada

A "mere matter of marching" [Harvard Law School student story]
Americans were unsuccessful.

Let's watch the following video clip (6:38):

British Blockade.

British navy blockaded American ports
American trade declined nearly 90 percent.
Loss of customs revenue threatened to bankrupt federal government.

Key battles of the War of 1812:

1. Washington, D.C.

British captured the city.

Video: British burn Washington, 1814

British Troops Burn White House and Capitol (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

2. Baltimore

British bombarded; Americans held out.

Francis Scott Key Writes “The Star-Spangled Banner” (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)

"Oh, say can you see by the dawn's early light
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars thru the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
Oh, say does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?"

3. Horseshoe Bend (in today's Alabama)

Andrew Jackson (future American president) defeated the Creek Indians.

He forced them to sign away most of their land.

Andrew Jackson's Victory in Creek War (Today in History, Library of Congress)

4. New Orleans (8 Jan 1815)

Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British.

British: 300 killed, 1300 wounded, 500 captured
Americans: 30 killed, 40 wounded

Video: Battle of New Orleans (6:58)

Battle of New Orleans video: Johnny Horton (2:38)

Battle of New Orleans

Hartford Convention (15 Dec 1814—5 Jan 1815)

Federalist delegates from New England
Unhappy with the war's stoppage of New England trade
Seemed treasonous during wartime.
Led to demise of Federalist Party
News arrived in Washington at same time as that of New Orleans

Treaty of Ghent (24 December 1814)

Did not specifically address any of the issues for which America went to war.
Merely restored the prewar status quo.

Consequences of War of 1812

1. Affirmed the freedom won in the Revolutionary war
2. Strengthened America's resolve to avoid European politics
3. Dealt a serious blow to Indian resistance to American expansion
4. Increased nationalism—renewed feeling of confidence and assertiveness
5. Stimulated economy (capitalists began to invest in home manufactures)
6. Sealed the fate of the Federalists

Election of 1824.

Video: Corrupt Bargain of 1824

John Quincy Adams versus Andrew Jackson
Jackson won plurality (not majority) of electoral votes and popular vote
House of Representatives chose the president
It chose Adams.
Adams accused of having made a "corrupt bargain" with Henry Clay.
Jackson immediately began to run for election of 1828.

John Quincy Adams. Compared to Bush family. George, Sr., apparently refers to George, Jr. as Quincy. Father and son presidents.

Election of 1828.

1829 inauguration of Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson won the election over John Quincy Adams.
Adams can write; Jackson can fight.
Jackson's party: Democrats
After the demise of Federalists and the one-party Era of Good Feelings
Democrats became the first well–organized national political party.

ANDREW JACKSON. Details of his life and career.

Andrew Jackson biography

The Hermitage (Jackson's plantation in Nashville)

Andrew Jackson's Heritage

The Expansion of Democracy during the Jacksonian Era (NHC lesson plan)

Spoils system. To the victors belong the spoils. Rotation in office.

"Kitchen Cabinet." Jackson relied on political friends, not Cabinet, for advice.

Native American Resistance and Removal

Most whites wanted land
Most whites were racist: had little respect for Indians' rights and culture
Indians always seemed to be in the way of whites' land hunger
Some whites: physically separate Indians and white settlers
Other whites: "civilize" Indians and assimilate them into American culture

Removal Act of 1830

Video: Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act

The government forced the Five Civilized Tribes to move west of the Mississippi River.


Five Civilized tribes: Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Cherokee, Seminole

Indian Removal


Cherokees. If civilizing Indians was the American goal, no tribe met that test better than the Cherokees


Video: Sequoya and the Cherokees

Bilingual tribal newspaper
Formal government complete with legislature and court system
Written constitution modeled after that of the U.S.
Ownership of black slaves
Almost total conversion to Christianity.

Cherokee Trail of Tears

One part, a sad one, of the overall Indian removal.

Some 4,000 of the 13,000 Cherokees died along the way.

Billy Ray Cyrus - Trail Of Tears

Google image search: Trail of Tears motorcycle ride

Trail of Tears yearly memorial ride home page

Indian Removal

In class today: new material

Louisiana Purchase (1803)

Great Map:

The obstacle to the "empire of liberty" posed by the French was the first to be overcome.

Louisiana Purchase (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase (NHC lesson plan)

U.S. paid $15 million to France.
Doubled the size of America.

Jefferson compromised his strict constructionist views

Lewis and Clark Expedition (May 1804-Sept 1806)

Here is a terrific map of the total route:

4,000 Miles.
Explored extent of Louisiana Purchase: rivers that drain into Mississippi.
Began in St. Louis; up the Missouri River to its source
Across the Rocky Mountains (Continental Divide)
Rivers running east go to Mississippi, those to West to Pacific Ocean
Winter camp in Astoria, Oregon

Video: The Corps of Discovery

Meriwether Lewis (The West)

Sacagawea (The West)

War with Barbary pirates (1801-1815)

Barbary States: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Tripoli (today's Libya).

Video: Thomas Jefferson, Barbary Coast, Louisiana Purchase

Pirates attacked U.S. ships in the Mediterranean
U.S. got tired of paying protection money
U.S. built up its naval and marine capacity
Pirates defeated by 1815; no more protection money

Marine Corps Hymn: "To the shores of Tripoli":
From the Halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli;
We fight our country's battles in the air, on land and sea;
First to fight for right and freedom and to keep our honor clean;
We are proud to claim the title of United States Marine.

Presidency of James Madison

Video: James Madison bio

Video: James Madison as President

Preserving American trading rights and neutral status in a world at war


World War b/n England and France started up again in 1803.
U.S. was the chief supplier of food to both sides for a while.
By 1805, France and Britain began blockading each other's ports.
As a trading partner of both countries, the U.S. paid a high price.

Chesapeake Affair (1807)

British warship Leonard; American warship Chesapeake
British attacked, boarded, (and killed 3 Americans) in American waters.
Exposed American military weakness
Intensified American objections to impressment.
Sparked American demands to go to war
Jefferson—with Congress not in session—able to resist war demands.


Jefferson did not want a military fight with British
He was generally pacifistic; war cost big bucks for a small nation
He fought with "peaceable economic coercion."
Embargo Act of 1807 prohibited all exports from the U.S.
Policy was well–intentioned, but unpopular and unsuccessful.
Mocked as "OGRABME"
American economy collapsed
British not hurt at all
Only bright spot: U. S. manufactures—textile mills—received a boost
Domestic market became exclusively American.

WAR OF 1812

Video: War of 1812 (Crash Course)

Remember: Britain and France locked in a world war

Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812.

"1812 Overture"

Written to commemorate Russian defense of Moscow against Napoleon.

Here is the finale of the 1812 Overture!

American grievances with British:

1. Impressment

Britain's navy suffered a severe shortage of sailors.
Britain stopped American ships
Forcible draft of American sailors.

2. Desire to defend American independence and honor

The vote for war

Congress deeply divided over whether to go to war with Britain.
Federalists in New England did not want to go to war.
Many Federalist considered conflict to be "Mr. Madison's War."
Raising troops in New England was difficult.
People in west wanted to go to war.

War Hawks

Their fathers had fought in the Revolution.
They themselves wanted to prove themselves in war

Key names:

a. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina

b. Henry Clay of Kentucky

In class today: new material

The Presidency of John Adams:

Election of 1796 won by John Adams, but a quirk in Electoral College made Jefferson (opposite political grouping) vice president.

Video: 1796 Election of John Adams

XYZ affair (1798)

Video: XYZ Affair/Alien and Sedition Acts

Jay's treaty (between Britain and America) made France jealous
France began capturing American ships carrying British goods
President Adams sent three commissioners to ask France to stop
French demanded a bribe of $250,000 prior to any discussions
Americans took this as evidence of French disrespect
Anti–French sentiment—even cries for war—swept the country
Remember: partisanship between Federalists and Democrat-Republicans
Adams held off demand for war

Video: The XYZ Affair ("Careless Whisper" parody) (Mr. Betts)

Quasi–War with France:

An undeclared naval war began in the Caribbean between warships of the U.S. navy and French privateers seeking to capture American merchant vessels.

French–American Convention (1800):

Ended the Quasi–War
Freed America from French Treaty of Alliance
Peaceful settlement cost Adams re–election
Laid foundation for Louisiana Purchase (1803)

Alien and Sedition Acts (1798):

Video: XYZ Affair/Alien and Sedition Acts

Federalist attempt to muzzle Jeffersonian-Republicans
Political criticism defined as treasonous
No concept of loyal opposition
First major crisis over civil liberties

Sedition Act of 1798 Becomes Law (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Kentucky and Virginia resolutions:

Video: Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

How could Democrat-Republicans combat Alien and Sedition Acts
National-level institutions (President, Congress, Court) controlled by Federalists
They therefore turned to only other forum available for protest: state legislatures
We the People or We the States
Claimed Constitution a compact among states (and not individual citizens)
How far could states go in opposing the national government?
How could a conflict between the two be resolved?
This line of reasoning background to Nullification controversy and Civil War

Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

From 1801–1824, all three American presidents were Republicans and Virginians:

Thomas Jefferson (8 yrs.)
James Madison (8 yrs.)
James Monroe (8 yrs).

Video: Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson the person

Virtual Field Trip to Monticello: Thomas Jefferson's day

Jefferson and music

Musical side of Thomas Jefferson
Video: Colonial Violins
Video: Jefferson's favorite music
Video: Music and the Revolution

Jefferson's Empire of liberty

Jefferson shared with other Americans the belief that the U.S. was destined to expand its "empire of liberty."
Most past empires had been run by dictators.

Four obstacles to America's empire of liberty would have to be confronted:

a. French in New Orleans and the Louisiana Territory
b. Spanish in Florida and Mexico
c. British in Canada
d. Native Americans throughout the continent.

Presidential Election of 1800

Hamilton Musical: The Election of 1800

Video: 1800 Election of Thomas Jefferson
Video: Election of 1800

Republicans Jefferson and Burr tied for the election
Jefferson selected by Federalist–controlled House of Representatives
Peaceful transition of power between political parties
New Congress controlled by Democrat-Republicans

Jefferson won election of 1800 (Today in History, Library of Congress)

The Revolution of 1800 (NHC lesson plan)

Mood Music:

Video: George Washington: playlist of music for the first President

In class today: new material

First political party system:

Both groupings gradually divided into two opposing camps, each accusing the other of having sold out the principles of the Revolution.

I. Federalists

Key person: Alexander Hamilton

Hamilton project

Hamilton bio

They began calling themselves Federalists to link themselves with the federal Constitution.

(Washington and Adams were both Federalists.)

Federalist Party (Ohio History Central)

Supporters: Those in favor of the Constitution during ratification
Concentrated in New England

Federalists believed in the following:

a. For a strong national government
b. For Central economic planning
c. For a National Bank
d. For Internal improvements (roads, harbors)
e. Wanted a commercially-oriented America: for manufacturing
f. In favor of protective tariffs (a tax on imported goods—to protect American industry)
g. Who should hold power?: social elite—best interests of the people
h. Wanted more order, less liberty: protection of property rights
i. For a broad construction==loose interpretation of the Constitution
j. Foreign policy: wanted closer ties with Great Britain

II. Democrat-Republicans

Key person: Thomas Jefferson.
James Madison his principal associate.

Democrat-Republican Party (Ohio History Central)

They began calling themselves Republicans, contending that they were the true heirs of the Revolution and that Hamilton was plotting to subvert republican principles.


Anti-federalists during ratification process
Southern planters
Small farmers south of New England
Non–English ethnic groups—Irish, Scots, and Germans

Their policies were generally the opposite of the Federalists on almost every domestic and foreign policy issue

a. Wanted a limited national government; favored States rights
b. Against a National Bank
c. Against Internal improvements (roads, harbors)
d. Against manufacturing—it would cause slums in cities
e. Against protective tariffs
f. Wanted an America based more on farming than on factories
g. Who should hold power?: the people
h. Wanted more liberty, less order
i. For a limited construction==tight interpretation of the Constitution
j. Foreign policy: wanted closer ties with France

Hamilton's economic program

a. Report on Public Credit (1790)

Approved by Congress
Consolidate debts at national level==power to national level
Debt holders will want national government to
Fund foreign and domestic debt at full face value
Speculators who paid 10% of face value would get rich
Assume remaining debts owed by states
Those who had paid off already were mad
Deal made to move U.S. capitol to Washington, D.C.

Video: 22 "Hamilton" lyrics explained

Hamilton Musical: Cabinet Battle #1

b. Defense of the Constitutionality of the Bank (1790)

Congress approved it
Hamilton liked the British system: Bank of England
Said U.S. need a central bank to facilitate money movements
Hamilton: a bank is permitted: loose construction view
Can make laws necessary for commerce, taxation, war, etc.
Implied powers argument
Jefferson: a bank not permitted: strict constitutional view

c. Report on Manufactures (Dec 1791)

Congress did not approve it
Reverse reliance on Europe for manufactured goods
Encourage infant U.S. industries (shoes and textiles) with govt subsidies
Tariffs to protect infant industries
Promote immigration of technicians and laborer.

Whiskey rebellion (1794)

Video: Whiskey Rebellion

Whiskey Rebellion

Hamilton's economic program required tax on whiskey to fund debt
Farmers turned grain into whiskey (easier to ship)
Farmers (mostly Democrat-Republicans) in western Pa. refused to pay
Challenge to national authority had to be confronted
Army sent to disperse the "rebellion" which "faded away like a vapor"
Washington believed rebellion politically motivated by Jeffersonians
Jeffersonians believed military response unnecessary

Whiskey Rebellion Illustrated - @MrBettsClass

French Revolution

Meanwhile, developments in foreign affairs magnified the domestic disagreements.
Disagreements over the American response to the French revolution led to partisan disagreements.
U.S. initially welcomed the French revolution but was bothered by its excesses.
(Remember: U.S. was first independent country without a king.)

Hamilton Musical: Cabinet Battle #2

French Revolution (Historian of the State Department)

Genet Affair (1793)

Video: Genet Affair

Genet Affair (1793)

Proclamation of Neutrality (April 1793)

Video: Proclamation of Neutrality

Proclamation of Neutrality issued by George Washington.
U.S. a small nation; caught in world war between Britain and France
U.S. wanted to remain neutral; continue trade with everyone
U.S. would act "friendly and impartial" toward the warring powers

Democratic–Republican societies:

A republic==consensus==no factions or disagreements
Composed chiefly of artisans and craftsmen
Members: Jefferson followers; sympathetic to French Revolution
Some 40 such societies organized (1793-1800)
Saw themselves as heirs of the Sons of Liberty
First grassroots political organizations
Opposed to Washington's administration; first formal political dissent

Washington's Farewell Address

"The great rule of our conduct in regard to foreign nations is to have with them as little political connection as possible."

"It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world."

Hamilton Musical: One Last Time (Washington's Farewell Address)

In class today: new material


Decisions on presidential powers made in light of the presumed first president: George Washington.

Court system

Judicial powers not as fully outlined as legislative and executive.

Separation of powers

Power balancing power. Gridlock intentionally built in.

Checks and balances both horizontal and vertical:

Horizontal: President, Congress, and Supreme Court.

Vertical: Federalism—balance between national and state levels

Ratification (approval) Conventions:

Material from Gordon Lloyd's Teaching American History website is taken from:

Ratification of the Constitution required approval of nine states

Most state legislatures were only willing to revise the Articles

The question became: How to bypass the state legislatures.

The solution: State constitutional conventions—people selected convention delegates

Rationale: Since a constitution more important than normal legislation, it should not be passed by regular legislative process.

Two general groupings arose out of the ratification conventions:


Called themselves Federalists, not nationalists.
  • Wanted a strong national government
  • Supported the Constitution as drafted
  • Promised a Bill of Rights after ratification

  • Wanted strong state governments as chief protectors of individual rights
  • Opposed the Constitution as drafted
  • Demanded a Bill of Rights to protect individuals from national government

Federalist Papers:

Video: Federalist Papers (2:51)

1. Written primarily for the ratification battle in New York
2. Published anonymously (Publius)
3. Actually written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
4. Classic of political theory
5. Original intent issue
6. What was in the mind of the Framers?
7. Plus Madison's notes

Two of the most famous of the Federalist essays:

Federalist 10

Federalist 51


We should not dismiss the views of the Antifederalists. Those views still have relevance today.

The following paragraphs are taken from Gordon Lloyd's "Introduction to The Antifederalists"

The expression of discontent over the last fifty years about American politics has an ominous ring, revealing the widespread Antifederal mood in the electorate.

Among the dramatic changes in recent American politics are the alarming alienation of the citizenry from the electoral system, the increased presence of the centralized Administrative State, and the dangerous consequences of an activist judiciary that openly thwarts the deliberate sense of the majority.

These are all Antifederalist concerns about the tyranny of politicians.

The term limits movement of the late twentieth century demonstrates that the Antifederalist message—keep your representatives on a short leash, otherwise you will lose your freedom—still resonates with the American people, because Antifederalism is very much part of the American political experience.

When we hear the claim that our representatives operate independently of the people, and that the Congress fails to represent the broad cross-section of interests in America, we are hearing an echo of the Antifederalist critique of representation.

When we hear that the federal government has spawned a vast and irresponsive administrative bureaucracy that interferes too much with the life of American citizens, we are reminded of the warnings of the Antifederalists concerning consolidated government.

They warn that, in effect, executive orders, executive privileges, and executive agreements will create the "Imperial Presidency." And they warn that an activist judiciary will undermine the deliberate sense of the majority.

The criticism that Americans have abandoned a concern for their religious heritage and neglected the importance of local customs, habits, and morals, recalls the Antifederalist dependence upon self-restraint and self-reliance. When we hear a concern for the passing of decentralization—old time federalism—we are hearing the Antifederalist lament.

Ratification (approval) vote:

The proposed Constitution was not overwhelmingly popular.

Debate in the state constitutional ratifying conventions was spirited.

Some state votes were close:
  • Massachusetts (187–168)
  • New Hampshire (57–46)
  • New York (30–27)
  • Virginia (89–79)

But the Constitution was ultimately approved!

The Presidency of George Washington

Video: George Washington: election, precedents, cabinet

Hail Columbia! with Lyrics; First American National Anthem
Hail, Columbia,_Columbia

Columbia: origin of name

Note: country of Colombia is spelled differently

Adidas apologizes for spelling error!

"Royals" Parody by George Washington - @MrBettsClass

George Washington

Video: George Washington bio

Mount Vernon virtual tour

Mount Vernon aerial view

Washington elected unanimously

Vice President John Adams

Washington acted cautiously
Aware of precedents for the future
Only used his veto power when he felt a bill was unconstitutional

First Congress (April 1789):

Members were Federalists—generally

Congress succeeded at its four immediate tasks:

a. Revenue Act of 1789.

Congress adopted a 5 percent tariff on certain imports.
Raised sufficient revenue to support the new government.

b. Bill of Rights

Responding to state ratification conventions' call for a bill of rights.
James Madison took the lead.
First ten amendments to the Constitution passed.

c. Beginnings of a "Cabinet"

Video: The First Cabinet

1. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson

2. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton

Video: Alexander Hamilton

‘Hamilton’ Is Known For Its Music, but What Did Alexander Hamilton Listen To?

3. Secretary of War Henry Knox

4. Attorney General Edmund Randolph

d. Judiciary Act of 1789.

Organized the federal judiciary.
Supreme Court (6 members)
District courts (13)
Circuit courts of appeal (3)

Mood Music:

American Harpsichord Music in the XVIII Century / Olivier Baumont

Exam #2

A=(average of 67 points) 90%
B=(average of 60 points) 80%
C=(average of 52 points) 70%
D=(average of 45 points) 60%

Extra credit: I will make other opportunities available.


Go to the following link:
James Madison's Notes to the Constitutional Convention (Master Calendar)

Pick any two dates (a birthday, anniversary, etc.) and read through what happened.

Reaction to homework for today

a. Ben A to Z
b. Health
c. Inventions
d. Glass Armonica
Video: Glass armonica
e. Post Office
f. France

In class today: new material

Convention itself

Where: Philadelphia

When: May–Sept 1787

Delegates to the Federal (Grand) Convention are considered to be:
Founding Fathers
Framers of the Constitution

++++Put in a section on characteristics of Delegates++++

Constitutional Convention (Gordon Lloyd website)

Individual Biography Master Page

George Washington
Benjamin Franklin
Edmund Randolph
George Mason
James Madison
Roger Sherman
John Dickinson
William Paterson
Alexander Hamilton

Scene at the signing of the Constitution

Overall Timeline

James Madison's Notes Master Calendar

Key people who were not delegates at the convention
  • Thomas Jefferson (ambassador to France)
  • John Adams (ambassador to England)
  • Patrick Henry ("smelled a rat")

Procedural rules crucial to the outcome:

a. Absolute secrecy

June 6. James Madison to Thomas Jefferson. He is restrained by rules of confidentiality, but what we do here "will in some way or other have a powerful effect on our destiny." [See last paragraph of this letter]

b. OK to reopen questions

c. Only a majority vote of states required to approve provisions
[Bypassed the 9/13 rule of the Articles of Confederation]

James Madison—his vital role:

Well prepared: Studied comparative governments historically

Analyzed our existing government in his essay entitled "Vices of the Political System of the United States"

Took notes during entire Convention

Often called the "Father of the Constitution"
He later became the Fourth President of the United States

James Madison (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Virginia Plan

Goal: Replace the Articles of Confederation
Go to the paragraph beginning with "Mr. Randolph then opened the main business."

Presented by Edmund Randolph of Virginia, but the creation of James Madison.

Large states liked this plan

Two–house legislature:

Lower house elected directly by the people
Upper house selected by the lower

Proportional representation in both houses

"National" executive with "supreme" powers
"National" executive to be chosen by legislature; (electoral college)

National judiciary—became basis of Supreme Court

Congressional veto over state laws.

Let's see an example of how the delegates processed this Virginia Plan on Thursday, May 31, 1787:

Overall Timeline

Madison's Notes Master Calendar

Virginia Plan example
Thursday, May 31

New Jersey plan (Patterson Plan)

Goal: Just amend the Articles of Confederation

On June 15, William Paterson submitted the New Jersey Plan

It scrapped all the popular representation provisions of the Virginia Plan

Small states liked this plan

One–house legislature
Each state would have an equal vote
Only a modestly stronger national government

Major disagreement over the two plans

Convention almost split up.

A bit of a digression:
On Thursday, June 28, Benjamin Franklin suggested that the members should pray.
But let's look at how his proposal turned out.
Scroll down 2/3 of the way to "Mr. President"

Great [Connecticut] Compromise (16 July 1787)

The Great Compromise (Drake's "Hotline Bling" Parody)

Convention had almost collapsed because of the large state/small state split over representation.

The Great Compromise reconciled the Virginia and New Jersey plans:
Key authors were Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth.

1. Lower House

Proportional representation
Members elected directly by the people

2. Upper house

Each state had two members
Equal votes per state (so they thought)
Elected by state legislatures (1916: direct election)

Three–Fifths clause

Issue of proportional representation now became a stumbling block to the delegates.

How to allocate lower house representation among the states?
This question divided states between slave/free rather than state size
Slaves to count as "three–fifths" of a person for representation
South gained power: House of Representatives & electoral college

Other constitutional protections for slavery

Congress prohibited from outlawing slave trade for twenty years
Fugitive slave clause: states must return runaways to masters.
National troops can help put down states' "domestic violence"

Mood Music:

Shays' Rebellion - "Over the hills and far away"

Tip I hope you can use:

Dyslexia Awareness

Learning objectives for this next module in our course

1. What were the positive results/shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation.
2. Examine the forces that led to the calling of the Constitutional Convention.
3. Discuss the characteristics of the delegates and examine James Madison's role.
4. What major disagreements emerged in the Convention and how were they resolved?
5. Why did the Federalist forces prevail in the ratification debate?

In class today: new material

Crash Course US History #8: US Constitution

Articles of Confederation:

Articles of Confederation (Kelis's "Milkshake" Parody)

Articles of Confederation ("Celebration" Parody Song)

The first American constitution
Codified the way the Second Continental Congress operated
Government was unwieldy and inefficient

Like a League of Friendship
Compare it to the Confederacy during Civil War.
Compare it to U.S. participation in the United Nations.

Features of the Articles of Confederation:

1. No strong central government
2. Sovereignty and independence retained by states
3. One house in Continental Congress—each state had an equal vote
4. State control of Congressional delegation
  • Delegates selected by state legislatures
  • Delegates paid by states
  • Delegates had one-year terms, up to a maximum of 3 terms

5. Nine of thirteen states' votes required for normal legislation
6. All 13 states' votes needed to amend the articles itself
7. No separate executive branch to administer the government
8. No national-level court system
9. No power to levy taxes
10. No authority to regulate commerce
11. No strong, centralized military

Religion and the Congress of the Confederation (Library of Congress)
Read "Settling the West" and "Northwest Ordinance

Land Ordinance of 1785

Land Ordinance of 1785 (Ohio History Central)

Land to be surveyed in a regular grid pattern
Outlined process through which land could be sold to settlers
Land sales helped fund national government

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Confederation Congress successful in one thing: legislation for Northwest Territory
Today's states of Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio

Abolished slavery in Northwest territory
Guaranteed freedom of religion within the territory
Defined how formal governments would be organized:
When 6,000 settlers: territorial status
When 60,000 settlers: apply for statehood
New states would join Union on equal footing with original thirteen

Northwest Ordinance (Ohio History Central)

Why did we have what became known as the Constitutional Convention?

Many American leaders felt that the laws of the Confederation government were not adequate to run the country.

Shay's Rebellion (January 1787)

Convinced many political leaders that the nation's problems extended far beyond trade policy.
Massachusetts farmers angered by high taxes and the scarcity of money.
They took up arms to protest.
Led by Daniel Shays
Used same arguments Patriots had used against the British.
Was this protest a forerunner of similar revolts in other locations?

Shays Rebellion (This website is terrific)

Video: Shays' Rebellion

Video: Shays' Rebellion Explained in One Minute

After Shays' Rebellion (NHC lesson plan)

Convention itself

Video: Into to the Constitutional Convention
Video: Constitution of the US

Where: Philadelphia

When: May–Sept 1787

Delegates to the Federal (Grand) Convention are considered to be:
Founding Fathers
Framers of the Constitution

+++++Put in material on characteristics of Delegates++++

Mood Music:

Fife and Drum Music of the Revolutionary War

American Revolutionary War Medley (Carmel Brass)

Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps

In class today: new material

Revolutionary War map
++++Get a better one or ones++++

Washington "crossed the Delaware" River (26 December 1776)

Attacked Trenton and won a surprising victory
These victories cheered American spirits

Video: Battle of Trenton

Video: German Hessians

Video: Washington's spy network

Painting: Washington crossing the Delaware

Battle of Saratoga (September 1777)

Battle of Saratoga (Today in History, Library of Congress)

a. British invaded New York to cut off New England from rest of colonies
b. British General Burgoyne surrendered 6,000 troops
c. American victory led to French recognition of American independence

Video: Surrender at Saratoga and Treaty with France

Video: Benedict Arnold: militant patriot
Early years

Video: Benedict Arnold: hero of Saratoga

Video: Daniel Morgan at Saratoga
Elite corps of snipers

Franco–American Treaty of Alliance (1778)

Treaty of Alliance with France 1778 (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Treaty of alliance brought France into war on American side:

a. Americans had mixed feelings
b. France had been major enemy in past
c. French were Catholic
d. But French were anxious to avenge their defeat in the French and Indian War

French help was critically important to the overall Patriot victory against the British.

Guns and ships (Hamilton musical)

Marquis de Lafayette

Video: 10 things you may not know about the Marquis de Lafayette

Treason of Benedict Arnold (21 September 1780)
Officers developed intense commitment to the revolutionary cause

Arnold betrayed the cause (

Arnold bio sketch

Fighting moved to the south

British had taken key cities in the North:
  • Boston
  • Newport, Rhode Island
  • New York City (their headquarters for most of the war)
  • Philadelphia

But still the British were not stopping the Patriots

British thought they would have better success in the South

Charleston (South Carolina) (1780)

Results were the reverse of Saratoga.

Americans surrendered 5,000 troops to the British.

Nathanael Greene

Nathanael Greene (Today in History, Library of Congress)

He was a Quaker
He operated effectively in the South against the British militarily.
But he was much more than just a military man.
He showed tolerance for the problems of loyalists and Indians.

British Surrender at Yorktown (1781)


Battle of Yorktown

Cornwallis Surrender at Yorktown (Today in History, Library of Congress)

a. British General Cornwallis trapped on Tidewater peninsula

b. American and French armies surrounded him on land.

c. French navy defeated British rescue effort off Chesapeake Bay

d. Great American victory.

Video: Victory at Yorktown

e. Alexander Hamilton at Yorktown

History has its eyes on you (Hamilton musical)
70th Tony Awards "Hamilton" (Obamas intro)
Start at 2:12

Yorktown: The World Turned Upside Down (Hamilton musical)

The World Turned Upside Down

Peace Treaty of Paris (1783)

American diplomats: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay
Won a tremendous settlement for America

Video: Treaty of Paris (1783)

a. England recognized American independence
b. Britain kept Canada—but reduced to its original boundaries before Quebec Act
c. U.S. got all territory east of the Mississippi
d. Britain ignored territorial rights of its Indian allies
e. French GOT NOTHING out of the peace treaty

Great map:

In class today: new material

Boston siege

Patriot troops surrounded British in Boston for next year

Second Continental Congress

Convened in May 1775 at Philadelphia

Second Continental Congress (Massachusetts Historical Society)

a. Became the inter colonial government during American Revolution
b. Authorized the printing of money
c. Established a committee to supervise relations with foreign countries
d. Created the Continental Army
e. Washington, from the South, appointed commanding general

Edmund Burke speech on conciliation with America (March 22, 1775)

Washington takes command of the Continental Army

Washington as Commander (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Video: George Washington bio

Thomas Paine: Common Sense (Jan 1776)

a. Wildly popular book
b. Helped Americans accept the idea of separation from Britain
c. Advocated creation of an independent republic
d. Downplayed benefits of links to mother country
e. Insisted Britain had exploited colonies unmercifully
f. Americans hated Parliament, but thought King was sympathetic
g. Paine disagreed:
h. King was a royal brute
i. King only pretended to care for the colonist's welfare

Thomas Paine's Common Sense (NHC lesson plan)

Video: Thomas Paine and Common Sense

Video: Common Sense (Justin Timberlake's "Can't Stop the Feeling" Parody) (3:07)


Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)

Declaration of Independence (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Declaration of Independence in historical context

a. Noted committee members: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin
The two other members were Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston

Abigail Adams and "Remember the Ladies" (NHC lesson plan)

Thomas Jefferson bio

Jefferson was chosen to draft the Declaration

a. He wrote well

He had recently drafted the Virginia state constitution

b. Colonists no longer could accept legitimacy of Parliament

c. Declaration concentrated on King George III as the villain

The King had attempted to destroy representative government.

The King oppressed Americans by excessive force.

d. All men are created equal: principle to live up to

e. Signers of the Declaration at great risk: treason.

John Hancock's big signature: "King won't need his spectacles"

Boston History in a Minute: John Hancock

Lineup of opponents during the war itself :

a. War took place on several levels

Regular troops: British against Patriots

Irregular troops: Partisan warfare (Patriots versus Loyalists)

The American Revolution as a Civil War (North Carolina) (NHC lesson plan)

b. Fighting moved chronologically from North to South:
  • New England
  • Middle colonies
  • Southern colonies

Continental army

a. Never numbered more than 18,500 men
b. Included black (5,000) troops
c. Short–term militiamen helped in their own area
d. Women traveled with the army

Who: wives and widows of poor soldiers
Doing what: cooks, nurses, and launderers

Valley Forge: Patriot winter camp (close to Philadelphia)

Video: Valley Forge
Stop at small pox

Diary of a Surgeon at Valley Forge 1777

Picture: Valley Forge cabin used by soldiers

Time for needed training (Baron von Steuben)

General Von Steuben (National Park Service)

Video: Baron von Steuben

Video: 10 things you may not know about the Marquis de Lafayette

Treason of Benedict Arnold (21 September 1780)
Officers developed intense commitment to the revolutionary cause

Arnold betrayed the cause (

Arnold bio sketch

Washington "crossed the Delaware" River

Attacked Trenton and won a surprising victory
These victories cheered American spirits

Video: Battle of Trenton

Washington's Crossing the Delaware

Glover's fisherman

Video: German Hessians

Video: Washington's spy network

Painting: Washington crossing the Delaware

How a painting of George Washington crossing the Delaware on Christmas Day went 19th-century viral

Tip I hope you can use.

Sportianity: A New Blog

Choosing sides

Which side do you think you would have been on?

1. Patriots (40% of population)

Americans who were against the British

Video: Loyalists and Patriots

To win, Patriots had to neutralize or defeat potential internal enemies.

2. Loyalists (20% of population)

Loyalists were Americans who remained loyal to the British:

  • British–appointed government officials
  • Merchants whose trade depended on British connections
  • Anglican (Church of England) ministers

100,000 loyalists left America, many to Canada

3. Neutrals (40% of population)

Those who tried to remain in the middle

  • Sincere pacifists (Quakers)
  • Those who supported whoever controlled their area
  • Those who simply wanted to be left alone

4. African–Americans

Slaves sought freedom by supporting the British.
British eventually took away 55,000 slaves
Colonies with highest slave %—less support for revolution.

5. Indians

Both British and patriots tried to keep Indians neutral
Indians bitter at aggressive expansionism of colonists
Most taking sides supported British—less threat than Patriots

British military planners made three erroneous assumptions :

1. Americans would not stand up to professional troops

2. English could fight a conventional war as they would in Europe

3. Military victory would be sufficient to win the struggle

Paul Revere's Ride (April 1775)

Video: Paul Revere's Ride (N.W.A.'s "Straight Outta Compton" Parody) (2:05)

Paul Revere's account of his ride

Video: Boston History in a Minute: Paul Revere's Ride

Paul Revere's Ride
Three riders were Paul Revere, Samuel Prescott, and Richard Dawes

Video: The truth about Paul Revere's ride

Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 1775).

Lexington and Concord (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Lexington and Concord (NHC lesson plan)

Video: Minute Men

Video: General Thomas Gage
Prior to Lexington

Good map in the Wikipedia account of the battle
[scroll 25% of the way down the screen]

Results: Colonial victory (note casualties and losses

Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775)

Battle of Bunker Hill (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Results: Technically a British victory, but their casualties were huge.

Boston History in a Minute: Battle of Bunker Hill

British account of Bunker Hill

Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)

Video: Olive Branch Petition

Olive Branch Petition (July 1775)

Adopted by Second Continental Congress

Tip I hope you can use.

What's the right thing to say to someone with cancer?


Spy Letters of the American Revolution
(click on the items on right side of screen and read each item)

In class today: new material

Coercive Acts (1774)

Called Intolerable Acts by the colonists

Coercive Acts (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Video: Coercive (Intolerable) Acts

Intolerable Acts

Americans convinced British planned to take away their liberty.

Port of Boston closed to shipping until tea was paid for: "Lord North is closing the port of Boston."

Lord North (Victorian Web)

a. Massachusetts Government Act

Altered the Massachusetts charter
Substituted an appointed council for an elected one
Increased the powers of the Governor
Halted most town meetings.

b. Justice Act

British officials would be sent to England for trial.

c. Quartering Act

British military commanders could house their troops in private dwellings.

Quebec Act (1774)

Intended to ease strains of British conquest of the former French colony.

Quebec Act map

Catholics granted greater religious freedom.
Representative assembly abolished.
Canada boundary extended to Ohio River.
Many American colonists coveted this land.

Results thus far in the arguments between the British government and the colonies:

Colonists worried over precedents of Coercive Acts and Quebec Act.
Both Acts made colonists fear that Britain had a deliberate plan to oppress the American colonies.

BUT: few people wanted to take hasty action.
Most patriots remained loyal to Britain and hoped for reconciliation
Colonists agreed to send delegates to Philadelphia to attend a Continental Congress to consider an appropriate response.


The American Revolution required patriot leaders to do three things :
  • Establish a coalition in favor of independence
  • Gain foreign recognition.
  • Triumph over the British army

First Continental Congress (Philadelphia, Sept 1774)

First Continental Congress (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Video: First Continental Congress

1. Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Colonists would obey normal laws of British Parliament
Colonists would not obey taxes in disguise (like Townshend Duties)

2. Continental Association
Boycott of English goods

3. Committees of Observation & Inspection
Committee members (7000) assigned to monitor boycott,
Became, in effect, the local leaders of the American resistance.

Provincial conventions :
Independence was being won at the local level, without formal acknowledgement and without much bloodshed.

Popularly elected congresses took over government in each colony

These conventions
  • a. elected delegates to the Second Continental Congress
  • b. organized militia units
  • c. gathered arms and ammunition
  • d. collected taxes

Tip I hope you can use

Advice on Asking Good Questions

Homework for Friday, 6 October

++++Put in a section on this+++
Religion and the American Revolution (Library of Congress)
Read the Introductory paragraphs
Read "Resistance to Tyranny a Christian Duty"
Read "Revolution Understood in Scriptural Terms"
Read "A Fighting Parson"
Scan the remainder of the screen

Was The American Revolution a Holy War?

In class today: new material

Non-importation association

The first attempts to use an economic boycott to pressure British exporters to demand repeal of the Stamp Act

Non-consumption and non-importation
Boston Non-Importation Agreement

Townshend Acts (1767)

Townshend Acts (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Video: Townshend Acts

Video: Patrick Henry: Townshend Duties

Liberty Song

Video: Liberty Song

1. British officials searched for new ways to generate revenue to help pay war debts from French and Indian War.

2. The passage of the Townshend Acts drew a swift response from the colonists, who were now less hesitant and better organized.

3. Townshend Acts provided as follows:
  • Duties on goods (paper, glass, tea) imported from Britain to the colonies
  • Proceeds would pay salaries for some royal officials in the colonies
  • American Board of Customs Commissioners (based in Boston)
  • Added vice–admiralty courts in Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston

Boston "Massacre" (5 March 1770)

British troops assigned to Boston to protect Customs Commissioners.
Tensions in a military garrison town: soldiers took local jobs
Was this a "massacre"?

Boston Massacre (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Boston Massacre

Video: Boston Massacre

Video: Boston Massacre: A Memestory (Mr. Betts)

Townshend Duties Repealed (12 April 1770)

Townshend Duties Repealed/Non-Importation (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Repeal (

Parliament revoked all the duties except that on tea. (This will be a cause of the Boston Tea Party)

The other Townshend provisions remained in effect.

Committees of Correspondence

Committees of Correspondence (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Committees of Correspondence

Widen geographic scope of resistance movement.

Boston Tea Party (1773)

Boston tea party ships and museum home page

Boston Tea Party (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Video: Boston Tea Party
[Has good material on Tea Act, Indian disguise]

Video: Boston Tea Party

Sons of Liberty Indian disguise

Video: The Boston (Google+) Tea Party (Mr. Betts)

Tea Act (May 1773)

Tea Act

Video: Tea Act of 1773

1. Monopoly: British East India Company sell off surplus tea to America
2. Patriots were making money smuggling tea from Holland.
3. Patriots feared precedent of paying even a small tax on tea.

Tea Party itself:

Tea destroyed worth almost $1 million.
Colonists refused to pay for the tea.

Eyewitness account by George Hewes

Exam #1

Let me explain the grading process for our course:

A=(average of 67 points) 90%
B=(average of 60 points) 80%
C=(average of 52 points) 70%
D=(average of 45 points on each exam) 60%

Minus points for excess absences
Plus points for participation and contribution to class sessions.

Extra credit: I will try to make several opportunities available.

In class today: new material

++++Put in material on Stamp Act Congress+++

Stamp Act (1765)

Stamp Act ((1765)
Crash course

Stamp Act summary

Stamp Act (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Modeled on a law in effect in Britain for over a century.

Three aspects to remember:

Stamp Act required tax stamps on most printed material
Tax stamps had to be paid for in cash (scarce)
Violators would be tried in vice admiralty courts (no juries).

Boston History in a Minute: Stamp Act Riots
Destruction of Thomas Hutchinson's house

Protests against the Stamp Act

Colonists feeling their way on exactly how to protest British decisions that affected them.

a) James Otis:

[I can't find a good, short video about James Otis.]

How to combat certain acts of Parliament without questioning Parliament's authority over the colonies.
He concluded that colonists had to obey British laws.
Many Americans, therefore, reluctantly prepared to obey the Stamp Act.

b) Patrick Henry

[Good video below about him debating the Townshend Duties.]

Not all the colonists were resigned to paying the Stamp tax.
Patrick Henry did not agree with James Otis
He proposed the "Virginia Stamp Act Resolves"
These resolves protested Parliament's right to tax Americans without their consent.

Patrick Henry (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Patrick Henry bio (CW)

Patrick Henry and "Give Me Liberty!" (NHC lesson plan)

Patrick Henry College

c) Despite the uproar, most Americans wanted to remain loyal British subjects and were not yet arguing for independence.

Stamp Act Repeal (March 1766)

New British Prime Minister, Lord Rockingham
He repealed the Stamp Act not because he believed Parliament lacked the power to tax the colonies, but because he thought the law unwise and divisive.

Repeal of Stamp Act

William Pitt's defense of the colonies (CW) (January 1766)
Contributed to repeal of the Stamp Act

Declaratory Act (March 1766)

Linked to the repeal of the Stamp Act.
Dangerous implications for the colonists.

Key issue: Asserted Parliament's ability to tax & legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."

Sons of Liberty

Colonial elites wanted to control the protests against unpopular laws.
They created an inter-colonial association, the Sons of Liberty, to protest the Stamp Act.
In subsequent U.S. history, groups who want to protest government action often will call themselves Sons of Liberty.

Video: Sons of Liberty

Sons of Liberty

Sons of Liberty Indian disguise

Boston History in a Minute: Flip, a Trendy Colonial Cocktail

Boston History in a Minute: Green Dragon Tavern

Samuel Adams

Boston History in a Minute: Samuel Adams

Liberty Tree

Video: Johnny Tremain: Liberty Tree

Liberty Tree

Boston History in a Minute: Liberty Tree

Tarring and Feathering

Bostonians paying the excise man cartoon
Tarring and feathering

In class today: new material

Peace Treaty of Paris (1763)

Great Map!

France is entirely ousted from the North American continent
France will want to get back at Britain for this defeat
France will therefore be willing to help us win the American Revolution.

After the war, British colonists no longer feared a French threat.
Indians could no longer play European powers against one another.


Major themes along the Road to Revolution:
  • Development and spread of the colonial resistance movement
  • British actions
  • Colonists' responses

King George III (1760–1820)

New young king; various prime ministers.
[I can't find a good, short video about him.]

Pontiac's uprising (1763)

Indian chief led Indian uprisings in the Ohio region to kick out colonists.
British troops unable to defend the frontier against him.

Good map

Pontiac's Rebellion ( | 5/7/1763))

Proclamation Line of 1763

Good map

Video: Proclamation of 1763

Proclamation Line of 1763 (Historian of the State Department)

British tried to keep colonists out of land west of Appalachian Mountains
British wanted to protect Indians
British wanted to slow down land speculation
But many colonists had already settled west of the Proclamation Line
They refused to respect the line.

Causes of the American Revolution (Mr.Betts)

Ideological conflicts between Britain and the North American colonies

a) Conflict over the nature of political representation

English view:
  • Parliament collectively represented the entire nation
  • Member of Parliament voted on best interests of nation not his district.
  • Virtual representation: colonists were represented even if not there in person

Colonists' views:
  • Advocated individual representation.
  • Legislator instructions
  • Represented only the regions that had elected them.

b) Conflicts over the role of a national government.

1. Colonists saw conspiracies in England that threatened to take away their liberties.

Colonists believed that a central government should have only limited authority over people.

Colonists felt the need for perpetual vigilance to ensure that monarchs do not corrupt and oppress the people, encroach on their liberty, and seize their property


2. Colonists believed that there was an important link between liberty and property rights:

  • Excessive and unjust taxation could take away personal freedom.
  • No taxation without representation idea, but more subtle.
  • Not so much the amount of taxation, but who did the taxing.

No taxation without representation

Sugar Act (1764)

Sugar Act (Massachusetts Historical Society)

Sugar Act song

Sugar Act (1764)
The Sugar Act and Triangular Trade

New British Prime Minister George Grenville
He felt that colonists should pay a greater share of costs of empire.
Particularly pay back costs of French and Indian War.

American protests limited largely to New England merchants
Navigation Acts OK
Collection of revenue not OK

++++Put in a section on Navigation Acts+++

Video: Mercantilism

Currency Act (1764)

[I can't find a good, short video about the Currency Act.]

British merchants complained that Americans were paying their debts in inflated local currencies.

Currency Act outlawed colonial issues of paper money.

The Sugar and Currency Acts hit an economy already in the midst of depression.

Lacking any precedent for a united campaign against Parliament, Americans in 1764 took only hesitant and uncoordinated steps of protest.

In class today: new material


Albany Congress (1754)

Albany Plan of Union (Historian of the State Department)

Join or Die cartoon (Teaching

Plan of union proposed by Benjamin Franklin (but not approved):
  • Supreme governor chosen by England
  • Supreme assembly represented by colonists.
  • Plan could possibly have averted Revolution.
  • Same plan later used with Canada and Australia.

New France

New France

New France article with good links to Canadian Encyclopedia

Virtual Museum of New France

French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), 1754-1763

The Seven Years War and the Great Awakening: Crash Course US History #5
End at 7:44

Video: Parody

Video: French and Indian War

Who was on each side in the war?
Really a French versus British war with Indian allies on both sides.

French began to encircle the British colonies.

French—from today's Canada—claimed the Great Lakes and Mississippi Valley.

French established New Orleans to anchor the southern end of the Mississippi River.

French claimed the Pittsburgh area (originally called Fort Duquesne by the French, Fort Pitt by the British).

Three rivers come together at Pittsburgh: Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio

Various battles in the French and Indian War


George Washington's role in the war

Video (4:49)

Battle of Jumonville Glen

Battle of Fort Necessity


The worst July 4 that George Washington ever had and how it led to a new nation

Video: George Washington, General Braddock, and the Battle of the Monongahela

Braddock Campaign

Battle of the Plains of Abraham/Battle of Quebec (1759)

This crucial British victory won the war.
*British victory at Quebec on the Plains of Abraham was the turning point. It was a major battle in history.

Quebec Politics: France vs. Britain - The Plains of Abraham

Both commanding generals were killed in the battle: Wolfe (British) and Montcalm (French)

Famous painting: The Death of Wolfe
Video explanation

Mood Music:

Irish tavern music (11:37)

17th c. English country dances

In class today: new material

Back again to English history as it affects colonies

English Civil War

Video: English Civil War

The Execution of Charles I
He was the son of James I

Oliver Cromwell (English Commonwealth period)

Oliver Cromwell

Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)

Charles II (1660–1685)

Restoration [of the monarchy]

Video: Restoration of English monarchy

Key for America:

Charles II gave land grants (New York, Carolinas) of new colonies as rewards to men who supported him during his exile in France.

All were proprietorships: their owners held title to the soil and controlled the government.

Carolinas (1663)

Colonial Carolina

A buffer between the other English colonies and the Spanish in Florida

Map of the Carolinas and Georgia

Charles II paid back several of his supporters (those who stood by him in exile in France) with land grants.

Creating the Carolinas (US

Northern portion of the grant (North Carolina) grew similarly to and was linked with Virginia.

Area around Charleston became the nucleus of South Carolina.

Heavily influenced by settlers from Barbados

Their brand of slavery was harsher than in other parts of North America.

Rice and indigo (Eliza Pinckney) the main crops

South Carolina used skills slaves brought from Africa (rice growing) and the West Indies (indigo—blue dye).
Both crops offset each other: different growing seasons; indigo grown on high ground, rice in low–lying swampy areas.

First Great Awakening

Religion in 18th century America (Library of Congress)
[Scroll down halfway and begin at "The Emergence of American Evangelicalism: The Great Awakening"

Video: First Great Awakening (6:39)

Put with Great Awakening video
Ezekiel 37:1-14 - The Valley of Dry Bones

Dry Bones (Delta Rhythm Boys)

First Great Awakening: a reaction to the decline of religious intensity in the American colonies

Began in Massachusetts in 1730s; in all colonies by 1760s.

Jonathan Edwards

Great Awakening began in Northampton, Massachusetts (1734–35) with Jonathan Edwards.

He noticed a remarkable number of conversions among the youth of his church to a message based on Calvinist principles, a recognition of their own depraved natures, and the need to surrender completely to God's will.

Jonathan Edwards (God in America, PBS)

Jonathan Edwards

George Whitefield

The effects of such conversions remained isolated until 1739, when George Whitefield, an English Anglican clergyman, arrived in America.
For fifteen months he toured the colonies.
Preached to large audiences from Georgia to New England.
His journey: new interconnection among the previously distinct colonies.

George Whitefield (God in America, PBS)

Impact of the Great Awakening:

Challenged deference, introduced egalitarianism to the colonies.

The Great Awakening divided churches over several issues:
  • Were pastors clearly born again?
  • How much education did pastors need?
  • Was itinerant evangelism allowable?

Denominations split into New Lights and Old Lights (Presbyterians) and Old Sides and New Sides (Congregationalists).

In class today: new material

MIDDLE COLONIES=New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware

Crash Course US History:
The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies

Map of Middle Colonies

Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies (Divining America, National Humanities Center)

Pennsylvania (1681)

Charles II gave William Penn a proprietary land grant

Penn saw this land as a refuge for Quakers—a "holy experiment"
Pennsylvania became known for its religious toleration.
Religious diversity: Quakers, German Reformed, Lutherans, Mennonites
Penn actively promoted his colony—to Germans (Deutsch) particularly
Pennsylvania became grain producing area of colonial America

German speakers: Deutsch not Dutch

Ben Franklin's comments

Keeping the Pennsylvania Dutch language alive - and thriving

Holy Experiment
Best Poor Man's country
Walking Purchase

Video: Pennsylvania, the Quaker's Delight (Lion King Parody Song)

William Penn

William Penn

William Penn (God in America)


Society of Friends, founded in England by George Fox.

a. Quakers believed everyone could be saved—all were children of God and could experience his inner light.
b. No need of a formal priesthood or liturgy.
c. Women were allowed an important role in ministry.
d. Refused to swear oaths on the Bible—it would imply they were not telling the truth on other occasions.
e. Pacifists. Refused to perform militia service or pay taxes for self–defense.
f. Related well to the Indians. Could history have developed differently if we had learned from Quakers?

America as a Religious Refuge (Part 2) (Library of Congress) Read the portions entitled "The Quakers"
and "The Pennsylvania Germans"

New Netherlands

Netherlands a small country but a major trading power and enemy of England in Europe
Dutch settled along the Hudson river in what is now New York.

New Netherland

The United States and the Netherlands

Conquered by the English in 1664

Video: From New Amsterdam to New York Illustrated - @MrBettsClass

Henry Hudson's explorations (1609). 400th anniversary in 2009

Video: Henry Hudson

Henry Hudson (PBS)

Salem Witchcraft (1692)

Video: What Caused The Salem Witch Trials?

Salem Witchcraft

"A strong belief in the devil, factions among Salem Village fanatics and rivalry with nearby Salem Town, a recent small pox epidemic and the threat of attack by warring tribes created a fertile ground for fear and suspicion."

Spectral evidence

Spectral evidence refers to a witness testimony that the accused person's spirit or spectral shape
appeared to him/her in a dream at the time the accused person's physical body was at another
location. It was accepted in the courts during the Salem Witch Trials.

Famous Trials
Salem Trials

New York
Province of New York

Charles II gave his younger brother, duke of York, a large land grant which include the Dutch–held New Netherlands.

Duke of York became King James II when his brother Charles II died.

New Netherlands was conquered in 1664 by the English; renamed New York.

New Jersey. Duke of York regranted much of his land grant to two friends.

Province of New Jersey

We won't do anything more with either New York or New Jersey.

In class today: new material

New England: Religious intolerance in treatment of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson:

Roger Williams

Video: Roger Williams bio

Roger Williams (God in America, PBS)

Roger Williams Biography (National Park Service)
Youth and Education
Rejecting the Middle Way
Founding Providence (Rhode Island)

Anne Hutchinson

She was smart, outspoken and opinionated.
She was the daughter of an English minister and well versed in the Bible.
She interpreted the Scriptures on her own for her meetings, bypassing the official ministers.
She claimed that God had communicated to her by direct revelations.

Video: Anne Hutchinson bio

Anne Hutchinson (God in America, PBS)

Anne Hutchinson (National Women's History Museum)

John Calvin (Calvinists):

God alone decided who would be saved—predestination.
Act as if you were one of the elect by strict morality and hard work
Laymen governed church through elders and ministers (presbytery)

John Calvin biographical sketch (Calvin College)

John Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)

Video: John Calvin

Calvin Bio

Covenant theology

God covenanted with the Puritans and they with Him.

People covenanted together to form a church.

Puritan church became known as Congregationalists

New England towns

No headright system as in Virginia.
Land distributed to groups, not individuals.
Grants of land led to growth of communities not large personal estates.

New England families

Numerous, large (5–7 healthy children), and long–lived.
Even grandparents appeared.
Parents exercised control over their adult children
Allocation of land
Need for children's labor to support them.
Contrast with Chesapeake


Crash Course US History:
The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies

Map of Middle Colonies

Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies (Divining America, National Humanities Center)

Pennsylvania (1681)

Charles II gave William Penn a proprietary land grant

Penn saw this land as a refuge for Quakers—a "holy experiment"
Pennsylvania became known for its religious toleration.
Religious diversity: Quakers, German Reformed, Lutherans, Mennonites
Penn actively promoted his colony—to Germans (Deutsch) particularly
Pennsylvania became grain producing area of colonial America

Video: Pennsylvania, the Quaker's Delight (Lion King Parody Song)

Video: Germans in colonial Pennsylvania (4:28)

William Penn (God in America)


Society of Friends, founded in England by George Fox.

a. Quakers believed everyone could be saved—all were children of God and could experience his inner light.
b. No need of a formal priesthood or liturgy.
c. Women were allowed an important role in ministry.
d. Refused to swear oaths on the Bible—it would imply they were not telling the truth on other occasions.
e. Pacifists. Refused to perform militia service or pay taxes for self–defense.
f. Related well to the Indians. Could history have developed differently if we had learned from Quakers?

America as a Religious Refuge (Part 2) (Library of Congress) Read the portions entitled "The Quakers"
and "The Pennsylvania Germans"

In class today: new material

a. Plymouth Colony (Notice the date: 1620)

Separatist Puritans
Called "Pilgrims"
Wanted to leave the Church of England entirely.

Video: Mayflower

Video: Mayflower Compact

Video: The Pilgrims (Selena Gomez's "Bad Liar" Parody)

God in America: Pilgrims

Faith of the Pilgrims

Video: Governor William Bradford

William Bradford

Squanto (compare him to Malinche) helps Pilgrims.

Great Migration

Between 1620 and 1630, other options for settlement (besides Virginia and New England). English migrants settled on St. Kitts (1624) and Barbados (1627).

Great map illustrating the Great Migration during the1600s

b. Massachusetts Bay Colony
(Notice the date: 1630)

(Non Separatist) Puritans

Video: Puritan Faith (George Michael's "Faith" Parody)

Video: Massachusetts Bay Colony ("TMNT Theme" Parody)

The Puritans (God in America, PBS)

Video: Governor John Winthrop

The Puritan Ideal: A City on Hill

Governor John Winthrop (God in America, PBS)
[His divine signal]

John Winthrop

Religious intolerance in treatment of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson:

Roger Williams

Video: Roger Williams bio

Roger Williams (God in America, PBS)

Roger Williams Biography (National Park Service)
Youth and Education
Rejecting the Middle Way
Founding Providence (Rhode Island)

Anne Hutchinson

Video: Anne Hutchinson bio

Anne Hutchinson (God in America, PBS)

Anne Hutchinson (National Women's History Museum)

Covenant theology

God covenanted with the Puritans and they with Him.
People covenanted together to form a church.

Puritan church became known as Congregationalists

New England towns

No headright system as in Virginia.
Land distributed to groups, not individuals.
Grants of land led to growth of communities not large personal estates.

New England families

Numerous, large (5–7 healthy children), and long–lived.
Even grandparents appeared.
Parents exercised control over their adult children
Allocation of land
Need for children's labor to support them.
Contrast with Chesapeake

In class today: reaction to homework

Popular culture in Colonial America
Don't miss the slide show at the bottom of the article.

Courtship in Colonial America
Don't miss the slide show at the bottom of the article.

Religion in Early Virginia

In class today: new material

Indentured servitude In Virginia

Need for laborers.
Tobacco cultivation required many laborers.
English began with indentured servants (7 years) from England.
Slaves cost three times as much for initial outlay.
Life was hard on servants; not much easier for owners
Diet of pork and corn
Not much material wealth (not like today's Williamsburg)
Servant might not live through his indenture
If he lived through it, he could become a landowner himself.

Richard Frethorne (History Matters)

Indentured Servants (US

Jamestown indenture contract

Virginia families.

Predominance of males, servitude, high mortality rates caused

Fewer, smaller (1–3 healthy children), and shorter–lived families.

Most children had step–parents: death of parent and remarriage.

Rich families began by 1700 to control the colony
They were intermarried, wealthy, powerful
The same people were Burgesses, militia, church vestry, county court

King Charles I (1625-1649)

He was the son of James I
His own sons were Charles II and James II [we will meet up with them later in our semester]

Intolerant of Puritans
Believed in divine right of kings
Puritan dissenters decided to flee from England to Massachusetts Bay colony (1630)

Personality and Political Style of Charles I (BBC)

Maryland (1632).

Video: Catholic Maryland

Proprietorship. A personal possession.
Land grant from King Charles I to Calvert family (Lord Baltimore).

Maryland a sanctuary for Catholics
Catholics severely persecuted in England.

Maryland similar to Virginia:
Indentured servitude and slavery.
Chesapeake (Bay). Term includes Virginia and Maryland, mostly.

Maryland: The Catholic Experiment (US


Map of New England colonies

Video: Mayflower Story: Desperate Crossing [part 1 of 3 parts] (12 minutes)

a. Plymouth Colony (Notice the date: 1620)

Separatist Puritans
Called "Pilgrims"
Wanted to leave the Church of England entirely.

Video: Mayflower

Video: Mayflower Compact

Video: The Pilgrims (Selena Gomez's "Bad Liar" Parody)

God in America: Pilgrims

Faith of the Pilgrims

Video: Governor William Bradford

William Bradford

Pokanoket Indians (compare to Powhatans) help Pilgrims.
Squanto (compare him to Malinche) helps Pilgrims.

Between 1620 and 1630, other options for settlement (besides Virginia and New England). English migrants settled on St. Kitts (1624) and Barbados (1627).

Great map illustrating the Great Migration during the1600s

b. Massachusetts Bay Colony
(Notice the date: 1630)

(Non Separatist) Puritans

Video: Puritan Faith (George Michael's "Faith" Parody)

Video: Massachusetts Bay Colony ("TMNT Theme" Parody)

The Puritans (God in America, PBS)

Video: Governor John Winthrop

The Puritan Ideal: A City on Hill

A Model of Christian Charity (NHC lesson plan)

Governor John Winthrop (God in America, PBS)

John Winthrop

Religious intolerance in treatment of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson:

Roger Williams

Video: Roger Williams bio

Roger Williams (God in America, PBS)

Roger Williams Biography (National Park Service)
Youth and Education
Rejecting the Middle Way
Founding Providence (Rhode Island)

Anne Hutchinson

Video: Anne Hutchinson bio

Anne Hutchinson (God in America, PBS)

Anne Hutchinson (National Women's History Museum)

Covenant theology

God covenanted with the Puritans and they with Him.
People covenanted together to form a church.

Puritan church became known as Congregationalists

New England towns

No headright system as in Virginia.
Land distributed to groups, not individuals.
Grants of land led to growth of communities not large personal estates.

New England families

Numerous, large (5–7 healthy children), and long–lived.
Even grandparents appeared.
Parents exercised control over their adult children
Allocation of land
Need for children's labor to support them.
Contrast with Chesapeake.

In class today: new material

King James I (1603-1625)
James I (British Monarchy)

New royal family: House of Stuart

During his reign, the Pilgrims fled to Netherlands and then from there to Plymouth colony

Jamestown (1607) named for him

In 2011 we celebrated the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible.
Folger Shakespeare Library celebrates 400th anniversary of King James Bible (Washington Post)

English colonies in America

Video: Objective 1.1: American Colonialism

Differed on many dimensions:

a. Type of colony (originally v. later—movement to make colonies royal)

Royal (monarch, crown)

b. Religion: Puritan, Anglican, Catholic, Quaker, and others

c. Methods of land distribution

d. Relations with the Indians

e. Types of servitude

f. Major crops and exports

g. Date founded: the place they left and the America they came to both differed.


Jamestown (1607).

First permanent English settlement in America
Roanoke Island was the first settlement but was not permanent

Video: Jamestown Colony ("Shut Up and Dance" parody) (Mr. Betts)

Failed European Colonies in the New World (Jesuits at Jamestown) (NHC lesson plan)

Successful Colonies in the New World (NHC lesson plan)

Map of the Chesapeake colonies (Virginia and Maryland)

Virginia Company of London

Joint–stock company. Limited liability of investors
Not financed by government.

The Virginia Company of London

John Smith

John Smith's Bold Endeavor (NOVA)

John Smith's account of the trip to Virginia (Library of Congress)

Route of the voyage related to this account:

Captain John Smith (CW magazine)

Captain Smith departs (CW Magazine)

Powhatan Indians and Pocahontas

Pocahontas "Colors of the Wind"

Pocahontas: What They Don't Tell You (Mr, Betts)

Lost City of Powhatan (Smithsonian)

The Powhatan Indian World (National Park Service)
[Read half of the screen; stop at the paragraph beginning with "While in England, Pocahontas ...]

Indian and English cultural differences.

a. Land ownership:
English wanted private property; Indian land owned communally.

b. Gender division of work:
Indian women worked the fields. English women did not.
Indian men hunted.
English saw hunting as an upper-class leisure activity.

c. Leadership: Nature of hierarchy differed
English looked for "chiefs"
Indian leaders' authority rested on consensus.


Basis of Virginia's success.
John Rolfe the main name (he married Pocahontas)
Key cash crop
Required much land
Required continuous labor

The History of 18th Century Tobacco Plantations in Coastal Virginia

John Rolfe (National Park Service, Jamestown)


Land grants to individuals
Settlers could claim 50 acres of land for themselves
50 acres for those whom they paid passage (including servants).
Enabled some to build a large estate of landed wealth.


House of Burgesses (1619).

Virginia began the tradition of local representative government.
New Spain, New France, and New Netherlands had autocratic rule.

First Legislative Assembly in America (National Park Service, Jamestown)

Royal colony.

In 1624, Virginia becomes a royal colony, ruled by the king through appointed officials.

Anglican Church.

Church of England (Episcopalians today). Not Puritans.

Religion in Early Virginia

Reverend Robert Hunt (National Park Service, Jamestown)

In class today: reaction to homework for today

The Roanoke Island Colony: Lost, and Found? [Do this with the material below}

John Smith's account of the trip to Virginia (Library of Congress)
[Close reading example]

Route of the voyage related to this account:

Reverend Robert Hunt (National Park Service, Jamestown)

[Note to myself: use this material to discuss the graves]

Remains of English Jamestown Colony leaders uncovered

Reverend Robert Hunt: "His grave faced west towards the people he served ..."

b. Listen to this video clip about the same thing:

Grave did face east to west, but Reverend Hunt's head faced east.

Finding the Founders of English America

c. Which directions do graves face (Google search term)

In class today: new material

Native Americans

Map:Routes of the first Americans

Native Americans originally came to America from Asia
Land bridge from Siberia across the Bering Straits.

Early cultures: fishing, hunting, and gathering for mere subsistence.

Native pre-contact housing

Settled agriculture (corn, beans, squash) more sophisticated civilizations.

Indian tribes adapted to different geographic settings.

Map: Location of Major Groups of First Americans

Five million Indians in North America at time of European arrival.

Over two hundred language groups.

Indians not organized into tribes but into hundreds of bands

Seldom did a "chief" hold significant power.

Bands quarreled with each other

Used Europeans to help them fight their enemies

Early North American civilizations:

Mound Builders (Ohio river region)
Anasazi (Arizona and New Mexico)
Mississippians (Midwest and Southeast U.S.). Cahokia.

Use of the term "Indian

"American Indian" or "Native American"?

Important museum:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian

Roanoke Island (in present-day North Carolina) (1585-1590)

Attempted base from which to harass Spanish treasure fleets.
Resupply voyage stopped because of Spanish Armada

Spanish Armada prevented resupply to Roanoke Colony

Roanoke Island (Frozen's "Let It Go" Parody)

Sir Walter Raleigh

Sir Walter Raleigh: a chronology of his exploratory endeavors

John White at Roanoke Island

John White watercolors of native inhabitants at Roanoke Island
Index of his watercolors

Early Visual Representations of the New World (NHC lesson plan)

Indian village of Pomeiooc

Indian woman and young girl

Readings about Roanoke Island

Ancient map gives clue to fate of 'Lost Colony' (Telegraph)

The Roanoke Island Colony: Lost, and Found?

This Drone Could Find the Lost Colony of Roanoke

King James I (1603-1625)

New royal family: House of Stuart

During his reign, the Pilgrims fled to Netherlands and then from there to Plymouth colony

Jamestown (1607) named for him

In 2011 we celebrated the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible.
Folger Shakespeare Library celebrates 400th anniversary of King James Bible (Washington Post)

In class today: reaction to homework reading

Martin Luther: Father of protest songs?
[Note to me: Play "A Mighty Fortress is Our God"

In class today: new material

Martin Luther

Martin Luther

People saved by faith alone (Not by pilgrimages, indulgences)
Priesthood of all believers replaced monasticism as the ideal
Neither priests nor Latin Bible should keep people from the Word

Martin Luther (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Martin Luther: Father of protest songs?

A Mighty Fortress is our God

(Lutherans): Protestant Reformation (1517)

In 2017 we celebrate the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation.

Protestant Reformation in England (1533)

English King Henry VIII [House of Tudor]

Video: Henry VIII

Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1533.
Under Henry, Protestantism hardly differed from Catholicism.

Biographical sketch of Henry VIII (British Monarchy website)

An Overview of the English Reformation (BBC)

Edward VI

Son of Henry VIII was Protestant, but died as a teenager.

Mary I

Queen Mary I "Bloody Mary" (1516-1558)

One daughter of Henry VIII, Mary I ("Bloody" Mary), was Catholic.

Mary burned many Protestants at the stake.
Other Protestants fled to safety of Frankfurt and Geneva
There they absorbed radical Calvinist doctrines.
They returned to England after the death of Mary.
Eager to "purify" English church of any hint of Catholicism.

Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

Queen Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I (British Monarchy)
[Current Queen is Elizabeth II]

Other daughter of Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, was Protestant:

Church settlement.
Church of England became clearly Protestant, but in its own way.
Latin liturgy translated into the English Book of Common Prayer.
Cult of saints dropped.
Clergy permitted to marry.
Calvinists, however, did not think these reforms went far enough.
Puritans versus Separatists

Elizabethan Room Virtual Tour (BBC)

English Exploration

England would not be bound by the Treaty of Tordesillas.
But tried to explore initially in areas not claimed by Spanish or Portuguese.

John Cabot (1497)

Voyages - Segment 3 of 3 - "Northwest Discoveries"
John Cabot, Verranzano, Cartier, Hudson

John Cabot

Article about the Northwest Passage these days

Basis of later English claims.
Not followed up for almost 100 years.

John Cabot (Royal Museums, Greenwich)

Cabot Project (Bristol University)

The Voyages of John Cabot (American Journeys)

Francis Drake (1577)

Francis Drake goes round the world

Account of Sir Francis Drake's landing in California (National Humanities Center)

Drake claims California for England ( This Day in History | 6/17/1579)

Drake's Plate -- the end of the mystery?

New Albion

Spanish Armada (1588)

Video: Spanish armada

Battlefield Britain - Spanish Armada

Rivalry between Spain and England
Spain was hard–core Catholic
Spain hated Protestant England.
Spanish naval Armada (fleet) attempted to invade England
A major battle in world history.
English defeated the Spanish.

Spanish Armada prevented resupply to the Lost Colony.

Spanish Armada (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
Links to several detailed articles

God Blew and They Were Scattered (UK National Archives)

The Spanish Armada (BBC)

Roanoke Island

John White's drawings