TUESDAY, 20 FEBRUARY 2018

Mood Music:

Fife and Drum Music of the Revolutionary War
http://youtu.be/yTDOoXd6EXs

American Revolutionary War Medley (Carmel Brass)
http://youtu.be/f6S-nuWnXz0

Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bku99mj5kC0

I. Prayer/Attendance

The following Bible verse expresses what I hope to be for you, my dear students:

The Lord is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and rich in love. [Psalm 145:8 NIV]

II. Exam #2

It will be on Thursday, 1 March

Same format as Exam #1.

A study guide is available on the following wiki page:
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+151+Exam+2+S18

III. Homework for Thursday, 22 February

Declaration of Independence in historical context
http://founding.com/the-declaration/historical-context-2/

IV. In class today: reaction to homework

A. Religion and the American Revolution (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel03.html
Read the Introductory paragraphs
Read "Resistance to Tyranny a Christian Duty"
Read "Revolution Understood in Scriptural Terms"
Read "Revolution Justified by God"
Read "A Fighting Parson"
Scan the remainder of the screen

B. Was The American Revolution a Holy War?
http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/was-the-american-revolution-a-holy-war/2013/07/05/039fb5b8-e25f-11e2-aef3-339619eab080_story.html

V. In class today: new material

Coercive Acts (1774)

Called Intolerable Acts by the colonists

Coercive Acts (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/coercive.php

Video: Coercive (Intolerable) Acts
http://youtu.be/AA3gvcI58_Q

Intolerable Acts
https://www.bostonteapartyship.com/the-intolerable-acts

Americans convinced British planned to take away their liberty.

Port of Boston closed to shipping until tea was paid for: "Lord North is closing the port of Boston."

Lord North (Victorian Web)
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/pms/north.html

a. Massachusetts Government Act

Altered the Massachusetts charter
Substituted an appointed council for an elected one
Increased the powers of the Governor
Halted most town meetings.

b. Justice Act

British officials would be sent to England for trial.

c. Quartering Act

British military commanders could house their troops in private dwellings.

Quebec Act (1774)

Intended to ease strains of British conquest of the former French colony.

Quebec Act map
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_Act
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Province_of_Quebec_1774.gif

Catholics granted greater religious freedom.
Representative assembly abolished.
Canada boundary extended to Ohio River.
Many American colonists coveted this land.

Results thus far in the arguments between the British government and the colonies:

Colonists worried over precedents of Coercive Acts and Quebec Act.
Both Acts made colonists fear that Britain had a deliberate plan to oppress the American colonies.

BUT: few people wanted to take hasty action.
Most patriots remained loyal to Britain and hoped for reconciliation
Colonists agreed to send delegates to Philadelphia to attend a Continental Congress to consider an appropriate response.

REVOLUTIONARY WAR

The American Revolution required patriot leaders to do three things :
  • Establish a coalition in favor of independence
  • Gain foreign recognition.
  • Triumph over the British army

First Continental Congress (Philadelphia, Sept 1774)

First Continental Congress (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/congress1.php

Video: First Continental Congress
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbGDKitNf04&feature=youtu.be

1. Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Colonists would obey normal laws of British Parliament
Colonists would not obey taxes in disguise (like Townshend Duties)

2. Continental Association
Boycott of English goods

3. Committees of Observation & Inspection
Committee members (7000) assigned to monitor boycott,
Became, in effect, the local leaders of the American resistance.

Provincial conventions :
Independence was being won at the local level, without formal acknowledgement and without much bloodshed.

Popularly elected congresses took over government in each colony

These conventions
  • a. elected delegates to the Second Continental Congress
  • b. organized militia units
  • c. gathered arms and ammunition
  • d. collected taxes

Choosing sides

Which side do you think you would have been on?

1. Patriots (40% of population)

Americans who were against the British

Video: Loyalists and Patriots
http://youtu.be/aWWBOStYHQs

To win, Patriots had to neutralize or defeat potential internal enemies.

2. Loyalists (20% of population)

Loyalists were Americans who remained loyal to the British:

  • British–appointed government officials
  • Merchants whose trade depended on British connections
  • Anglican (Church of England) ministers

100,000 loyalists left America, many to Canada

3. Neutrals (40% of population)

Those who tried to remain in the middle

  • Sincere pacifists (Quakers)
  • Those who supported whoever controlled their area
  • Those who simply wanted to be left alone

4. African–Americans

Slaves sought freedom by supporting the British.
British eventually took away 55,000 slaves
Colonies with highest slave %—less support for revolution.

5. Indians

Both British and patriots tried to keep Indians neutral
Indians bitter at aggressive expansionism of colonists
Most taking sides supported British—less threat than Patriots

British military planners made three erroneous assumptions :

1. Americans would not stand up to professional troops

2. English could fight a conventional war as they would in Europe

3. Military victory would be sufficient to win the struggle

Paul Revere's Ride (April 1775)

Video: Paul Revere's Ride (N.W.A.'s "Straight Outta Compton" Parody) (2:05)
http://youtu.be/0tuG4SuTscA

Paul Revere's account of his ride
http://ahp.gatech.edu/midnight_ride_1775.html

Video: Boston History in a Minute: Paul Revere's Ride
http://youtu.be/vC2gh0aLzCU

Paul Revere's Ride
Three riders were Paul Revere, Samuel Prescott, and Richard Dawes
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/Paul-Revere-Begins-Midnight-Ride.html

Video: The truth about Paul Revere's ride
http://youtu.be/QeQGWTBl2x8

Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 1775).

Lexington and Concord (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/lexington.php

Video: Minute Men
http://youtu.be/LNCCth1McJ0

Video: General Thomas Gage
Prior to Lexington
http://youtu.be/qdfRNEpme6w

Good map in the Wikipedia account of the battle
[scroll 25% of the way down the screen]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battles_of_Lexington_and_Concord

Results: Colonial victory (note casualties and losses

Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775)

Battle of Bunker Hill (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/bunkerhill.php

Results: Technically a British victory, but their casualties were huge.

Boston History in a Minute: Battle of Bunker Hill
http://youtu.be/bHQUJUN9izA

British account of Bunker Hill
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/british-account-of-bunker-hill/

Boston siege

Patriot troops surrounded British in Boston for next year

Second Continental Congress

Convened in May 1775 at Philadelphia

Second Continental Congress (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/congress2.php

a. Became the inter colonial government during American Revolution
b. Authorized the printing of money
c. Established a committee to supervise relations with foreign countries
d. Created the Continental Army
e. Washington, from the South, appointed commanding general

Edmund Burke speech on conciliation with America (March 22, 1775)
http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1751-1775/edmund-burke-speech-on-conciliation-with-america-march-22-1775.php

Washington takes command of the Continental Army

Washington as Commander (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/washington.php

Video: George Washington bio
https://youtu.be/hvE9fb--Dig

Thomas Paine: Common Sense (Jan 1776)

a. Wildly popular book
b. Helped Americans accept the idea of separation from Britain
c. Advocated creation of an independent republic
d. Downplayed benefits of links to mother country
e. Insisted Britain had exploited colonies unmercifully
f. Americans hated Parliament, but thought King was sympathetic
g. Paine disagreed:
h. King was a royal brute
i. King only pretended to care for the colonist's welfare

Video: Thomas Paine and Common Sense
http://youtu.be/rItLF_ulgTo

Video: Common Sense (Justin Timberlake's "Can't Stop the Feeling" Parody) (3:07)
http://youtu.be/nhYUyniqWlo

ALL OF THE ABOVE TOOK PLACE BEFORE ANY DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)

Declaration of Independence (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/declarations.php

Declaration of Independence in historical context
http://founding.com/the-declaration/historical-context-2/

a. Noted committee members: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin
The two other members were Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston

Video: Thomas Jefferson bio
https://youtu.be/uAt1YLP3T34

Jefferson was chosen to draft the Declaration

a. He wrote well

He had recently drafted the Virginia state constitution

b. Colonists no longer could accept legitimacy of Parliament

c. Declaration concentrated on King George III as the villain

The King had attempted to destroy representative government.

The King oppressed Americans by excessive force.

d. All men are created equal: principle to live up to

e. Signers of the Declaration at great risk: treason.

John Hancock's big signature: "King won't need his spectacles"

Boston History in a Minute: John Hancock
http://youtu.be/zcHCQI_kxKs

Lineup of opponents during the war itself :

a. War took place on several levels

Regular troops: British against Patriots

Irregular troops: Partisan warfare (Patriots versus Loyalists)

b. Fighting moved chronologically from North to South:
  • New England
  • Middle colonies
  • Southern colonies

Continental army

a. Never numbered more than 18,500 men
b. Included black (5,000) troops
c. Short–term militiamen helped in their own area
d. Women traveled with the army

Who: wives and widows of poor soldiers
Doing what: cooks, nurses, and launderers

Valley Forge: Patriot winter camp (close to Philadelphia)

Video: Valley Forge
Stop at small pox
http://youtu.be/T-7pd11Qtfw

Diary of a Surgeon at Valley Forge 1777
http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1776-1785/albigence-waldo-from-the-diary-of-a-surgeon-at-valley-forge-1777.php

Picture: Valley Forge cabin used by soldiers
http://flintlockandtomahawk.blogspot.com/2009/12/valley-forge-cabin.html

Time for needed training (Baron von Steuben)

General Von Steuben (National Park Service)
http://www.nps.gov/vafo/historyculture/vonsteuben.htm

Video: Baron von Steuben
https://youtu.be/acsra7kGC9M

Video: 10 things you may not know about the Marquis de Lafayette
http://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-marquis-de-lafayette

Washington "crossed the Delaware" River (26 December 1776)

Attacked Trenton and won a surprising victory
These victories cheered American spirits

Video: Battle of Trenton
http://youtu.be/aikcZZRhR40

Video: German Hessians
http://youtu.be/MPLvYXBDLBQ

Video: Washington's spy network
http://youtu.be/k3sY39vH6yM

Painting: Washington crossing the Delaware
https://edsitement.neh.gov/emanuel-leutzes-symbolic-scene-washington-crossing-delaware
http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/23/a-famous-painting-meets-its-more-factual-match/?_r=0






THURSDAY, 15 FEBRUARY 2018

Mood Music:

Fife and Drum Music of the Revolutionary War
http://youtu.be/yTDOoXd6EXs

American Revolutionary War Medley (Carmel Brass)
http://youtu.be/f6S-nuWnXz0

Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bku99mj5kC0

Friday songs on Thursday (11 more weeks and we'll be through)
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Friday+Songs

I. Prayer/Attendance

The following Bible verse expresses what I hope to be for you, my dear students:

The Lord is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and rich in love. [Psalm 145:8 NIV]

II. Study Abroad: Lithuania
Dani Boren

III. Exam #2

It will be on Thursday, 1 March

Same format as Exam #1.

A study guide will be available on the following wiki page:
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+151+Exam+2+S18

IV. Homework for Tuesday, 20 February

A. Religion and the American Revolution (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel03.html
Read the Introductory paragraphs
Read "Resistance to Tyranny a Christian Duty"
Read "Revolution Understood in Scriptural Terms"
Read "Revolution Justified by God"
Read "A Fighting Parson"
Scan the remainder of the screen

B. Was The American Revolution a Holy War?
http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/was-the-american-revolution-a-holy-war/2013/07/05/039fb5b8-e25f-11e2-aef3-339619eab080_story.html

V. In class today: reaction to homework

Townshend Acts (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/townshend.php

Boston Massacre (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/massacre.php

Committees of Correspondence (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/committees.php

Boston Tea Party: Eyewitness account by George Hewes
http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolution/teaparty.htm

VI. In class today: new material

Sons of Liberty

Colonial elites wanted to control the protests against unpopular laws.
They created an inter-colonial association, the Sons of Liberty, to protest the Stamp Act.
In subsequent U.S. history, groups who want to protest government action often will call themselves Sons of Liberty.

Video: Sons of Liberty
http://youtu.be/1llyjAoDYYg

Sons of Liberty
http://www.bostonteapartyship.com/sons-of-liberty

Sons of Liberty Indian disguise
https://www.bostonteapartyship.com/boston-tea-party-disguise

Boston History in a Minute: Flip, a Trendy Colonial Cocktail
http://youtu.be/iSFuc71vkzI

Boston History in a Minute: Green Dragon Tavern
http://youtu.be/jpuf7sSXkdw

Samuel Adams
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/a/samuel-adams.html

Boston History in a Minute: Samuel Adams
http://youtu.be/WA6zBKSZh-w

Liberty Tree

Video: Johnny Tremain: Liberty Tree
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZNzApsp1ZSQ&feature=youtu.be

Liberty Tree
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberty_Tree

Boston History in a Minute: Liberty Tree
http://youtu.be/gVBCq9LyOcE

Tarring and Feathering
http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/popup_stampact.html

Bostonians paying the excise man cartoon
Tarring and feathering
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6806

Non-importation association

The first attempts to use an economic boycott to pressure British exporters to demand repeal of the Stamp Act

Non-consumption and non-importation
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/non_importation.php
.
Boston Non-Importation Agreement
http://www.bostonteapartyship.com/boston-non-importation-agreement

Townshend Acts (1767)

Townshend Acts (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/townshend.php

Video: Townshend Acts
http://youtu.be/ddos2J7pk4I

Video: Patrick Henry: Townshend Duties
http://youtu.be/SC0DBVTPV4E

Liberty Song
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/doc-viewer.php?old=1&mode=nav&item_id=288

Video: Liberty Song
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvLdawL3wHM&feature=youtu.be

1. British officials searched for new ways to generate revenue to help pay war debts from French and Indian War.

2. The passage of the Townshend Acts drew a swift response from the colonists, who were now less hesitant and better organized.

3. Townshend Acts provided as follows:
  • Duties on goods (paper, glass, tea) imported from Britain to the colonies
  • Proceeds would pay salaries for some royal officials in the colonies
  • American Board of Customs Commissioners (based in Boston)
  • Added vice–admiralty courts in Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston

Boston "Massacre" (5 March 1770)

British troops assigned to Boston to protect Customs Commissioners.
Tensions in a military garrison town: soldiers took local jobs
Was this a "massacre"?

Boston Massacre (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/massacre.php

Boston Massacre
http://www.bostonmassacre.net/index.html

Video: Boston Massacre
http://youtu.be/I14sSjuC3ms

Video: Boston Massacre: A Memestory (Mr. Betts)
https://youtu.be/JI9ZvG8RuRI

Townshend Duties Repealed (12 April 1770)

Townshend Duties Repealed/Non-Importation (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/non_importation.php

Repeal (History.com)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/british-repeal-hated-townshend-act

Parliament revoked all the duties except that on tea. (This will be a cause of the Boston Tea Party)

The other Townshend provisions remained in effect.

Committees of Correspondence

Committees of Correspondence (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/committees.php

Committees of Correspondence
https://www.bostonteapartyship.com/committees-of-correspondence

Widen geographic scope of resistance movement.

Boston Tea Party (1773)

Boston tea party ships and museum home page
https://www.bostonteapartyship.com/

Boston Tea Party (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/teaparty.php

Video: Boston Tea Party
[Has good material on Tea Act, Indian disguise]
https://youtu.be/nqsrukfGAo4

Video: Boston Tea Party
http://youtu.be/PbEWMDd0rI8

Sons of Liberty Indian disguise
https://www.bostonteapartyship.com/boston-tea-party-disguise

Video: The Boston (Google+) Tea Party (Mr. Betts)
http://youtu.be/PC_w4M2W3pI

Tea Act (May 1773)

Tea Act
https://www.bostonteapartyship.com/the-tea-act

Video: Tea Act of 1773
http://youtu.be/fVDKf8s-xBU

1. Monopoly: British East India Company sell off surplus tea to America
2. Patriots were making money smuggling tea from Holland.
3. Patriots feared precedent of paying even a small tax on tea.

Tea Party itself:

Tea destroyed worth almost $1 million.
Colonists refused to pay for the tea.

Eyewitness account by George Hewes
http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolution/teaparty.htm






TUESDAY, 13 FEBRUARY 2018

Mood Music:

Fife and Drum Music of the Revolutionary War
http://youtu.be/yTDOoXd6EXs

American Revolutionary War Medley (Carmel Brass)
http://youtu.be/f6S-nuWnXz0

Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bku99mj5kC0

I. Prayer/Attendance

What I hope to be for you, my dear students:

The Lord is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and rich in love, [Psalm 145:8 NIV]

II. Homework for Thursday, 15 February

Townshend Acts (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/townshend.php

Boston Massacre (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/massacre.php

Committees of Correspondence (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/committees.php

Boston Tea Party: Eyewitness account by George Hewes
http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolution/teaparty.htm

III. In class today: new material

ROAD TO REVOLUTION

Major themes along the Road to Revolution:
  • Development and spread of the colonial resistance movement
  • British actions
  • Colonists' responses

King George III (1760–1820)

New young king; various prime ministers.
[I can't find a good, short video about him.]

Pontiac's uprising (1763)

Indian chief led Indian uprisings in the Ohio region to kick out colonists.
British troops unable to defend the frontier against him.

Good map
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pontiac%27s_war.png

Pontiac's Rebellion (History.com | 5/7/1763))
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/pontiacs-rebellion-begins

Proclamation Line of 1763

Good map
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Proclamation_of_1763

Video: Proclamation of 1763
http://youtu.be/ceb6uOI6nsA

Proclamation Line of 1763 (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/proclamation-line-1763

British tried to keep colonists out of land west of Appalachian Mountains
British wanted to protect Indians
British wanted to slow down land speculation
.
But many colonists had already settled west of the Proclamation Line
They refused to respect the line.

Causes of the American Revolution (Mr.Betts)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TcDxSICplPE&feature=youtu.be

Ideological conflicts between Britain and the North American colonies

a) Conflict over the nature of political representation

English view:
  • Parliament collectively represented the entire nation
  • Member of Parliament voted on best interests of nation not his district.
  • Virtual representation: colonists were represented even if not there in person

Colonists' views:
  • Advocated individual representation.
  • Legislator instructions
  • Represented only the regions that had elected them.

b) Conflicts over the role of a national government.

1. Colonists saw conspiracies in England that threatened to take away their liberties.

Colonists believed that a central government should have only limited authority over people.

Colonists felt the need for perpetual vigilance to ensure that monarchs do not corrupt and oppress the people, encroach on their liberty, and seize their property

Tyranny
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tyranny

2. Colonists believed that there was an important link between liberty and property rights:

  • Excessive and unjust taxation could take away personal freedom.
  • No taxation without representation idea, but more subtle.
  • Not so much the amount of taxation, but who did the taxing.

No taxation without representation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_taxation_without_representation

Sugar Act (1764)

Sugar Act (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/sugar.php

Sugar Act song
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxdHoyHpVRI&feature=youtu.be

Sugar Act (1764)
The Sugar Act and Triangular Trade
http://youtu.be/SXJ_Zde4hjg

New British Prime Minister George Grenville
He felt that colonists should pay a greater share of costs of empire.
Particularly pay back costs of French and Indian War.

American protests limited largely to New England merchants
Navigation Acts OK
Collection of revenue not OK

Video: Mercantilism
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantilism

Currency Act (1764)

[I can't find a good, short video about the Currency Act.]

British merchants complained that Americans were paying their debts in inflated local currencies.

Currency Act outlawed colonial issues of paper money.

The Sugar and Currency Acts hit an economy already in the midst of depression.

Lacking any precedent for a united campaign against Parliament, Americans in 1764 took only hesitant and uncoordinated steps of protest.

Stamp Act (1765)

Stamp Act ((1765)
http://youtu.be/iaZflP5So8o

Stamp Act summary
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/tchcrsta.cfm

Stamp Act (Massachusetts Historical Society)
http://www.masshist.org/revolution/stamp.php

Modeled on a law in effect in Britain for over a century.

Three aspects to remember:

Stamp Act required tax stamps on most printed material
Tax stamps had to be paid for in cash (scarce)
Violators would be tried in vice admiralty courts (no juries).

Video: Stamp Act Riots (1:00)
Destruction of Thomas Hutchinson's house
http://youtu.be/8QRcOIyT1iE

Protests against the Stamp Act

Colonists feeling their way on exactly how to protest British decisions that affected them.

a) James Otis:

[I can't find a good, short video about James Otis.]

How to combat certain acts of Parliament without questioning Parliament's authority over the colonies.
He concluded that colonists had to obey British laws.
Many Americans, therefore, reluctantly prepared to obey the Stamp Act.

b) Patrick Henry

[Good video below about him debating the Townshend Duties.]

Not all the colonists were resigned to paying the Stamp tax.
Patrick Henry did not agree with James Otis
He proposed the "Virginia Stamp Act Resolves"
These resolves protested Parliament's right to tax Americans without their consent.

Patrick Henry (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may29.html

Patrick Henry bio (CW)
http://www.history.org/almanack/people/bios/biohen.cfm

Patrick Henry College
http://www.phc.edu/

c) Despite the uproar, most Americans wanted to remain loyal British subjects and were not yet arguing for independence.

Stamp Act Repeal (March 1766)

New British Prime Minister, Lord Rockingham
He repealed the Stamp Act not because he believed Parliament lacked the power to tax the colonies, but because he thought the law unwise and divisive.

Video: Repeal of Stamp Act
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvxX2qGjKz8&sns=em

William Pitt's defense of the colonies (CW) (January 1766)
Contributed to repeal of the Stamp Act
http://www.history.org/Almanack/life/politics/pitt.cfm

Declaratory Act (March 1766)

Linked to the repeal of the Stamp Act.
Dangerous implications for the colonists.

Key issue: Asserted Parliament's ability to tax & legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."






THURSDAY, 8 FEBRUARY 2018

Mood Music:

Fife and Drum Music of the Revolutionary War
http://youtu.be/yTDOoXd6EXs

American Revolutionary War Medley (Carmel Brass)
http://youtu.be/f6S-nuWnXz0

Old Guard Fife and Drum Corps
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bku99mj5kC0

Friday songs on Thursday (12 more weeks and we'll be through)
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Friday+Songs

I. Prayer/Attendance

What I hope to be for you, my dear students:

The Lord is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and rich in love, [Psalm 145:8 NIV]

II. Exam #1

Grading Scale for each of our 4 exams:

A=(average of 67 points) 90%
B=(average of 60 points) 80%
C=(average of 52 points) 70%
D=(average of 45 points) 60%

Semester Grade includes::

Minus points for excess absences

Plus points for participation and contribution to class sessions.

Extra credit: I will try to make several opportunities available.

III. In class today: new material

FRENCH THREAT

Albany Congress (1754)

Albany Plan of Union (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/albany-plan

Join or Die cartoon (Teaching History.org)
http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/ask-a-historian/19227

Plan of union proposed by Benjamin Franklin (but not approved):
  • Supreme governor chosen by England
  • Supreme assembly represented by colonists.
  • Plan could possibly have averted Revolution.
  • Same plan later used with Canada and Australia.

New France

New France
http://www.ushistory.org/us/8a.asp

New France article with good links to Canadian Encyclopedia
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/new-france/

Virtual Museum of New France
http://www.historymuseum.ca/virtual-museum-of-new-france/

French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), 1754-1763

The Seven Years War and the Great Awakening: Crash Course US History #5
End at 7:44
https://youtu.be/5vKGU3aEGss

Video: Parody
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2fjkNgQJTA&feature=youtu.be

Video: French and Indian War
http://youtu.be/3j7gCQLkWOo

Who was on each side in the war?
Really a French versus British war with Indian allies on both sides.

French began to encircle the British colonies.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nouvelle-France_map-en.svg

French—from today's Canada—claimed the Great Lakes and Mississippi Valley.

French established New Orleans to anchor the southern end of the Mississippi River.

French claimed the Pittsburgh area (originally called Fort Duquesne by the French, Fort Pitt by the British).

Three rivers come together at Pittsburgh: Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio

Various battles in the French and Indian War

Map
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI084.jpg

George Washington's role in the war

Video (4:49)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cwphq86i7rI&feature=youtu.be

Battle of Jumonville Glen

Battle of Fort Necessity
http://www.nps.gov/fone/jumglen.htm
http://www.nps.gov/fone/battle.htm

Scalping
http://www.earlyamerica.com/early-america-review/volume-3/scalping-during-the-french-and-indian-war/

The worst July 4 that George Washington ever had and how it led to a new nation
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2017/07/04/the-worst-july-4-george-washington-ever-had-and-how-it-led-to-a-new-nation/?utm_term=.81b1bcf8c368

Video: George Washington, General Braddock, and the Battle of the Monongahela
http://youtu.be/UW3IrEmGnbs

Braddock Campaign
http://www.nps.gov/fone/braddock.htm

Battle of the Plains of Abraham/Battle of Quebec (1759)

This crucial British victory won the war.
*British victory at Quebec on the Plains of Abraham was the turning point. It was a major battle in history.
http://www.britishbattles.com/battle-of-quebec.htm

Quebec Politics: France vs. Britain - The Plains of Abraham
http://youtu.be/dSV6zR2Cy3k

Both commanding generals were killed in the battle: Wolfe (British) and Montcalm (French)

Famous painting: The Death of Wolfe
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Death_of_General_Wolfe
Video explanation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0jPXX8uvAI&feature=youtu.be

Peace Treaty of Paris (1763)

Great Map!
http://www.rebelhistory.com/french-and-indian-war.html

France is entirely ousted from the North American continent
France will want to get back at Britain for this defeat
France will therefore be willing to help us win the American Revolution.

After the war, British colonists no longer feared a French threat.
Indians could no longer play European powers against one another.






TUESDAY, 6 FEBRUARY 2018

EXAM #1

God bless you, my terrific students!






THURSDAY, 1 FEBRUARY 2018

Mood Music

Irish tavern music (11:37)
http://youtu.be/SBATrLRWySg

17th c. English country dances
http://youtu.be/YkQzq5fOEK4

Friday songs on Thursday (13 more weeks and we'll be through)
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Friday+Songs

I. Prayer/Attendance

What I hope to be for you, my dear students:

The Lord is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and rich in love, [Psalm 145:8 NIV]

II. Homework for Thursday, 8 February

TBA

III. Exam #1 will be on Tuesday, 6 February

Here is the link to the study guide.
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+151+Exam+1+S18

Please bring your Scantron (exam has 75 questions), your pencil, and your brain.

IV. In class today: reaction to homework

Religion in 18th century America (Library of Congress)
[Scroll down halfway and begin at "The Emergence of American Evangelicalism: The Great Awakening"
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel02.html

Jonathan Edwards (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/jonathan-edwards.html

George Whitefield (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/george-whitefield.html

V. In class today: new material

New Netherlands

Netherlands a small country but a major trading power and enemy of England in Europe
Dutch settled along the Hudson river in what is now New York.

New Netherland
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Netherland

The United States and the Netherlands
http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/essays/general/the-united-states-of-america-and-the-netherlands/

Conquered by the English in 1664

Video: From New Amsterdam to New York Illustrated - @MrBettsClass
http://youtu.be/QoFy2bEpdpY

Henry Hudson's explorations (1609). 400th anniversary in 2009

Video: Henry Hudson
https://youtu.be/wuk21ciiZ6U

Henry Hudson (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/empireofthebay/profiles/hudson.html

Salem Witchcraft (1692)

Video: What Caused The Salem Witch Trials?
http://youtu.be/3MmV42tUjfs

Salem Witchcraft
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Five-Women-Hanged-in-Salem-for-Witchcraft.html

"A strong belief in the devil, factions among Salem Village fanatics and rivalry with nearby Salem Town, a recent small pox epidemic and the threat of attack by warring tribes created a fertile ground for fear and suspicion."

Spectral evidence

Spectral evidence refers to a witness testimony that the accused person's spirit or spectral shape
appeared to him/her in a dream at the time the accused person's physical body was at another
location. It was accepted in the courts during the Salem Witch Trials.

New York
Province of New York

Charles II gave his younger brother, duke of York, a large land grant which include the Dutch–held New Netherlands.

Duke of York became King James II when his brother Charles II died.

New Netherlands was conquered in 1664 by the English; renamed New York.

New Jersey. Duke of York regranted much of his land grant to two friends.

Province of New Jersey

We won't do anything more with either New York or New Jersey

Back again to English history as it affects colonies

English Civil War

Video: English Civil War
http://youtu.be/u3h_RyFEV0M

The Execution of Charles I
He was the son of James I

Oliver Cromwell (English Commonwealth period)

Oliver Cromwell
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/cromwell_01.shtml

Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)
https://youtu.be/0KhWqImZuII

Charles II (1660–1685)

Restoration [of the monarchy]

Video: Restoration of English monarchy
http://youtu.be/HFF5V6XlCKo

Key for America:

Charles II gave land grants (New York, Carolinas) of new colonies as rewards to men who supported him during his exile in France.

All were proprietorships: their owners held title to the soil and controlled the government.

Carolinas (1663)

Colonial Carolina
http://youtu.be/ip8Dh7K0dzs

A buffer between the other English colonies and the Spanish in Florida

Map of the Carolinas and Georgia
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI041.jpg

Charles II paid back several of his supporters (those who stood by him in exile in France) with land grants.

Creating the Carolinas (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/us/5c.asp

Northern portion of the grant (North Carolina) grew similarly to and was linked with Virginia.

Area around Charleston became the nucleus of South Carolina.

Heavily influenced by settlers from Barbados

Their brand of slavery was harsher than in other parts of North America.

Rice and indigo (Eliza Pinckney) the main crops

South Carolina used skills slaves brought from Africa (rice growing) and the West Indies (indigo—blue dye).
Both crops offset each other: different growing seasons; indigo grown on high ground, rice in low–lying swampy areas.

First Great Awakening

Religion in 18th century America (Library of Congress)
[Scroll down halfway and begin at "The Emergence of American Evangelicalism: The Great Awakening"
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel02.html

Video: First Great Awakening (6:39)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n-dk4-HBNWQ

Put with Great Awakening video
Ezekiel 37:1-14 - The Valley of Dry Bones
https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ezekiel%2037:1-14

Dry Bones (Delta Rhythm Boys)
http://youtu.be/mVoPG9HtYF8

First Great Awakening: a reaction to the decline of religious intensity in the American colonies

Began in Massachusetts in 1730s; in all colonies by 1760s.

Jonathan Edwards

Great Awakening began in Northampton, Massachusetts (1734–35) with Jonathan Edwards.

He noticed a remarkable number of conversions among the youth of his church to a message based on Calvinist principles, a recognition of their own depraved natures, and the need to surrender completely to God's will.

Jonathan Edwards (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/jonathan-edwards.html

Jonathan Edwards
http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/people/theologians/jonathan-edwards.html

George Whitefield

The effects of such conversions remained isolated until 1739, when George Whitefield, an English Anglican clergyman, arrived in America.
For fifteen months he toured the colonies.
Preached to large audiences from Georgia to New England.
His journey: new interconnection among the previously distinct colonies.

George Whitefield (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/george-whitefield.html

Impact of the Great Awakening:

Challenged deference, introduced egalitarianism to the colonies.

The Great Awakening divided churches over several issues:
  • Were pastors clearly born again?
  • How much education did pastors need?
  • Was itinerant evangelism allowable?

Denominations split into New Lights and Old Lights (Presbyterians) and Old Sides and New Sides (Congregationalists).






TUESDAY, 30 JANUARY 2018

Mood Music

Irish tavern music (11:37)
http://youtu.be/SBATrLRWySg

17th c. English country dances
http://youtu.be/YkQzq5fOEK4

I. Prayer/Attendance

What I hope to be for you, my dear students:

The Lord is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and rich in love, [Psalm 145:8 NIV]

II. Homework for Thursday, 1 February

Religion in 18th century America (Library of Congress)
[Scroll down halfway and begin at "The Emergence of American Evangelicalism: The Great Awakening"
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel02.html

Jonathan Edwards (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/jonathan-edwards.html

George Whitefield (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/george-whitefield.html

III. Exam #1 will be on Tuesday, 6 February

Here is the link to the study guide. I will refine it a bit.
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+151+Exam+1+S18

Please bring your Scantron (exam has 75 questions), your pencil, and your brain.

IV. In class today: reaction to homework

Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies (Divining America, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/midcol.htm

William Penn (God in America)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/william-penn.html

Salem Witchcraft
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Five-Women-Hanged-in-Salem-for-Witchcraft.html

V. In class today: new material

Between 1620 and 1630, other options for settlement (besides Virginia and New England). English migrants settled on St. Kitts (1624) and Barbados (1627).

Great map illustrating the Great Migration during the1600s
https://joannedi.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/greatmigrationmap1620-1640.jpg

b. Massachusetts Bay Colony
(Notice the date: 1630)

(Non Separatist) Puritans

Video: Puritan Faith (George Michael's "Faith" Parody)
https://youtu.be/HcCBv6tf5qA

Video: Massachusetts Bay Colony ("TMNT Theme" Parody)
https://youtu.be/tnfvEdVWTzw

The Puritans (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/puritans.html

Video: Governor John Winthrop
http://youtu.be/8psobkdtgUU

The Puritan Ideal: A City on Hill
http://youtu.be/JhTby_SOWnE

Governor John Winthrop (God in America, PBS)
[His interpreted surviving a bad accident with his horse as a divine signal]
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/john-winthrop.html

John Winthrop
http://www.learner.org/amerpass/unit03/authors-9.html

Religious intolerance in treatment of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson:

Roger Williams

Video: Roger Williams bio
http://youtu.be/6nk1fuKTSdw

Roger Williams (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/roger-williams.html

Roger Williams Biography (National Park Service)
Youth and Education
http://www.nps.gov/rowi/historyculture/youth.htm
Rejecting the Middle Way
http://www.nps.gov/rowi/historyculture/departure.htm
Founding Providence (Rhode Island)
http://www.nps.gov/rowi/historyculture/foundingprovidence.htm

Anne Hutchinson

Video: Anne Hutchinson bio
http://youtu.be/yFl8ltR8m18

Anne Hutchinson (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/anne-hutchinson.html

Anne Hutchinson (National Women's History Museum)
https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/anne-hutchinson

John Calvin (Calvinists):

God alone decided who would be saved—predestination.
Act as if you were one of the elect by strict morality and hard work
Laymen governed church through elders and ministers (presbytery)

John Calvin biographical sketch (Calvin College)
http://www.calvin.edu/about/john-calvin/

Born in France to a Catholic family..

John Calvin: famous for his work entitled "Institutes of the Christian Religion" (1536)

Video: John Calvin
http://youtu.be/2ivVAcg5pyI

Calvin Bio
http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/people/theologians/john-calvin.html

Covenant theology

God covenanted with the Puritans and they with Him.
People covenanted together to form a church.

Puritan church became known as Congregationalists

New England towns

No headright system as in Virginia.
Land distributed to groups, not individuals.
Grants of land led to growth of communities not large personal estates.

New England families

Numerous, large (5–7 healthy children), and long–lived.
Even grandparents appeared.
Parents exercised control over their adult children
Allocation of land
Need for children's labor to support them.
Contrast with Chesapeake

MIDDLE COLONIES=New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware

Crash Course US History:
The Quakers, the Dutch, and the Ladies
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p47tZLJbdag

Map of Middle Colonies
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI037.jpg

Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies (Divining America, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/midcol.htm

Pennsylvania (1681)

Charles II gave William Penn a proprietary land grant

Penn saw this land as a refuge for Quakers—a "holy experiment"
Pennsylvania became known for its religious toleration.
Religious diversity: Quakers, German Reformed, Lutherans, Mennonites
Penn actively promoted his colony—to Germans (Deutsch) particularly
Pennsylvania became grain producing area of colonial America

German speakers: Deutsch not Dutch

Video: Germans in colonial Pennsylvania (4:28)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lf5ejJp31A0

Keeping the Pennsylvania Dutch language alive - and thriving
http://www.philly.com/philly/news/pennsylvania-dutch-language-amish-mennonite-german-donmoyer-20171122.html

Holy Experiment
Best Poor Man's country
Walking Purchase

Video: Pennsylvania, the Quaker's Delight (Lion King Parody Song)
http://youtu.be/XeL3jhx-ZRk

William Penn

William Penn
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/PENN/pnhome.html

William Penn (God in America)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/william-penn.html

Quakers

Society of Friends, founded in England by George Fox.

a. Quakers believed everyone could be saved—all were children of God and could experience his inner light.
b. No need of a formal priesthood or liturgy.
c. Women were allowed an important role in ministry.
d. Refused to swear oaths on the Bible—it would imply they were not telling the truth on other occasions.
e. Pacifists. Refused to perform militia service or pay taxes for self–defense.
f. Related well to the Indians. Could history have developed differently if we had learned from Quakers?

America as a Religious Refuge (Part 2) (Library of Congress) Read the portions entitled "The Quakers"
and "The Pennsylvania Germans"
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01-2.html






THURSDAY, 25 JANUARY 2018

Mood Music

Irish tavern music (11:37)
http://youtu.be/SBATrLRWySg

17th c. English country dances
http://youtu.be/YkQzq5fOEK4

Friday songs on Thursday (14 more weeks and we'll be through)
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Friday+Songs

I. Prayer/Attendance

What I hope to be for you, my dear students:

The Lord is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and rich in love, [Psalm 145:8 NIV]

II. Homework for

a. Tuesday, 30 January

Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies (Divining America, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/midcol.htm

William Penn (God in America)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/william-penn.html

Salem Witchcraft
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Five-Women-Hanged-in-Salem-for-Witchcraft.html

b. Thursday, 1 February

Religion in 18th century America (Library of Congress)
[Scroll down halfway and begin at "The Emergence of American Evangelicalism: The Great Awakening"
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel02.html

Jonathan Edwards (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/jonathan-edwards.html

George Whitefield (God in America, PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/george-whitefield.html

III. Exam #1 will be on Tuesday, 6 February

Here is the link to the study guide. I will refine it a bit.
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+151+Exam+1+S18

IV. In class today: reaction to homework

John Smith's Bold Endeavor
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/john-smith.html

V. In class today: new material

Indentured servitude In Virginia

Need for laborers.
Tobacco cultivation required many laborers.
English began with indentured servants (7 years) from England.
Slaves cost three times as much for initial outlay.
Life was hard on servants; not much easier for owners
Diet of pork and corn
Not much material wealth (not like today's Williamsburg)
Servant might not live through his indenture
If he lived through it, he could become a landowner himself.

Richard Frethorne (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6475

Indentured Servants (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/us/5b.asp

Jamestown indenture contract
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/wbind1.html

Virginia families.

Predominance of males, servitude, high mortality rates caused

Fewer, smaller (1–3 healthy children), and shorter–lived families.

Most children had step–parents: death of parent and remarriage.

Rich families began by 1700 to control the colony
They were intermarried, wealthy, powerful
The same people were Burgesses, militia, church vestry, county court

King Charles I (1625-1649)

He was the son of James I
His own sons were Charles II and James II [we will meet up with them later in our semester]

Intolerant of Puritans
Believed in divine right of kings
Puritan dissenters decided to flee from England to Massachusetts Bay colony (1630)

Personality and Political Style of Charles I (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/personality_charles_01.shtml

Maryland (1632).

Video: Catholic Maryland
http://youtu.be/RsxrJ0f91aU

Proprietorship. A personal possession.
Land grant from King Charles I to Calvert family (Lord Baltimore).

Catholic.
Maryland a sanctuary for Catholics
Catholics severely persecuted in England.

Maryland similar to Virginia:
Rivers
Tobacco
Plantations
Indentured servitude and slavery.
Chesapeake (Bay). Term includes Virginia and Maryland, mostly.

Maryland: The Catholic Experiment (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/us/5a.asp

NEW ENGLAND

Map of New England colonies
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI036.jpg

Video: Mayflower Story: Desperate Crossing [part 1 of 3 parts] (12 minutes)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pv-_JxApHzo&feature=youtube_gdata_player

a. Plymouth Colony (Notice the date: 1620)

Separatist Puritans
Called "Pilgrims"
Wanted to leave the Church of England entirely.

Video: Mayflower
http://youtu.be/w59TkoL-tZY

Video: Mayflower Compact
http://youtu.be/Tqhc0kqR_h8

Video: The Pilgrims (Selena Gomez's "Bad Liar" Parody)
http://youtu.be/6AOAXiuWOKI

God in America: Pilgrims
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/pilgrims.html

Faith of the Pilgrims
http://www.plimoth.org/what-see-do/17th-century-english-village/faith-pilgrims

Video: Governor William Bradford
http://youtu.be/4LnUhFKr9YU

William Bradford
http://www.learner.org/amerpass/unit03/authors-1.html

Pokanoket Indians (compare to Powhatans) help Pilgrims.
Squanto (compare him to Malinche) helps Pilgrims.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squanto






TUESDAY, 23 JANUARY 2018

Mood Music

Irish tavern music (11:37)
http://youtu.be/SBATrLRWySg

17th c. English country dances
http://youtu.be/YkQzq5fOEK4

I. Prayer/Attendance

II. Homework for Thursday, 25 January

John Smith's Bold Endeavor
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/john-smith.html

III. In class today: reaction to homework

Ancient map gives clue to fate of 'Lost Colony' (Telegraph)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/9244947/Ancient-map-gives-clue-to-fate-of-Lost-Colony.html

This Drone Could Find the Lost Colony of Roanoke
http://www.thedailybeast.com/this-drone-could-find-the-lost-colony-of-roanoke

John Smith's account of the trip to Virginia (Library of Congress)
[Close reading example]
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/colonial/jamestwn/colonist.html

Route of the voyage related to this account:
https://aculturame.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/dsc05304-copy.jpg

Reverend Robert Hunt (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-reverend-robert-hunt-the-first-chaplain-at-jamestown.htm

IV. Exam #1 will be two weeks from today.

I will have a study guide by Thursday ready for your use.

V. In class today: new material

Native Americans

Map:Routes of the first Americans
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI001.jpg

Native Americans originally came to America from Asia
Land bridge from Siberia across the Bering Straits.

Early cultures: fishing, hunting, and gathering for mere subsistence.

Native pre-contact housing
http://hanksville.net/maps/houses/housingmap.html

Settled agriculture (corn, beans, squash) more sophisticated civilizations.

Indian tribes adapted to different geographic settings.

Map: Location of Major Groups of First Americans
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI006.jpg

Five million Indians in North America at time of European arrival.

Over two hundred language groups.

Indians not organized into tribes but into hundreds of bands

Seldom did a "chief" hold significant power.

Bands quarreled with each other

Used Europeans to help them fight their enemies

Early North American civilizations:

Mound Builders (Ohio river region)
Anasazi (Arizona and New Mexico)
Mississippians (Midwest and Southeast U.S.). Cahokia.

Use of the term "Indian

"American Indian" or "Native American"?
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/fts/bismarck_200504A16.html

Important museum:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian
http://www.nmai.si.edu/

Roanoke Island (in present-day North Carolina) (1585-1590)

Attempted base from which to harass Spanish treasure fleets.
Resupply voyage stopped because of Spanish Armada

Spanish Armada prevented resupply to Roanoke Colony

Roanoke Island (Frozen's "Let It Go" Parody)
http://youtu.be/NUsuzs1qKDo

John White at Roanoke Island

John White watercolors of native inhabitants at Roanoke Island
Index of his watercolors
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/jamestown.html

Early Visual Representations of the New World (NHC lesson plan)
http://americainclass.org/early-visual-representations-of-the-new-world/

Indian village of Pomeiooc
Image
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/white31.html
Description
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/white.html#s34

Indian woman and young girl
Image
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/white32.html
Description
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/white.html#s35

Readings about Roanoke Island

Ancient map gives clue to fate of 'Lost Colony' (Telegraph)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/9244947/Ancient-map-gives-clue-to-fate-of-Lost-Colony.html

The Roanoke Island Colony: Lost, and Found?
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/11/science/the-roanoke-colonists-lost-and-found.html

This Drone Could Find the Lost Colony of Roanoke
http://www.thedailybeast.com/this-drone-could-find-the-lost-colony-of-roanoke

King James I (1603-1625)
James I (British Monarchy)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_i_vi.shtml

New royal family: House of Stuart

During his reign, the Pilgrims fled to Netherlands and then from there to Plymouth colony

Jamestown (1607) named for him

In 2011 we celebrated the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible.
Folger Shakespeare Library celebrates 400th anniversary of King James Bible (Washington Post)
http://wapo.st/OCbvYk

English colonies in America

Video: Objective 1.1: American Colonialism
https://youtu.be/UuoVfsrx0No

Differed on many dimensions:

a. Type of colony (originally v. later—movement to make colonies royal)

Charter
Royal (monarch, crown)
Proprietorship

b. Religion: Puritan, Anglican, Catholic, Quaker, and others

c. Methods of land distribution

d. Relations with the Indians

e. Types of servitude

f. Major crops and exports

g. Date founded: the place they left and the America they came to both differed.

VIRGINIA

Jamestown (1607).

First permanent English settlement in America
Roanoke Island was the first settlement but was not permanent

Video: Jamestown Colony ("Shut Up and Dance" parody) (Mr. Betts)
http://youtu.be/sxGvHs9CQkA

Failed European Colonies in the New World (Jesuits at Jamestown) (NHC lesson plan)
http://americainclass.org/failed-european-colonies-in-the-new-world/

Successful Colonies in the New World (NHC lesson plan)
http://americainclass.org/successful-european-colonies-in-the-new-world/

Map of the Chesapeake colonies (Virginia and Maryland)
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI025.jpg

Virginia Company of London

Joint–stock company. Limited liability of investors
Not financed by government.

The Virginia Company of London
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p264.html

John Smith

John Smith's Bold Endeavor (NOVA)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/john-smith.html

John Smith's account of the trip to Virginia (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/colonial/jamestwn/colonist.html

Route of the voyage related to this account:
https://aculturame.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/dsc05304-copy.jpg

Captain John Smith (CW magazine)
http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/smith.cfm

Captain Smith departs (CW Magazine)
http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Autumn09/smith.cfm

Powhatan Indians and Pocahontas

Pocahontas "Colors of the Wind"
http://youtu.be/pk33dTVHreQ

Pocahontas: What They Don't Tell You (Mr, Betts)
https://youtu.be/pCwbsZ-tY6Y

Lost City of Powhatan (Smithsonian)
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/lost-city-of-powhatan-149908455/

The Powhatan Indian World (National Park Service)
[Read half of the screen; stop at the paragraph beginning with "While in England, Pocahontas ...]
https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/copy-of-the-powhatan-indian-world.htm

Indian and English cultural differences.

a. Land ownership:
English wanted private property; Indian land owned communally.

b. Gender division of work:
Indian women worked the fields. English women did not.
Indian men hunted.
English saw hunting as an upper-class leisure activity.

c. Leadership: Nature of hierarchy differed
English looked for "chiefs"
Indian leaders' authority rested on consensus.

Tobacco:

Basis of Virginia's success.
John Rolfe the main name (he married Pocahontas)
Key cash crop
Required much land
Required continuous labor

The History of 18th Century Tobacco Plantations in Coastal Virginia
http://youtu.be/43lWR9Pd0-c

John Rolfe (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/john-rolfe.htm

Headrights

Land grants to individuals
Settlers could claim 50 acres of land for themselves
50 acres for those whom they paid passage (including servants).
Enabled some to build a large estate of landed wealth.

Headrights
http://www.ancestry.com/wiki/index.php?title=Virginia_Land_Records

House of Burgesses (1619).

Virginia began the tradition of local representative government.
New Spain, New France, and New Netherlands had autocratic rule.

First Legislative Assembly in America (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-first-legislative-assembly.htm

Royal colony.

In 1624, Virginia becomes a royal colony, ruled by the king through appointed officials.

Anglican Church.

Church of England (Episcopalians today). Not Puritans.

Religion in Early Virginia
http://www.history.org/Almanack/life/religion/religionva.cfm

Reverend Robert Hunt (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-reverend-robert-hunt-the-first-chaplain-at-jamestown.htm






THURSDAY, 18 JANUARY 2018

Mood Music of the time period we are studying

Anasazi flute Amerindienne - Native American Magic Flute music - 1 hour
http://youtu.be/RpuD1c3fSFE

Irish tavern music (11:37)
http://youtu.be/SBATrLRWySg

17th c. English country dances
http://youtu.be/YkQzq5fOEK4

Friday songs on Thursday (15 more weeks and we'll be through)
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Friday+Songs

I. Prayer/Attendance

II. FYI (For Your Information)

You’re Sorry for Someone’s Loss. But How Do You Say It?
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/24/smarter-living/condolence-letters-how-to.html

JoJo White
Conditioning
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/16/obituaries/jo-jo-white-dead-boston-celtics.html?_r=0

III. Homework for Tuesday, 23 January

Ancient map gives clue to fate of 'Lost Colony' (Telegraph)
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/9244947/Ancient-map-gives-clue-to-fate-of-Lost-Colony.html

This Drone Could Find the Lost Colony of Roanoke
http://www.thedailybeast.com/this-drone-could-find-the-lost-colony-of-roanoke

John Smith's account of the trip to Virginia (Library of Congress)
[Close reading example]
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/colonial/jamestwn/colonist.html

Route of the voyage related to this account:
https://aculturame.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/dsc05304-copy.jpg

Reverend Robert Hunt (National Park Service, Jamestown)
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-reverend-robert-hunt-the-first-chaplain-at-jamestown.htm

IV. In class today: reaction to homework

Martin Luther nails 95 theses to chapel door
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Martin-Luther-Nails--Ninety-five-Theses--to-Chapel-Door.html

Martin Luther: Father of protest songs
http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20170522-martin-luther-father-of-protest-songs

Music Video: A Mighty Fortress is our God
http://youtu.be/jcDC4vLw23k

Francis Drake goes round the world
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Francis-Drake-Sets-Out-to-Circumnavigate-the-World-.html

V. In class today; new material

Martin Luther

Martin Luther
http://youtu.be/j89_BAh2Q3M

People saved by faith alone (Not by pilgrimages, indulgences)
Priesthood of all believers replaced monasticism as the ideal
Neither priests nor Latin Bible should keep people from the Word

Martin Luther (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Martin-Luther-Nails--Ninety-five-Theses--to-Chapel-Door.html

Martin Luther: Father of protest songs?
http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20170522-martin-luther-father-of-protest-songs

A Mighty Fortress is our God
http://youtu.be/jcDC4vLw23k
Lyrics
https://www.hymnal.net/en/hymn/h/886

(Lutherans): Protestant Reformation (1517)

In 2017 we celebrate the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation.

Protestant Reformation in England (1533)

English King Henry VIII [House of Tudor]

Video: Henry VIII
http://youtu.be/vGi2TYAQfXE

Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1533.
Under Henry, Protestantism hardly differed from Catholicism.

Biographical sketch of Henry VIII (British Monarchy website)
https://www.royal.uk/henry-viii-r1509-1547

An Overview of the English Reformation (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/reformation_overview_01.shtml

Edward VI

Son of Henry VIII was Protestant, but died as a teenager.

Mary I

Queen Mary I "Bloody Mary" (1516-1558)
https://youtu.be/LZNt7wdIRMo

One daughter of Henry VIII, Mary I ("Bloody" Mary), was Catholic.

Mary burned many Protestants at the stake.
Other Protestants fled to safety of Frankfurt and Geneva
There they absorbed radical Calvinist doctrines.
They returned to England after the death of Mary.
Eager to "purify" English church of any hint of Catholicism.

Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

Queen Elizabeth I
http://youtu.be/cDg9AoJYxeY

Elizabeth I (British Monarchy)
[Current Queen is Elizabeth II]
https://www.royal.uk/elizabeth-i-r1558-1603

Other daughter of Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, was Protestant:

Church settlement.
Church of England became clearly Protestant, but in its own way.
Latin liturgy translated into the English Book of Common Prayer.
Cult of saints dropped.
Clergy permitted to marry.
Calvinists, however, did not think these reforms went far enough.
Puritans versus Separatists

Elizabethan Room Virtual Tour (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/launch_vt_elizabethan_room.shtml

English Exploration

England would not be bound by the Treaty of Tordesillas.
But tried to explore initially in areas not claimed by Spanish or Portuguese.

John Cabot (1497)

Voyages - Segment 3 of 3 - "Northwest Discoveries"
John Cabot, Verranzano, Cartier, Hudson
http://youtu.be/9H8ZcoPdkNk

John Cabot
http://youtu.be/pJOvmicAGjw

Article about the Northwest Passage these days
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/23/climate/ships-in-the-arctic.html?mcubz=1

John Cabot (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/explore/sea-and-ships/facts/explorers-and-leaders/john-and-sebastian-cabot

The Voyages of John Cabot (American Journeys)
Talk about how useful to history students this American Journeys website is.
http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-069/summary/index.asp

Francis Drake (1577)

Francis Drake goes round the world
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Francis-Drake-Sets-Out-to-Circumnavigate-the-World-.html

Account of Sir Francis Drake's landing in California (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/amerbegin/contact/text5/drake.pdf

Drake claims California for England (History.com This Day in History | 6/17/1579)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/drake-claims-california-for-england

Drake's Plate -- the end of the mystery?
http://www2.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/NSD-Drakes-plate.html

Spanish Armada (1588)

Video: Spanish armada
http://youtu.be/h_crzvi980U

Routes of the Armada
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Routes_of_the_Spanish_Armada.gif/220px-Routes_of_the_Spanish_Armada.gif

Rivalry between Spain and England
Spain was hard–core Catholic
Spain hated Protestant England.
Spanish naval Armada (fleet) attempted to invade England
A major battle in world history.
English defeated the Spanish.

Spanish Armada prevented resupply to the Lost Colony.

The Spanish Armada (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/adams_armada_01.shtml

Before we discuss Roanoke Island, let's look at who was living in North America

Native Americans

Map:Routes of the first Americans
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI001.jpg

Native Americans originally came to America from Asia
Land bridge from Siberia across the Bering Straits.

Early cultures: fishing, hunting, and gathering for mere subsistence.

Native pre-contact housing
http://hanksville.net/maps/houses/housingmap.html

Settled agriculture (corn, beans, squash) more sophisticated civilizations.

Indian tribes adapted to different geographic settings.

Map: Location of Major Groups of First Americans
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI006.jpg

Five million Indians in North America at time of European arrival.

Over two hundred language groups.

Indians not organized into tribes but into hundreds of bands

Seldom did a "chief" hold significant power.

Bands quarreled with each other

Used Europeans to help them fight their enemies

Early North American civilizations:

Mound Builders (Ohio river region)
Anasazi (Arizona and New Mexico)
Mississippians (Midwest and Southeast U.S.). Cahokia.

Use of the term "Indian

"American Indian" or "Native American"?
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/fts/bismarck_200504A16.html

Important museum:
Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian
http://www.nmai.si.edu/

Ok, now let's get into the first attempted English settlement in America

Roanoke Island (in present-day North Carolina) (1585-1590)

Attempted base from which to harass Spanish treasure fleets.

Spanish Armada prevented resupply to Roanoke Colony

Roanoke Island (Frozen's "Let It Go" Parody) (Mr.Betts)
http://youtu.be/NUsuzs1qKDo

John White at Roanoke Island

John White watercolors of native inhabitants at Roanoke Island
Index of his watercolors
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/jamestown.html

Early Visual Representations of the New World (NHC lesson plan)
http://americainclass.org/early-visual-representations-of-the-new-world/

Indian woman and young girl
Image
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/white32.html
Description
http://www.virtualjamestown.org/images/white_debry_html/white.html#s35

King James I (1603-1625)
James I (British Monarchy)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_i_vi.shtml

New royal family: House of Stuart

During his reign, the Pilgrims fled to Netherlands and then from there to Plymouth colony

Jamestown (1607) named for him

In 2011 we celebrated the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible.
Folger Shakespeare Library celebrates 400th anniversary of King James Bible (Washington Post)
http://wapo.st/OCbvYk






TUESDAY, 16 JANUARY 2018

Mood Music of the time period we are studying:

Early 16th Century Venetian Lute Music, Paul O'Dette
http://youtu.be/Jo5fqwPQDwk

Anasazi flute Amerindienne - Native American Magic Flute music - 1 hour
http://youtu.be/RpuD1c3fSFE

I. Prayer

My cataract operation on Wednesday went well. On Thursday morning, the doctor took off the patch.

II. Attendance

Let's make sure I have a card for everyone who is registered.

III. Homework for Thursday, 18 January 2018

Martin Luther nails 95 theses to chapel door
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Martin-Luther-Nails--Ninety-five-Theses--to-Chapel-Door.html

Martin Luther: Father of protest songs
http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20170522-martin-luther-father-of-protest-songs

Music Video: A Mighty Fortress is our God
http://youtu.be/jcDC4vLw23k

Francis Drake goes round the world
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Francis-Drake-Sets-Out-to-Circumnavigate-the-World-.html

IV. In class today: review of the homework assignment

I have debated whether a) to push forward with new material (by assuming you watched each video carefully and read/understood the articles or b) to go a bit slower and review the material in class today. I think it may be best for me to do the latter.

So sit back, put on your thinking caps, and begin with me our semester journey together .

Historical Analysis: sourcing, contextualization, corroboration

How historians try to sort through the past (is it ever "fake news"?)

Think of how historians might look at the new bombshell book about President Trump;

Read this article from a British news source to get the context:
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/jan/07/michael-wolff-trump-book-fire-fury-reaction

Voyages of Exploration

Overview map of voyages of exploration
https://mrgrayhistory.wikispaces.com/file/view/Age_-_Voyages_Map.jpg/245720413/770x397/Age_-_Voyages_Map.jpg

Background to European explorations:

Luxury goods in Asia: silk, dyes, perfumes, jewels, and gold.

Spices in Asia: pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
Spice Islands [Moluccas in today's Indonesia] (Royal Museums, Greenwich)

The Spice Islands | Explore Royal Museums Greenwich
http://www.rmg.co.uk/discover/explore/spice-islands

Earlier role of Italy as middlemen in European overland trade with China.

Marco Polo's Travels (1275) to China. Published in 1477.
Marco Polo traveled overland.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/polo_marco.shtml

Constantinople (1453). Fell to the Muslim Turks.

Map: Constantinople
https://etc.usf.edu/maps/pages/1700/1787/1787.jpg

Muslims then controlled overland trade routes from Catholic Europe to Asia.

Europeans sought all–water trade route to Asia to outflank Muslims.

Voyages of Exploration:

Video: Voyages of exploration>>Up to Portugal
http://youtu.be/ijm60slmnyg

Video: Crash Course World History
Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21 - YouTube

A. Explorations of Portugal

Will try to reach Asia by sailing east.
The other European countries will try to reach Asia by sailing west
America gets in their way and becomes the heart of our story.
Portugal began explorations first:
Portuguese sailed around Africa to reach Asia

Map: Early Explorations 1400s
http://irishpower.wikispaces.com/file/view/wh18_portuguese.jpg/283509456/400x290/wh18_portuguese.jpg

Portugal: Prince Henry the Navigator
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p259.html

Bartolomeu Dias: Cape of Good Hope (1488)
http://www.sahistory.org.za/people/bartholomew-alternate-spelling-bartolomeu-dias

Vasco da Gama: India (1498)
http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/explorer-and-navigator-vasco-da-gama-completes-his-voyage-round-cape-good-hope-india

Video: Vasco Da Gama
https://youtu.be/rh-49zc2zyM

B. Explorations of Spain:

Christopher Columbus: (12 October 1492)

Sailed west to reach Asia.
Landed in Bahamas on first voyage. Four voyages in all
Believed he reached East Indies—called the natives "Indians."
Never realized he discovered a whole new world.

Video: Voyage of exploration>>Christopher Columbus
http://youtu.be/15lDRnybGf4

Columbus & the New World (Jay-Z's "Empire State of Mind Parody)
http://youtu.be/z7oe8TD_Vn0

Same time as Columbus left Spain, Jews Banished from Spain
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/Jews-Banished-From-Spain-During-Spanish-Inquisition.html

Voyage of Christopher Columbus
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Columbus-Lands-in-Caribbean.html

Amerigo Vespucci

America named for him
Watch this bio video:

https://youtu.be/ZSuznTcWcP4

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

Pope divided land claims between Portugal and Spain
Portugal got Africa and Brazil
Spain got remainder of New World

Treaty of Tordesillas
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Tordesillas

Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange (wonderful diagram of the exchange)
http://thecolumbianexchange.weebly.com/

Alfred Crosby on the Columbian Exchange (Smithsonian)
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Alfred-W-Crosby-on-the-Columbian-Exchange.html

Mr. Betts' Kitchen - Ceviche and the Columbian Exchange
https://youtu.be/fGCgFeBr7Nc

Crash Course: Columbian Exchange video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQPA5oNpfM4&feature=youtu.be

Hernán Cortés (1519–1521)

Video: Hernán Cortés
https://youtu.be/oicgynllrfY

Conqueror of Aztec empire in Mexico

Malinche. Translator and mistress to Cortes
Sold by her Aztec mother as a slave to Mayans (where Cortes landed)
Caught between several worlds
Is she a hero or a traitor to Mexicans?

Ferdinand Magellan (1519–1522).

Sailed around the globe.

Video: Ferdinand Magellan
https://youtu.be/Y94s85-Crew

Ferdinand Magellan (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/magellan

Ferdinand Magellan (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/On-this-Day--Explorer-Ferdinand-Magellan-Killed-by-Philippine-Tribe.html

Video: Ferdinand Magellan (Mariner's Museum)
https://youtu.be/r3f539pYIyU

Hernando de Soto (1539–42).

Traveled though the Southeastern United States

Hernando de Soto Map

http://memory.loc.gov/intldl/eshtml/images/florida_map.jpg

De Soto reaches the Mississippi (History.com This Day in History | 5/8/1541)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/de-soto-reaches-the-mississippi

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (1540–1542).

Traveled through the Southwestern United States

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (PBS, The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/coronado.htm

Map of Coronado's travels (PBS,The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/places/trails_ter/coronado.htm

English voyages of exploration

Roanoke Island intro

Roanoke Island (Frozen's "Let It Go" Parody)
http://youtu.be/NUsuzs1qKDo






THURSDAY, 11 JANUARY 2018

REMEMBER: NO CLASS TODAY. I had my cataract operation yesterday.

Work on the "HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT FOR NEXT TUESDAY, 16 JANUARY 2018."

Just read the articles and watch the videos. There is nothing you need to turn in.

Take care.






TUESDAY, 9 JANUARY 2018

I'm Dave Lambert. This is HIST 151: US History to 1877.

I hope you had a terrific break.

We are going to have fun together this semester--while learning a whole lot in the process.

Sorry, no crashing

I won't be able to add anyone who is not already registered.

Mood music of the time period we are studying:

Early 16th Century Venetian Lute Music, Paul O'Dette
http://youtu.be/Jo5fqwPQDwk

TODAY'S SCHEDULE.

1. Prayer

I will pray for us every class and ask if you have a prayer request or a praise you feel comfortable offering publicly.

My church: Grace Church (Baptist) in Glendora (the Spanish-language ministry)

My wife's church: St. Dorothy's Catholic Church in Glendora

2. Thorn in the Flesh
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Thorn+in+the+Flesh

Integrating my faith into our class is natural for me. So I want to start off the semester doing so.

3. Info card (We will fill this out during our first class session)
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Info+Card

4. Syllabus
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+151+Syllabus+TR+S18

Here are some highlights:

NO CLASS ON THURSDAY. I have a cataract operation tomorrow.

a. You need to bring your laptop to every class session.

b. No hard-copy text is required. We will use all online sources and websites.

An online textbook may be of help to you. I have indexed it on this link::
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/U.S.+History.org

c. Grade is based on 4 multiple-choice exams and participation.

d. Attendance is required. Any absences over two will mean a deduction to the grade.

5. Learning Professor wiki
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/home

Here is how it is organized and what is available on it.

6. Our Class Page (Put this on your Quick Links)
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+151+Today+TR+S18

Always turn to this page for our daily schedule
[This outline is on that page.]

7. High Fives (why I like to do it as you leave class each day)
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/High+Fives

8. How historians try to sort through the past (is it ever "fake news"?)

Historical Analysis: sourcing, contextualization, corroboration

Think of how historians might look at the new bombshell book about President Trump;
Read this article from a British news source to get the context:
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/jan/07/michael-wolff-trump-book-fire-fury-reaction

a. Sourcing
1.Who wrote the source?
2.When was it written?
3.Where was it written?
4.Is the author in a position to know first-hand, or is the account based on hearsay?
5.Can the source be believed? Is the author trustworthy. What will he stand to gain or lose?

b. Contextualization
1. What else was happening at the time this was written? (The burning issues of the day).
2. What was different back then? What was the same?
3. What would it look like through the eyes of someone who lived back then?

c. Corroboration
1. What are the real facts?
2. Comparing different accounts
3. What is common to the various accounts?
4. When do they disagree?
5. What might explain these discrepancies?
6. How might the accounts be reconciled?




HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT FOR NEXT TUESDAY, 16 JANUARY 2017

Please work through this material, reading the articles and watching the videos.

Voyages of Exploration

Overview map of voyages of exploration
https://mrgrayhistory.wikispaces.com/file/view/Age_-_Voyages_Map.jpg/245720413/770x397/Age_-_Voyages_Map.jpg

Background to European explorations:

Luxury goods in Asia: silk, dyes, perfumes, jewels, and gold.

Spices in Asia: pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
Spice Islands [Moluccas in today's Indonesia] (Royal Museums, Greenwich)

The Spice Islands | Explore Royal Museums Greenwich
http://www.rmg.co.uk/discover/explore/spice-islands

Earlier role of Italy as middlemen in European overland trade with China.

Marco Polo's Travels (1275) to China. Published in 1477.
Marco Polo traveled overland.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/polo_marco.shtml

Constantinople (1453). Fell to the Muslim Turks.

Map: Constantinople
https://etc.usf.edu/maps/pages/1700/1787/1787.jpg

Muslims then controlled overland trade routes from Catholic Europe to Asia.

Europeans sought all–water trade route to Asia to outflank Muslims.

Voyages of Exploration:

Video: Voyages of exploration>>Up to Portugal
http://youtu.be/ijm60slmnyg

Video: Crash Course World History
Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21 - YouTube

A. Explorations of Portugal

Will try to reach Asia by sailing east.
The other European countries will try to reach Asia by sailing west
America gets in their way and becomes the heart of our story.
Portugal began explorations first:
Portuguese sailed around Africa to reach Asia

Early Explorations 1400s

Portugal: Prince Henry the Navigator
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p259.html

Bartolomeu Dias: Cape of Good Hope (1488)
http://www.sahistory.org.za/people/bartholomew-alternate-spelling-bartolomeu-dias

Vasco da Gama: India (1498)
http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/explorer-and-navigator-vasco-da-gama-completes-his-voyage-round-cape-good-hope-india

Video: Vasco Da Gama
https://youtu.be/rh-49zc2zyM

B. Explorations of Spain:

Christopher Columbus: (12 October 1492)

Sailed west to reach Asia.
Landed in Bahamas on first voyage. Four voyages in all
Believed he reached East Indies—called the natives "Indians."
Never realized he discovered a whole new world.

Video: Voyage of exploration>>Christopher Columbus
http://youtu.be/15lDRnybGf4

Columbus & the New World (Jay-Z's "Empire State of Mind Parody)
http://youtu.be/z7oe8TD_Vn0

Same time as Columbus left Spain, Jews Banished from Spain
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/Jews-Banished-From-Spain-During-Spanish-Inquisition.html

Voyage of Christopher Columbus
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Columbus-Lands-in-Caribbean.html

Amerigo Vespucci

America named for him
Watch this bio video:

https://youtu.be/ZSuznTcWcP4

Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)

Pope divided land claims between Portugal and Spain
Portugal got Africa and Brazil
Spain got remainder of New World

Treaty of Tordesillas
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Tordesillas

Columbian Exchange


The Columbian Exchange (wonderful diagram of the exchange)
http://thecolumbianexchange.weebly.com/

Alfred Crosby on the Columbian Exchange (Smithsonian)
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Alfred-W-Crosby-on-the-Columbian-Exchange.html

Mr. Betts' Kitchen - Ceviche and the Columbian Exchange
https://youtu.be/fGCgFeBr7Nc

Crash Course: Columbian Exchange video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQPA5oNpfM4&feature=youtu.be

Hernán Cortés (1519–1521)

Video: Hernán Cortés
https://youtu.be/oicgynllrfY

Conqueror of Aztec empire in Mexico

Malinche. Translator and mistress to Cortes
Sold by her Aztec mother as a slave to Mayans (where Cortes landed)
Caught between several worlds
Is she a hero or a traitor to Mexicans?

Ferdinand Magellan (1519–1522).

Sailed around the globe.

Video: Ferdinand Magellan
https://youtu.be/Y94s85-Crew

Ferdinand Magellan (Royal Museums, Greenwich)
http://www.rmg.co.uk/magellan

Ferdinand Magellan (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/On-this-Day--Explorer-Ferdinand-Magellan-Killed-by-Philippine-Tribe.html

Video: Ferdinand Magellan (Mariner's Museum)
https://youtu.be/r3f539pYIyU

Hernando de Soto (1539–42).

Traveled though the Southeastern United States

Hernando de Soto Map

http://memory.loc.gov/intldl/eshtml/images/florida_map.jpg

De Soto reaches the Mississippi (History.com This Day in History | 5/8/1541)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/de-soto-reaches-the-mississippi

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (1540–1542).

Traveled through the Southwestern United States

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (PBS, The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/coronado.htm

Map of Coronado's travels (PBS,The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/places/trails_ter/coronado.htm

English voyages of exploration

Roanoke Island intro

Roanoke Island (Frozen's "Let It Go" Parody)
http://youtu.be/NUsuzs1qKDo