Cold War: Vietnam (CNN)
http://youtu.be/6s0Z2mwTrXY



How and why did I end up in Vietnam?

1. Army ROTC at Georgetown, commissioned as an Infantry Second Lieutenant.

2. Wrote term papers on insurgencies, prepared myself as much as possible for Vietnam.

3. One part of me thought I had to go to graduate school as my classmates were doing.

4. Army permitted deferments to pursue my Ph.D.

5. Began a Ph.D. program in Political Science at Pitt. Difficult to be in school when war on.

6. Finished M.A. but asked Army to call me in for my two years.

7. Stateside assignments:

Infantry Officer Basic Course at Fort Benning, Georgia
Troop duty in the Infantry Advanced Individual Training Brigade at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
Vietnamese language study at Fort Bliss, Texas
Advisor school at Fort Gordon, Georgia

8. Tour of duty in Vietnam as an advisor to the South Vietnamese army.

9. Returned from Vietnam to begin MBA program at Stanford Business School.





VIETNAM WAR

Vietnam became one of the many sites where the Cold War and the Third World intersected.

Maps for us to refer back to during our study of the Vietnam War.

Static map:
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI650.jpg

Map: South Vietnam provinces, 1967
http://www.rivervet.com/mapprovinces.htm

Context for U.S. decision-making

Containment policy

American leaders thought of Vietnam as an Asian Berlin, a place to draw the line against communism and to implement the containment doctrine.

China 1949
McCarthy in US (1950-1954)
Korean War (1950-1953)

French Indochina

Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos) colonized in 1880s.
Vietnamese resisted French colonial regime as much as possible
Vietnamese tradition of historical resistance to invaders: China.

Ho Chi Minh:

Man of the Month: Ho Chi Minh (Twentieth Century by Walter Cronkite)
http://youtu.be/52clOyqGx00

Leader of Vietnamese Communist Party
Major leader of Vietnamese resistance to the Japanese
Vietminh declared independence from France in 1945.
Ho quoted from U.S. Declaration of Independence.

General Giap:

Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, Who Ousted U.S. From Vietnam, Is Dead
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/05/world/asia/gen-vo-nguyen-giap-dies.html?ref=global-home&pagewanted=all

Vietminh war against the French

U.S. had a choice:

a) Support Ho Chi Minh's bid for independence

b) Support French return to Indochina

We supported the French return.
Context: containment of communism
We paid 80% of the costs of French war against Vietminh

Dienbienphu (May 1954)

French fall to Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu (History.com This Day in History | 5/7/1954)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/french-fall-to-viet-minh-at-dien-bien-phu

French withdrawal from Indochina

Geneva peace conference (July 1954)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/geneva-conference-begins

Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel.
Ho's forces gained control of North Vietnam.
Election to unify the country was scheduled for 1956.
America, figuring Ho Chi Minh would win, did not permit the election.

U.S. replaced France in Vietnam

AMERICA IN VIETNAM

Overview:

Ground combat took place within South Vietnam

U.S. never invaded North Vietnam

U.S. pursued an air war against North Vietnam

Enemy side:

North Vietnam and those living in South Vietnam (called Viet Cong) who will fight against the United States

Video: Inside the Viet Cong
http://youtu.be/jfPx1jfoWjs

Our side:

United States and those South Vietnamese friendly to U.S.

Our man in Vietnam: Ngo Dinh Diem

Our initial handpicked leader in South Vietnam
No real alternative leader in South Vietnam to Ho Chi Minh in the North
U.S. backed Ngo Dinh Diem

He consolidated power over internal rivals.
Diem was a Catholic (in a mostly Buddhist country).

Bachelor (role of his family, especially brother and his sister-in-law)

Diem's oppressive policies and persecution of Buddhists made him unpopular

Vietnamese monk burning himself to death
http://i104.photobucket.com/albums/m179/pinguy1982/thichquangducselfimmolade7.jpg

CIA backed an overthrow of Diem (who was murdered)

The Ugly American Telegram
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/24/opinion/the-ugly-american-telegram.html?ref=global-home

Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem
JFK himself was assassinated three weeks later.

Kennedy's escalation of the U.S. war effort

North Vietnam and Viet Cong increased attempts to win in South
South Vietnam on the verge of losing
JFK had sent 16,000 American advisors.
Big historical question: what would Kennedy have done had he lived?

After Diem, revolving-door governments in South Vietnam
Comparisons to Iraq and Afghanistan

Why did we let Diem be overthrown?
Was there any better alternative?
Was the country itself able to operate as a country?
Could and would the South Vietnamese leaders actually lead their own people?
At what point could the U.S. have gotten out of Vietnam?

President Lyndon Johnson and the Americanization of the War

Competition with his Great Society

Tonkin Gulf Incident and Resolution

U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War: the Gulf of Tonkin and Escalation, 1964
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/gulf-of-tonkin

Response to North Vietnamese attack on American destroyer.
U.S. not entirely clean in this incident.

Tonkin Gulf Congressional Resolution
Gave LBJ authority to use unlimited military force in North Vietnam.
Johnson interpreted it as equivalent to declaration of war.

George Ball's dissent against continued U.S. involvement in Vietnam

He wanted us to bail out of Vietnam early on; in retrospect, he was probably right.

Operation Rolling Thunder: U.S. air campaign over North Vietnam

More U.S. bombs on Vietnam than U.S. dropped in all of WWII
North Vietnamese did not give up.
Hid in shelters; rebuilt roads and bridges
Their perseverance frustrated and awed American decision makers.
U.S. prisoners of war: John McCain among them

Escalation: U.S. commits regular combat units to Vietnam

Johnson's decision for major increase of U.S. effort in Vietnam

Johnson sent 50,000 U.S. ground troops in July 1965.
Successive escalations of U.S. troop levels.
Maximum level of 536,000 in 1968.

We told the South Vietnamese: watch how well we could complete the job.
They watched.
We did not complete the job.

Attrition strategy

American aim was to kill more enemy than could be sent from the North.

Search and destroy tactics

Body count: the indication of success.
If it's dead and Vietnamese, it's VC

Attrition did not succeed

Sanctuary: Enemy could use Laos and Cambodia as a sanctuary
Hard to defeat an enemy that has this kind of advantage.
Compare to Taliban using Pakistan as a sanctuary.

Ho Chi Minh trail: Google Images
http://bit.ly/GXZlFl

U.S. military in Vietnam

Many different wars depending on branch of service and location within South Vietnam

Vietnam tour of duty: 12 months for Army

Could be stationed in a U.S. unit or on an advisory team

Morale Problems: largely due to the draft

1. Fragging
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fragging-on-the-rise-in-us-units

2. Drug use

3. Post–traumatic stress. Other wars: shell shock, battle fatigue.

TET OFFENSIVE (January 1968)

Tet Offensive by the enemy
Tet is the Chinese Lunar New Year holiday

U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive, 1968
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/tet

This event was really important in retrospect
Enemy coordinated attacks all over South Vietnam
U.S. was victorious militarily

In U.S., public relations fallout bad
Americans became convinced that war was not winnable.

Divisions at Home in U.S.

Pro-war—by hard hats; silent majority

Anti-war protests:

Sound Smart: Vietnam War Protests
https://youtu.be/G3slnPIh_oU

Video: Reporting Vietnam: The press and the anti-war movement
https://youtu.be/AA0lBz6R0Z4

Vietnam War Protests 1969 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1115.html#article

Counterculture and the New Left both opposed the Vietnam War
Used teach–ins, antiwar marches, and demonstrations.
Some burned draft cards
Others fled the draft by moving to Canada.
"Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?"

Kent State University

U.S. raid into Cambodia (1970) triggered campus protests at Kent State and Jackson State.

Kent State University: 4 students killed; National Guard unit fired into a crowd of student protesters.

Video: On this day: Four killed in Kent State shooting
http://youtu.be/Lmd6CHah7Wg

Kent State Students Shot by Ohio National Guard
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Kent-State-Students-Shot-by-Ohio-National-Guard.html

Richard Nixon: Vietnamization of the war

His anti-Communist credentials
As a Republican, he had not “lost” China
He began the withdrawal of U.S. troops
South Vietnamese should carry the load.
Similar to our attempts both in Iraq and Afghanistan: "if they stand up, we will stand down"

Ending the Vietnam War, 1969–1973
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1969-1976/ending-vietnam

Fall of South Vietnam (April 1975)

Google Images: Helicopters Leaving Saigon
http://bit.ly/H9huRr

Saigon Falls to Vietcong Ending Vietnam War (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/April/Saigon-Falls-to-Vietcong--Ending-Vietnam-War.html

Legacy of the Vietnam war

58,000 U.S. dead

Video: Reporting Vietnam: One Week’s Dead (27 June 1969)
https://youtu.be/3WK9VtHNb3Q

Financial cost to U.S.: $200 billion.
America's most unpopular war.
Involvement of six U.S. presidents: Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford.

Vietnamese refugees who came to America

Vietnamese boat people
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_boat_people

PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON

Vdeo: Richard Nixon bio
https://youtu.be/KrXr1zksNEs

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Richard M. Nixon
https://youtu.be/jOdg3fo_Yo8

Nixon library tour (Yorba Linda)
https://www.nixonfoundation.org

Nixon as Eisenhower's Vice President (1952-1958)

1. Nixon's "Checkers" speech (September 1952)

Video: Richard Nixon - "Checkers" Speech
http://youtu.be/I9LcAJOsFGg

Richard Nixon Delivers “Checkers Speech”
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Sept/Richard-Nixon-Delivers-Checkers-Speech.html

2. Nixon in Venezuela (1958)

Video: Today in History | 13 May 1958
https://youtu.be/CI6P_5cgbGQ

3. Nixon debates Khrushchev at a fair in Moscow | 7/24/1959
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/nixon-debates-khrushchev-at-a-fair-in-moscow

Video: US-USSR Kitchen Debate - 1959 | Today in History | 24 July
http://youtu.be/1JVXaEnDGDg

Presidential Election of 1960

Remember: Nixon lost to Kennedy

Nixon-Kennedy Debate (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0926.html#article

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1960

Presidential Election of 1968

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1968

1. Democratic Convention (Chicago).

Video: 1968 Democratic National Convention
http://youtu.be/6ZlD4Dn_U7U

Johnson surprisingly decided not to run for reelection

The convention nominated Johnson's VP Hubert Humphrey.
Chicago police clashed with 5.000 anti-war protestors.
Police banged heads

2. Republican Convention (Miami Beach).

Nixon won nomination over
Nelson Rockefeller (liberal wing)
Ronald Reagan (conservative wing).

Nixon stood for stability and order:
Against war protestors
Against counterculture.

3. Results of the 1968 election

a. Nixon won (43.4% popular; 301 electoral)
Law and order candidate.
Supported by so-called "silent majority"—those not protesting

Video: Nixon's "Great Silent Majority"
http://youtu.be/Hqz0i83Jqxg

b. He defeated Humphrey and Wallace

Democrat Hubert Humphrey (LBJ's Vice President) (42.7% popular; 191 electoral)

George Wallace, segregationist Alabama governor: third–party (13.5% popular; 46 electoral)

Nixon's Foreign policy

Detente. Relaxation of tensions between the superpowers.

Video: Detente Explained (Keith Hughes)
http://youtu.be/V2-dg8GL9aA

"Grand strategy." Nixon and Kissinger.

Henry Kissinger: National security adviser; then Secretary of State

Video: Henry Kissinger interview on hacking
http://youtu.be/FWpng-ULW9M

Originally, People's Republic of China (PRC) seen as a tool of Soviet Union
Nixon decided to play them off against each other

Ping-Pong Diplomacy

Video: Ping Pong Diplomacy (NBC Nightly News)
http://youtu.be/PfMRq2Of_Qw

Video: Fantastic table tennis point
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A8IVASo0umU&feature=youtu.be

Nixon's Visit to People's Republic of China (PRC) (1972)

A surprise:
Nixon was such a long-time Communist–hater
U.S. had no diplomatic relations with PRC then

Video: Nixon in China: The Week that Changed the World
http://youtu.be/Lnz7Ze71Pc0

Nixon Leaves on Diplomatic Trip to China
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Feb/On-this-Day--Nixon-Leaves-on-Diplomatic-Trip-to-China.html

Nixon and Vietnam

Ending the Vietnam War, 1969–1973
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1969-1976/ending-vietnam

His anti-Communist credentials
As a Republican, he had not “lost” China
He began the withdrawal of U.S. troops
South Vietnamese should carry the load.
Similar to our attempts both in Iraq and Afghanistan: "if they stand up, we will stand down"

Civil Rights protests going on at same time:

When Martin Luther King Came Out Against Vietnam
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/04/opinion/when-martin-luther-king-came-out-against-vietnam.html?_r=0

Election of 1972

Nixon was easily reelected over George McGovern.
Democrats, however, retained control of Congress.
He did not need to do a "Watergate."

Video: Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1972

Nixon's "Southern Strategy"

Video: Pat Buchanan talks about the so-called Nixon Southern Strategy
http://youtu.be/T5DM3XTuOHc

Main issue: Urged Republicans to go slow on civil rights issues

Republicans stood for law and order.

Equated Democrats with permissiveness, crime, drugs, pornography, the hippie lifestyle, student radicalism, black militancy, feminism, homosexuality, and dissolution of the family.

Watergate

Video: Watergate: Saturday Night Massacre
http://youtu.be/Yfnhuf-piq4

Video: All The President's Men - Movie Trailer
http://youtu.be/vLt6djxhNe8

The Watergate Story Timeline (Washington Post)
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/watergate/timeline.html

Vice President Agnew Resigned

Nixon's Vice President Spiro Agnew had to resign because of income tax evasion and corruption.

Video: Spiro Agnew's resignation
http://youtu.be/m6YwGyb7ouc

Vice President Spiro Agnew Resigns
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Oct/Vice-President-Spiro-Agnew-Resigns.html

Gerald Ford became Vice President

Spiro Agnew was replaced as Nixon's Vice President by Gerald Ford.

Video: VP Ford chosen as VP
http://youtu.be/Or9OEUBr0qc

President Nixon resigned on 9 August 1974 (before he could be impeached because of Watergate)

Video: Nixon resignation (Miller Center)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEOGJJ7UKFM&feature=related

Richard Nixon Resigns
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Richard-Nixon-Resigns.html

Gerald Ford Becomes President

When Nixon resigned as President, Gerald Ford became the new President.

Video: Gerald Ford Sworn In as Vice President - 1973 | Today in History | 6 Dec
http://youtu.be/Or9OEUBr0qc

Nelson Rockefeller became Vice President.

Only time neither President nor VP elected by people.

Ford Pardons Nixon

Ford Grants Pardon to Nixon (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0908.html#article

Post–Watergate restrictions on executive power

Congressional reactions to "imperial Presidency

It is interesting to see how our government balances itself over time.

1. War Powers Act—President must consult with Congress before sending American troops into foreign wars.

2. Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act—prohibited the impounding of federal appropriations.

3. Freedom of Information Act—to aid citizens who were the victims of dirty–tricks campaigns and by giving people greater access to government documents.

PRESIDENT GERALD FORD

Gerald Ford (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/ford

Videos: Gerald Ford bio
https://youtu.be/Mf4NBMvksKI
http://youtu.be/uAFnTM5qChQ

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Gerald Ford
https://youtu.be/FeclXZWD5xo

Ford was not dumb and klutzy as media often portrayed him
Video: Ford trips on helicopter steps
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlz0he9rtKw

Offered pro football contract after All-American at U. of Michigan.

Went to Yale Law School instead.

Served in House of Representatives (1949-1973); leader of minority party.

Gerald Ford became Vice President, then President

Spiro Agnew was replaced as Nixon's Vice President by Gerald Ford.

Video: Gerald Ford Sworn In as Vice President - 6 December 1973
http://youtu.be/Or9OEUBr0qc

When Nixon resigned as President, Gerald Ford became the new President.

He served out the remainder of Nixon's term.

Ford was defeated by Carter in 1976.

Ford Pardoned Richard Nixon (Sept 1974)

Video: Ford Pardons Nixon - 1974 | Today in History | 8 Sept
https://youtu.be/67c-I-yt7s0

President Ford Pardons Richard Nixon
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--President-Ford-Pardons-Richard-Nixon.html

1976 Presidential election

Ford was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the 1976 presidential election (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/02/nov-2-1976-carter-defeats-ford-in-presidential-election/

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate) 1976
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1976

PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER

Jimmy Carter
Miller Center (University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/carter

Video: Jimmy Carter bio
https://youtu.be/MVlU7F5Gwo8

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Jimmy Carter
https://youtu.be/TmSO9pMWQjA

Election of 1976

Carter took advantage of the reaction against Watergate to defeat Gerald Ford (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/02/nov-2-1976-carter-defeats-ford-in-presidential-election/

Campaign Commercials (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1976

Panama Canal Treaty (1977)

U.S. gave Canal Zone back to Panama on 12/31/99
Treaty passed Senate by only one vote.

The Panama Canal and the Torrijos-Carter Treaties
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/panama-canal

Camp David Agreements (1978)

Video: Camp David Accords
http://youtu.be/jYASjRMEWeA

Camp David Accords and the Arab-Israeli Peace Process
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/camp-david

Camp David Peace Treaty 1979 [great front page picture] (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0326.html#article

Sadat and Begin Sign Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/Sadat-and-Begin-Sign-Israel-Egypt-Peace-Treaty.html

Iran Hostage Crisis (1979)

U.S. permitted deposed Shah to come to the U.S. for cancer treatment.

Video: The Iranian Revolution: Why It Still Matters Decades Later
http://youtu.be/hoFTDPtT_cY

Video: The Revolution That Led to the Iran We Know Today (WSJ)
http://youtu.be/P82j90p7hYc

Ayatollah Khomeini Returns From Exile
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Ayatollah-Khomeini-Returns-From-Exile.html

Iranian Muslim fundamentalists took members of U.S. embassy hostage.

In pictures: Iran hostage crisis (BBC News)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/04/middle_east_iran_hostage_crisis/html/1.stm

Iran Hostage Crisis Begins
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/On-this-Day--Iran-Hostage-Crisis-Begins.html

Unsuccessful US attempt to rescue hostages in Iran (1980)

On this day in history, 24 April 1980, the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission ended in disaster
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/hostage-rescue-mission-ends-in-disaster

Overview map of the operation
http://www.helis.com/featured/eagle_claw.php

Iran Hostage rap
http://youtu.be/c2Yt5ndQNr0

Human Rights

Carter and Human Rights, 1977–1981
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/human-rights

He was accused of a double standard:

Critical of Soviet Union, Argentina, and Chile
Willing to tolerate U.S. allies (South Korea, the Shah's Iran, Philippines).

Video: Ask President Carter: How can students advance human rights? (Carter Center)
http://youtu.be/AtqrV2mBB7Y

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the U.S. Response, 1978–1980
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/soviet-invasion-afghanistan

Carter Doctrine (1979)

U.S. would defend the Persian Gulf militarily from any Soviet invasion

Video: The Carter Doctrine announced
http://youtu.be/jjcMXKmW28E

U.S. boycott of 1980 Olympic Games

Olympic Boycott, 1980 (Historian of the State Department)
http://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/Olympic

Video: The 1980 Moscow Olympics Boycott | Flashback | NBC News
http://youtu.be/jL_8vpos-Fk

1980 Presidential Election

Carter lost the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan

Video: Ronald Reagan on The Misery Index
Misery Index: combine the unemployment rate and the rate of inflation
http://youtu.be/FcXODiINQoE

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1980

Assessment of Carter Presidency

Misery Index: combine the unemployment rate and the rate of inflation

Everything—domestically as well as internationally—seemed to go against him. He is a fantastic ex–president.

Carter's Post-Presidency

Nobel Peace Prize winner

Habitat for Humanity
http://www.habitat.org/how/default_jcwp.aspx

PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN

Video: Ronald Reagan bio
http://youtu.be/MOzg83FFY9o

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Ronald Reagan
https://youtu.be/KzmrxK3BOSA

Ronald Reagan (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/reagan

Reagan Library
https://www.reaganfoundation.org/?gclid=CI_K9onGldMCFUhcfgod5dMKAg

Election of 1980

Reagan accused President Carter of letting America be kicked around in world affairs.
Reagan's bold conservatism scared many voters
Reagan elected largely as a reaction against Carter.
Reagan's theme of "Stand Up, America" resonated with the electorate.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1980

Assassination attempt (March 1981)

Reagan's courageous response to assassination attempt (during first 100 days) increased his political power.

Video: Assassination attempt
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xYlYSc9hAUA

John Hinckly, Jr., Shoots President Reagan and James Brady
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/John-Hinckley-Jr--Shoots-President-Reagan-and-James-Brady.html

Reagan's administrative agenda

1. Cut taxes

2. Cut government red tape

3. Cut government spending on domestic programs

4. Increase defense spending

5. Stand up to communism

Reagan pictured Soviet Union as "evil empire." [Axis of Evil??]

Believed intense military buildup needed to confront Soviets.

Video: "Evil Empire" speech
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=do0x-Egc6oA

6. Negotiate with the Soviets

Video: "Tear Down This [Berlin] Wall" speech
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjWDrTXMgF8

Reagan Urges Soviets to Tear Down Berlin Wall (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0612.html#article

Republican party coalition

Made up of ideologically diverse constituencies:

1. Economic conservatives who had always voted Republican

2. Cultural conservatives

Fundamentalist and evangelical Christians
Advocated family values
Opposed abortion and homosexuality

3. "Reagan Democrats"

Blue–collar workers who supported family values

4. White voters in South (no longer the Solid Democratic South)

5. Young Americans (18–30) activated during Reagan years

6. Suburban voters (anti-taxes and anti-government).

Reaganomics

Video: Reaganomics (Alanis Morissette's "Ironic" parody) (Mr. Betts Class)
http://youtu.be/BdaLrYTCE7g

Supply–side economic policies.

Cut federal spending on domestic programs

Cut taxes for the wealthy and for corporations

Free up investment capital and encourage new job creation

Investment income to offset loss of tax revenue caused by tax cuts.

Money freed up by tax cuts would "trickle down" to less wealthy

Did not work.

We got tremendous economic deficits.

Foreign policy events during the Reagan Administration

1. Beirut (Lebanon) barracks bombing (1983)

Video: Beirut bombing
http://youtu.be/KgyTb6O3gwI

1983 Beirut Bomb Still Reverberates Today
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/Middle-East/October-08/1983-Beirut-Bomb-Still-Reverberates-Today.html

2. Invasion of Grenada (1983)

Video: U.S. Invades Grenada - 1983 | Today in History | 25 Oct
http://youtu.be/F4aSfX47Mgo

Trouble spots in Central America and the Caribbean
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI695.jpg

3. Reagan Doctrine

U.S. would openly support all anticommunist fighters.

Reagan Doctrine, 1985
https://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/rd/17741.htm

Presidential Election (1984)

President Reagan easily re-elected over Walter Mondale.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1984

Iran–Contra scandal

Two sides to the issue: Contras in Nicaragua and US arms sales to Iran

U.S supported those fighting against (contra) the communists in Nicaragua.

After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress anxious to oversee foreign policy

Congress ordered Reagan not to continue support of Contras. Reagan disobeyed.

Reagan Endorses CIA Support of Nicaraguan Contras
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Reagan-Endorses-CIA-Support-of-Nicaraguan-Contras.html

Video: President Ronald Reagan - Address on Iran-Contra
http://youtu.be/R67CH-qhXJs

Iran-Contra Scandal Breaks
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Iran-Contra-Scandal-Breaks-in-a-Lebanese-Magazine.html

Role of Oliver North.
Sold arms to Iran (illegal) and our enemy.
Used profits to send to the Contras to keep fighting Communists

Video: Oliver North hearing
http://youtu.be/dZw8PzLZn2s

PRESIDENT GEORGE HERBERT WALKER BUSH (BUSH #41)

Video: George H.W. Bush bio
https://youtu.be/-cGgBQsG5WA

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
George H.W. Bush
https://youtu.be/XBi-rFFkotQ

George H.W. Bush (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/bush

Video: World War Two heroism
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kh72XctOv5M&feature=related

Video: Parachute jump on his 83rd birthday
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_5K7c4QOuM

Presidential election of 1988

In Reagan's footsteps.
Accused of the 'wimp factor"
Peace abroad and a stable domestic economy

Campaign commercials 1988 (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1988

Bush Presidency

Bush against government action to solve economic & social problems.
Carried his approach too far and defended it too insensitively.
Many voters want to limit government in the abstract
Most want to keep safety net of government transfer payments

"Read my lips: no new taxes."
Assertion made during the 1988 presidential campaign

Broke his promise to get Congress to help balance the budget

Fall of the Berlin Wall (October 1989)

Video: The Berlin Wall Falls
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jnCPdLlUgvo

Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/fall-of-communism
The Berlin Wall Comes Down
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/The-Berlin-Wall-Comes-Down.html

End of the Cold War

Map: The End of the Cold War
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI703.jpg

The Collapse of the Soviet Unionhttps://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/collapse-soviet-union
Tiananmen Square

Tiananmen Square, 1989https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/tiananmen-square
Video: Tank Man: (start at 3:02)
http://youtu.be/SACHK-W4o1E

Invasion of Panama (December 1989)

Video: U.S. Invades Panama - 20 December 1989
https://youtu.be/MDZMseL6G10

US Forces Invade Panama
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--U-S--forces-invaded-Panama-to-overthrow-Gen--Manuel-Noriega.html

Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) (1991)

Successful effort to push Iraq out of Kuwait.
Decision not to invade rest of Iraq or go after Saddam Hussein
Subsequent opinions on whether U.S. made correct choices

The Gulf War, 1991
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/gulf-war
Video: The Gulf War 1991
http://youtu.be/If71ek0iSIQ

Video: Capt. H.R. McMaster
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aBG_G678Trg

Iraq Invades Kuwait Leading to Persian Gulf War
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Iraq-Invades-Kuwait--Leading-to-Persian-Gulf-War.html

Map: Trouble spots in the Middle East
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI694.jpg

1992 Presidential election loss to Bill Clinton

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1992

Dana Carvey impersonates Bush #41 and Ross Perot
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z851sZXYq5g&feature=youtu.be

PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON

Video: Bill Clinton bio
https://youtu.be/w2yX0JAn10Y

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Bill Clinton
https://youtu.be/6ZaEOeoHJw8

Election of 1992

Campaign commercials website (Living Room Candidate)
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1992

1. Republican George H.W. Bush (Bush #41). Incumbent President
Seemed to lack the "vision thing."
Faulted for concentrating on foreign policy.

2. Democrat Bill Clinton. Arkansas governor. "New democrat." More toward center.
Democrats countered: "it's the economy, stupid."

3. Ross Perot. Texas billionaire led a third–party bid.

Video: Giant Sucking Sound - Ross Perot 1992 Presidential Debate
http://youtu.be/Rkgx1C_S6ls

4. Clinton won electoral college (with only 43% of popular vote)

Somalia ("Black Hawk Down") 1993

Video: Inside the Real Black Hawk Down | No Man Left Behind
http://youtu.be/O1uvpakorog

Somalia, 1992–1993
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1993-2000/somalia

Ambush in Mogadishu (FRONTLINE)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/

Interviews with Rangers on the Black Hawk Down mission
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/interviews/

1994 Congressional elections

Republicans won both houses of Congress for the first time since 1954.

Newt Gingrich became the outspoken/controversial House Speaker.

Republicans offered a "Contract with America": a list of reforms to be passed during the first One Hundred Days.

Government Shutdowns (1995-1996)

Congressional Republicans shut down government over balanced budget
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_federal_government_shutdowns_of_1995%E2%80%931996

They were seen by many as ideologically inflexible.

Presidential Election of 1996: Clinton ran for a second term

President Clinton seen as reasonable and moderate
Protector of certain federal programs that Congress attacked.
Gained support of women, who benefited from such programs.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate) 1996
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1996

War in Europe: Kosovo

Map: The Breakup of Yugoslavia/Civil War in Bosnia
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI725.jpg

Balkans War: a brief guide
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-17632399

Republicans will later be against any idea of nation-building.

Impeachment attempted over the Monica Lewinsky affair

President Clinton Admits to Affair With Monica Lewinsky
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--President-Clinton-Admits-Affair.html

Video: The Clinton-Lewinsky Scandal | National Geographic
http://youtu.be/9M9TZ1ebQCA

Impeachment summary (BBC News)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/events/clinton_under_fire/timeline/168540.stm

Bill Clinton legacy

"Breathtakingly bright but capable of doing really dumb things."

Hillary Clinton's present and future role.

PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH (BUSH #43)

Video: George W. Bush bio
https://youtu.be/lAvv-zPLurs

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
George W. Bush
https://youtu.be/lEzWhB6BPcY

Campaign commercials
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/2000
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/2004

Election of 2000
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI730.jpg

PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA

Video: Barack Obama bio
http://youtu.be/1-IgxSn21jU

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Barack Obama
https://youtu.be/tZO37dPaSQw

Campaign commercials
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/2008
http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/2012

In class today: new material

This material will not be on the exam. I just want you to know it. So concentrate intently on the videos.

Great website and video resources on Iraq and Afghanistan
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/FRONTLINE

September 11, 2001

Though most of the hijackers were from Saudi Arabia (as was Bin Laden), Bin Laden was in
Afghanistan. So we attacked Afghanistan.

Afghanistan/Iraq

We invaded Afghanistan in 2001.
In 2003, we pulled out resources from Afghanistan to invade and occupy Iraq.
Wars in both countries were occurring at the same time.

Middle East Map
http://www.projectvisa.com/regions/Middle_East

Map: Muslim Distribution between Sunni and Shiite
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/world_maps/muslim_distribution.jpg

Sunni Muslim versus Shiite Muslim
Video: Why Do Saudi Arabia And Iran Hate Each Other? ((3:02)
http://youtu.be/G-dMM3HRnhY

Islamic State (ISIS)
Video: The Rise of ISIS (6:18)
http://youtu.be/pzmO6RWy1v8

Kurds
Video: Who Are The Kurds? (3:00)
http://youtu.be/Uv5-q_9fpro

Syria
Video: Syrian catastrophe (3:02)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFL1TbYZBBg&feature=youtu.be