In class today: new material


Video: Bill Clinton bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Bill Clinton

Election of 1992

Campaign commercials website (Living Room Candidate)

1. Republican George H.W. Bush (Bush #41). Incumbent President
Seemed to lack the "vision thing."
Faulted for concentrating on foreign policy.

2. Democrat Bill Clinton. Arkansas governor. "New democrat." More toward center.
Democrats countered: "it's the economy, stupid."

3. Ross Perot. Texas billionaire led a third–party bid.

Video: Giant Sucking Sound - Ross Perot 1992 Presidential Debate

4. Clinton won electoral college (with only 43% of popular vote)

Somalia ("Black Hawk Down") 1993

Video: Inside the Real Black Hawk Down | No Man Left Behind

Somalia, 1992–1993

Ambush in Mogadishu (FRONTLINE)

Interviews with Rangers on the Black Hawk Down mission

1994 Congressional elections

Republicans won both houses of Congress for the first time since 1954.

Newt Gingrich became the outspoken/controversial House Speaker.

Republicans offered a "Contract with America": a list of reforms to be passed during the first One Hundred Days.

Government Shutdowns (1995-1996)

Congressional Republicans shut down government over balanced budget

They were seen by many as ideologically inflexible.

Presidential Election of 1996: Clinton ran for a second term

President Clinton seen as reasonable and moderate
Protector of certain federal programs that Congress attacked.
Gained support of women, who benefited from such programs.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate) 1996

War in Europe: Kosovo

Map: The Breakup of Yugoslavia/Civil War in Bosnia

Balkans War: a brief guide

Republicans will later be against any idea of nation-building.

Impeachment attempted over the Monica Lewinsky affair

President Clinton Admits to Affair With Monica Lewinsky

Video: The Clinton-Lewinsky Scandal | National Geographic

Impeachment summary (BBC News)

Bill Clinton legacy

"Breathtakingly bright but capable of doing really dumb things."

Hillary Clinton's present and future role.


Video: George W. Bush bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
George W. Bush

Campaign commercials

Election of 2000


Video: Barack Obama bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Barack Obama

Campaign commercials

Four Spiritual Laws

4 Spiritual Laws (Campus Crusade)

Self-Directed Life

Christ-Directed Life

In class today: new material


Video: Ronald Reagan bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Ronald Reagan

Ronald Reagan (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Reagan Library

Election of 1980

Reagan accused President Carter of letting America be kicked around in world affairs.
Reagan's bold conservatism scared many voters
Reagan elected largely as a reaction against Carter.
Reagan's theme of "Stand Up, America" resonated with the electorate.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Assassination attempt (March 1981)

Reagan's courageous response to assassination attempt (during first 100 days) increased his political power.

Video: Assassination attempt

John Hinckly, Jr., Shoots President Reagan and James Brady

Reagan's administrative agenda

1. Cut taxes

2. Cut government red tape

3. Cut government spending on domestic programs

4. Increase defense spending

5. Stand up to communism

Reagan pictured Soviet Union as "evil empire." [Axis of Evil??]

Believed intense military buildup needed to confront Soviets.

Video: "Evil Empire" speech

6. Negotiate with the Soviets

Video: "Tear Down This [Berlin] Wall" speech

Reagan Urges Soviets to Tear Down Berlin Wall (New York Times)

Republican party coalition

Made up of ideologically diverse constituencies:

1. Economic conservatives who had always voted Republican

2. Cultural conservatives

Fundamentalist and evangelical Christians
Advocated family values
Opposed abortion and homosexuality

The Christian Right (NHC)

3. "Reagan Democrats"

Blue–collar workers who supported family values

4. White voters in South (no longer the Solid Democratic South)

5. Young Americans (18–30) activated during Reagan years

6. Suburban voters (anti-taxes and anti-government).


Video: Reaganomics (Alanis Morissette's "Ironic" parody) (Mr. Betts Class)

Supply–side economic policies.

Cut federal spending on domestic programs

Cut taxes for the wealthy and for corporations

Free up investment capital and encourage new job creation

Investment income to offset loss of tax revenue caused by tax cuts.

Money freed up by tax cuts would "trickle down" to less wealthy

Did not work.

We got tremendous economic deficits.

Foreign policy events during the Reagan Administration

1. Beirut (Lebanon) barracks bombing (1983)

Video: Beirut bombing

1983 Beirut Bomb Still Reverberates Today

2. Invasion of Grenada (1983)

Video: U.S. Invades Grenada - 1983 | Today in History | 25 Oct

Trouble spots in Central America and the Caribbean

3. Reagan Doctrine

U.S. would openly support all anticommunist fighters.

Reagan Doctrine, 1985

Presidential Election (1984)

President Reagan easily re-elected over Walter Mondale.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Iran–Contra scandal

Two sides to the issue: Contras in Nicaragua and US arms sales to Iran

U.S supported those fighting against (contra) the communists in Nicaragua.

After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress anxious to oversee foreign policy

Congress ordered Reagan not to continue support of Contras. Reagan disobeyed.

Reagan Endorses CIA Support of Nicaraguan Contras

Video: President Ronald Reagan - Address on Iran-Contra

Iran-Contra Scandal Breaks

Role of Oliver North.
Sold arms to Iran (illegal) and our enemy.
Used profits to send to the Contras to keep fighting Communists

Video: Oliver North hearing


Video: George H.W. Bush bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
George H.W. Bush

George H.W. Bush (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Video: World War Two heroism

Video: Parachute jump on his 83rd birthday

Presidential election of 1988

In Reagan's footsteps.
Accused of the 'wimp factor"
Peace abroad and a stable domestic economy

Campaign commercials 1988 (Living Room Candidate)

Bush Presidency

Bush against government action to solve economic & social problems.
Carried his approach too far and defended it too insensitively.
Many voters want to limit government in the abstract
Most want to keep safety net of government transfer payments

"Read my lips: no new taxes."
Assertion made during the 1988 presidential campaign

Broke his promise to get Congress to help balance the budget

Fall of the Berlin Wall (October 1989)

Video: The Berlin Wall Falls

Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989
The Berlin Wall Comes Down

End of the Cold War

Map: The End of the Cold War

The Collapse of the Soviet Union
Tiananmen Square

Tiananmen Square, 1989
Chinese troops crush the protests

Video: Tank Man: (start at 3:02)

Invasion of Panama (December 1989)

Video: U.S. Invades Panama - 20 December 1989

US Forces Invade Panama

Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) (1991)

Successful effort to push Iraq out of Kuwait.
Decision not to invade rest of Iraq or go after Saddam Hussein
Subsequent opinions on whether U.S. made correct choices

The Gulf War, 1991
Video: The Gulf War 1991

Video: Capt. H.R. McMaster

Iraq Invades Kuwait Leading to Persian Gulf War

Map: Trouble spots in the Middle East

1992 Presidential election loss to Bill Clinton

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Dana Carvey impersonates Bush #41 and Ross Perot

In class today: new material

Post–Watergate restrictions on executive power

Congressional reactions to "imperial Presidency

It is interesting to see how our government balances itself over time.

1. War Powers Act—President must consult with Congress before sending American troops into foreign wars.

2. Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act—prohibited the impounding of federal appropriations.

3. Freedom of Information Act—to aid citizens who were the victims of dirty–tricks campaigns and by giving people greater access to government documents.


Gerald Ford (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Videos: Gerald Ford bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Gerald Ford

Ford was not dumb and klutzy as media often portrayed him
Video: Ford trips on helicopter steps

Offered pro football contract after All-American at U. of Michigan.

Went to Yale Law School instead.

Served in House of Representatives (1949-1973); leader of minority party.

Gerald Ford became Vice President, then President

Spiro Agnew was replaced as Nixon's Vice President by Gerald Ford.

Video: Gerald Ford Sworn In as Vice President - 6 December 1973

When Nixon resigned as President, Gerald Ford became the new President.

He served out the remainder of Nixon's term.

Ford was defeated by Carter in 1976.

Ford Pardoned Richard Nixon (Sept 1974)

Video: Ford Pardons Nixon - 1974 | Today in History | 8 Sept

President Ford Pardons Richard Nixon

1976 Presidential election

Ford was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the 1976 presidential election (New York Times)

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate) 1976


Jimmy Carter
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Video: Jimmy Carter bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Jimmy Carter

Election of 1976

Carter took advantage of the reaction against Watergate to defeat Gerald Ford (New York Times)

Campaign Commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Panama Canal Treaty (1977)

U.S. gave Canal Zone back to Panama on 12/31/99
Treaty passed Senate by only one vote.

The Panama Canal and the Torrijos-Carter Treaties

Camp David Agreements (1978)

Video: Camp David Accords

Camp David Accords and the Arab-Israeli Peace Process

Camp David Peace Treaty 1979 [great front page picture] (New York Times)

Sadat and Begin Sign Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty

Iran Hostage Crisis (1979)

U.S. permitted deposed Shah to come to the U.S. for cancer treatment.

Video: The Iranian Revolution: Why It Still Matters Decades Later

Video: The Revolution That Led to the Iran We Know Today (WSJ)

Ayatollah Khomeini Returns From Exile

Iranian Muslim fundamentalists took members of U.S. embassy hostage.

In pictures: Iran hostage crisis (BBC News)

Iran Hostage Crisis Begins

Unsuccessful US attempt to rescue hostages in Iran (1980)

On this day in history, 24 April 1980, the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission ended in disaster

Overview map of the operation

Iran Hostage rap

Human Rights

Carter and Human Rights, 1977–1981

He was accused of a double standard:

Critical of Soviet Union, Argentina, and Chile
Willing to tolerate U.S. allies (South Korea, the Shah's Iran, Philippines).

Video: Ask President Carter: How can students advance human rights? (Carter Center)

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)

The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the U.S. Response, 1978–1980

Video: Soviet-Afghanistan War

Carter Doctrine (1979)

U.S. would defend the Persian Gulf militarily from any Soviet invasion

Video: The Carter Doctrine announced

U.S. boycott of 1980 Olympic Games

Olympic Boycott, 1980 (Historian of the State Department)

Video: The 1980 Moscow Olympics Boycott | Flashback | NBC News

1980 Presidential Election

Carter lost the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan

Video: Ronald Reagan on The Misery Index
Misery Index: combine the unemployment rate and the rate of inflation

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Assessment of Carter Presidency

Misery Index: combine the unemployment rate and the rate of inflation

Everything—domestically as well as internationally—seemed to go against him. He is a fantastic ex–president.

Carter's Post-Presidency

Nobel Peace Prize winner

Habitat for Humanity

In class today: new material


Vdeo: Richard Nixon bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Richard M. Nixon

Nixon library tour (Yorba Linda)

Nixon as Eisenhower's Vice President (1952-1958)

1. Nixon's "Checkers" speech (September 1952)

Video: Richard Nixon - "Checkers" Speech

Richard Nixon Delivers “Checkers Speech”

2. Nixon in Venezuela (1958)

Video: Today in History | 13 May 1958

3. Nixon debates Khrushchev at a fair in Moscow | 7/24/1959

Video: US-USSR Kitchen Debate - 1959 | Today in History | 24 July

Presidential Election of 1960

Remember: Nixon lost to Kennedy

Video: Kennedy-Nixon debate

Nixon-Kennedy Debate (New York Times)

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Presidential Election of 1968

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Video: 1968 Election (Tom Brokaw)

Video: The 1968 Election (Kip Hughes)

Video: Nixon's law and order campaign ads

1. Democratic Convention (Chicago).

Video: 1968 Democratic National Convention

Johnson surprisingly decided not to run for reelection

The convention nominated Johnson's VP Hubert Humphrey.
Chicago police clashed with 5.000 anti-war protestors.
Police banged heads

2. Republican Convention (Miami Beach).

Nixon won nomination over
Nelson Rockefeller (liberal wing)
Ronald Reagan (conservative wing).

Nixon stood for stability and order:
Against war protestors
Against counterculture.

3. Results of the 1968 election

a. Nixon won (43.4% popular; 301 electoral)
Law and order candidate.
Supported by so-called "silent majority"—those not protesting

Video: Nixon's "Great Silent Majority"

b. He defeated Humphrey and Wallace

Democrat Hubert Humphrey (LBJ's Vice President) (42.7% popular; 191 electoral)

George Wallace, segregationist Alabama governor: third–party (13.5% popular; 46 electoral)

Nixon's Foreign policy

Detente. Relaxation of tensions between the superpowers.

Video: Detente Explained (Keith Hughes)

"Grand strategy." Nixon and Kissinger.

Henry Kissinger: National security adviser; then Secretary of State

Video: Henry Kissinger interview on hacking

Originally, People's Republic of China (PRC) seen as a tool of Soviet Union
Nixon decided to play them off against each other

Ping-Pong Diplomacy

Video: Ping Pong Diplomacy (NBC Nightly News)

Video: Fantastic table tennis point

Nixon's Visit to People's Republic of China (PRC) (1972)

A surprise:
Nixon was such a long-time Communist–hater
U.S. had no diplomatic relations with PRC then

Video: Nixon in China: The Week that Changed the World

Nixon Leaves on Diplomatic Trip to China

Nixon and Vietnam

Ending the Vietnam War, 1969–1973

His anti-Communist credentials
As a Republican, he had not “lost” China
He began the withdrawal of U.S. troops
South Vietnamese should carry the load.
Similar to our attempts both in Iraq and Afghanistan: "if they stand up, we will stand down"

Civil Rights protests going on at same time:

When Martin Luther King Came Out Against Vietnam

Election of 1972

Nixon was easily reelected over George McGovern.
Democrats, however, retained control of Congress.
He did not need to do a "Watergate."

Video: Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Nixon's "Southern Strategy"

Video: Pat Buchanan talks about the so-called Nixon Southern Strategy

Main issue: Urged Republicans to go slow on civil rights issues

Republicans stood for law and order.

Equated Democrats with permissiveness, crime, drugs, pornography, the hippie lifestyle, student radicalism, black militancy, feminism, homosexuality, and dissolution of the family.


Richard Nixon Resigns because of Watergate Scandal

Video: Watergate: Saturday Night Massacre

Video: All The President's Men - Movie Trailer

The Watergate Story Timeline (Washington Post)

Vice President Agnew Resigned

Nixon's Vice President Spiro Agnew had to resign because of income tax evasion and corruption.

Video: Spiro Agnew's resignation

Vice President Spiro Agnew Resigns

Gerald Ford became Vice President

Spiro Agnew was replaced as Nixon's Vice President by Gerald Ford.

Video: VP Ford chosen as VP

President Nixon resigned on 9 August 1974 (before he could be impeached because of Watergate)

Video: Nixon resignation (Miller Center)

Richard Nixon Resigns because of Watergate Scandal

Gerald Ford Becomes President

When Nixon resigned as President, Gerald Ford became the new President.

Video: Gerald Ford Sworn In as Vice President - 1973 | Today in History | 6 Dec

Nelson Rockefeller became Vice President.

Only time neither President nor VP elected by people.

Ford Pardons Nixon

Ford Grants Pardon to Nixon (New York Times)

In class today:

a. reaction to the video we watched on Tuesday.

b. reaction to the Vietnam photos

V. In class today: new material>>>Vietnam War module


Vietnam became one of the many sites where the Cold War and the Third World intersected.

Maps for us to refer back to during our study of the Vietnam War.

Static map:

Map: South Vietnam provinces, 1967

Context for U.S. decision-making

Containment policy

American leaders thought of Vietnam as an Asian Berlin, a place to draw the line against communism and to implement the containment doctrine.

China 1949
McCarthy in US (1950-1954)
Korean War (1950-1953)

French Indochina

Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos) colonized in 1880s.
Vietnamese resisted French colonial regime as much as possible
Vietnamese tradition of historical resistance to invaders: China.

Ho Chi Minh:

Man of the Month: Ho Chi Minh (Twentieth Century by Walter Cronkite)

Leader of Vietnamese Communist Party
Major leader of Vietnamese resistance to the Japanese
Vietminh declared independence from France in 1945.
Ho quoted from U.S. Declaration of Independence.

General Giap:

Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, Who Ousted U.S. From Vietnam, Is Dead

Vietminh war against the French

U.S. had a choice:

a) Support Ho Chi Minh's bid for independence

b) Support French return to Indochina

We supported the French return.
Context: containment of communism
We paid 80% of the costs of French war against Vietminh

Dienbienphu (May 1954)

French fall to Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu ( This Day in History | 5/7/1954)

French withdrawal from Indochina

Geneva peace conference (July 1954)

Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel.
Ho's forces gained control of North Vietnam.
Election to unify the country was scheduled for 1956.
America, figuring Ho Chi Minh would win, did not permit the election.

U.S. replaced France in Vietnam



Ground combat took place within South Vietnam

U.S. never invaded North Vietnam

U.S. pursued an air war against North Vietnam

Enemy side:

North Vietnam and those living in South Vietnam (called Viet Cong) who will fight against the United States

Video: Inside the Viet Cong

Our side:

United States and those South Vietnamese friendly to U.S.

Our man in Vietnam: Ngo Dinh Diem

Our initial handpicked leader in South Vietnam
No real alternative leader in South Vietnam to Ho Chi Minh in the North
U.S. backed Ngo Dinh Diem

He consolidated power over internal rivals.
Diem was a Catholic (in a mostly Buddhist country).

Bachelor (role of his family, especially brother and his sister-in-law)

Diem's oppressive policies and persecution of Buddhists made him unpopular

Vietnamese monk burning himself to death

CIA backed an overthrow of Diem (who was murdered)

The Ugly American Telegram

Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem
JFK himself was assassinated three weeks later.

Kennedy's escalation of the U.S. war effort

North Vietnam and Viet Cong increased attempts to win in South
South Vietnam on the verge of losing
JFK had sent 16,000 American advisors.
Big historical question: what would Kennedy have done had he lived?

After Diem, revolving-door governments in South Vietnam
Comparisons to Iraq and Afghanistan

Why did we let Diem be overthrown?
Was there any better alternative?
Was the country itself able to operate as a country?
Could and would the South Vietnamese leaders actually lead their own people?
At what point could the U.S. have gotten out of Vietnam?

President Lyndon Johnson and the Americanization of the War

Competition with his Great Society

Tonkin Gulf Incident and Resolution

U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War: the Gulf of Tonkin and Escalation, 1964

Response to North Vietnamese attack on American destroyer.
U.S. not entirely clean in this incident.

Tonkin Gulf Congressional Resolution
Gave LBJ authority to use unlimited military force in North Vietnam.
Johnson interpreted it as equivalent to declaration of war.

George Ball's dissent against continued U.S. involvement in Vietnam

He wanted us to bail out of Vietnam early on; in retrospect, he was probably right.

Operation Rolling Thunder: U.S. air campaign over North Vietnam

More U.S. bombs on Vietnam than U.S. dropped in all of WWII
North Vietnamese did not give up.
Hid in shelters; rebuilt roads and bridges
Their perseverance frustrated and awed American decision makers.
U.S. prisoners of war: John McCain among them

Escalation: U.S. commits regular combat units to Vietnam

Johnson's decision for major increase of U.S. effort in Vietnam

Johnson sent 50,000 U.S. ground troops in July 1965.
Successive escalations of U.S. troop levels.
Maximum level of 536,000 in 1968.

We told the South Vietnamese: watch how well we could complete the job.
They watched.
We did not complete the job.

Attrition strategy

American aim was to kill more enemy than could be sent from the North.

Search and destroy tactics

Body count: the indication of success.
If it's dead and Vietnamese, it's VC

Attrition did not succeed

Sanctuary: Enemy could use Laos and Cambodia as a sanctuary
Hard to defeat an enemy that has this kind of advantage.
Compare to Taliban using Pakistan as a sanctuary.

Ho Chi Minh trail: Google Images

U.S. military in Vietnam

Many different wars depending on branch of service and location within South Vietnam

Vietnam tour of duty: 12 months for Army

Could be stationed in a U.S. unit or on an advisory team

Morale Problems: largely due to the draft

1. Fragging

2. Drug use

3. Post–traumatic stress. Other wars: shell shock, battle fatigue.

TET OFFENSIVE (January 1968)

Tet Offensive by the enemy
Tet is the Chinese Lunar New Year holiday

U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive, 1968

This event was really important in retrospect
Enemy coordinated attacks all over South Vietnam
U.S. was victorious militarily

In U.S., public relations fallout bad
Americans became convinced that war was not winnable.

Divisions at Home in U.S.

Pro-war—by hard hats; silent majority

Anti-war protests:

Sound Smart: Vietnam War Protests

Video: Reporting Vietnam: The press and the anti-war movement

Vietnam War Protests 1969 (New York Times)

Counterculture and the New Left both opposed the Vietnam War
Used teach–ins, antiwar marches, and demonstrations.
Some burned draft cards
Others fled the draft by moving to Canada.
"Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?"

Kent State University

U.S. raid into Cambodia (1970) triggered campus protests at Kent State and Jackson State.

Kent State University: 4 students killed; National Guard unit fired into a crowd of student protesters.

Video: On this day: Four killed in Kent State shooting

Kent State Students Shot by Ohio National Guard

Richard Nixon: Vietnamization of the war

His anti-Communist credentials
As a Republican, he had not “lost” China
He began the withdrawal of U.S. troops
South Vietnamese should carry the load.
Similar to our attempts both in Iraq and Afghanistan: "if they stand up, we will stand down"

Ending the Vietnam War, 1969–1973

Fall of South Vietnam (April 1975)

Google Images: Helicopters Leaving Saigon

Saigon Falls to Vietcong Ending Vietnam War (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Legacy of the Vietnam war

58,000 U.S. dead

Video: Reporting Vietnam: One Week’s Dead (27 June 1969)

Financial cost to U.S.: $200 billion.
America's most unpopular war.
Involvement of six U.S. presidents: Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford.

Vietnamese refugees who came to America

Vietnamese boat people

In class today: new material>>>Vieitnam War module (today and Thursday)

Video: Cold War: Vietnam (CNN) (46:24)
[Please open a document to enter your reactions and questions. We will talk about them afterwards.

How and why did I end up in Vietnam?

1. Army ROTC at Georgetown, commissioned as an Infantry Second Lieutenant.

2. Wrote term papers on insurgencies, prepared myself as much as possible for Vietnam.

3. One part of me thought I had to go to graduate school as my classmates were doing.

4. Army permitted deferments to pursue my Ph.D.

5. Began a Ph.D. program in Political Science at Pitt. Difficult to be in school when war on.

6. Finished M.A. but asked Army to call me in for my two years.

7. Stateside assignments:

Infantry Officer Basic Course at Fort Benning, Georgia
Troop duty in the Infantry Advanced Individual Training Brigade at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
Vietnamese language study at Fort Bliss, Texas
Advisor school at Fort Gordon, Georgia

8. Tour of duty in Vietnam as an advisor to the South Vietnamese army.

9. Returned from Vietnam to begin MBA program at Stanford Business School.

In class today: new material


March on Washington

March on Washington - 1963 | Today in History | 28 Aug

MLK "I Have a Dream Speech"

One of the great speeches in U.S. history.
Delivered as part of the program during a March on Washington (60,000 whites and 190,00 blacks).

Video: King Leads the March on Washington (3:21)

Video: Congressman John Lewis Recalls His Speech at March on Washington (2:08)

Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers “I Have a Dream” Speech

Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing

Bomb exploded during Sunday School, killing four teenage black girls.
The Sunday school lesson for that morning was "A Love that Forgives."

American Freedom Stories: Bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church (3:18)

September 15, 1963: Four Black Girls Killed in Bombing of Birmingham, Alabama, Church

Four Girls Killed in Birmingham Church Bombing

John F. Kennedy assassinated

New President is Lyndon B. Johnson

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Lyndon B. Johnson


Freedom Summer: voter registration and freedom schools

Local black leaders aided by white students from elite colleges .
Whites in the South saw this activity as "invasion" by outside agitators.

What was the 1964 Freedom Summer Project

Video: Mississippi in Black and White: Freedom Summer 50 Years Later

Mississippi Civil Rights Museum unflinching look

Voter registration

No real power for blacks until they could vote. But risked their lives if they went through with the process.

1965 Alabama literacy test

Murder in Mississippi (21 June 1964)

Two white and one black civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi.

Two white (Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner) and one black (James Chaney) civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi

Three Civil Rights Workers in Mississippi Go Missing

Killer dies in prison at age 92

Civil Rights Act (1 July 1964)

Johnson signs Civil Rights Act ( This Day in History | 7/2/1964)

Civil Rights Act Passed - 1964 | Today in History | 19 June

The Civil Rights Act prohibited racial discrimination in employment and education and outlawed racial segregation in public places such as schools, buses, parks and swimming pools.

MLK won the Nobel Peace Prize.

This Day in History - Martin Luther King Wins the Nobel Peace Prize

Martin Luther King: The Nobel Prize for Peace (Museum of the Bible)

MLK Wins Nobel Peace Prize 1964 (New York Times)



a. "Bloody Sunday".

Selma (New York Times) Check out this front page of New York Times

Video: Moments in Civil Rights history (3:56)
March 7, 1965 - Bloody Sunday

Bloody Sunday

b. Selma to Montgomery march

Video: American Freedom Stories: March from Selma to Montgomery (4:11)

Our God Is Marching On - How Long? Not Long!

Encyclopedia of Alabama: Selma to Montgomery March

c. Viola Luizzo

Viola Liuzzo, killed by the Klan, was the only white woman to die in the civil rights movement (April 1965)

LBJ speech to Congress calling for legislation on voting rights

Asks Joint Session of Congress for sweeping civil rights legislation.
Ends speech with "we shall overcome."
His southern friends appalled at his sellout.

Video: LBJ -- We Shall Overcome (0:53)

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Video: Sound Smart
Voting Rights Act of 1965

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 set strict rules for protecting the right of African Americans to vote–that have since been used to enforce equal rights for women as well as all minorities.

Watts Riots

Watts Riots - 1965 | Today in History | 11 Aug

Video: Moments in Civil Rights history (3:44)
August 17, 1965: Days of Riots End in Watts

Watts Riots 1965 (New York Times)


Black power

Militant black leaders gained prominence in SNCC, questioned Martin Luther King's philosophy of nonviolence, and forced white members to leave the organization.

Black Power
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

Malcolm X

Video: Malcolm X

Black Panther Party

Founded in California. Major figures: Eldridge Cleaver, Huey Newton, and Bobby Seale. Advocated violent confrontation with whites.

Video: Sound Smart
Black Panthers

Video: 5 Things To Know About The Black Panthers (2:08)


Tet Offensive in Vietnam (February)

Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (April: in Memphis)

Martin Luther King's Last Speech: "I've Been To The Mountaintop"

1968 King Assassination Report (CBS News)

Assassination of MLK
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy (June: in Los Angeles)

Senator Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated

Video: Robert F. Kennedy mini bio

Black Power Salute at Mexico City Olympics

Who: Tommie Smith and John Carlos

Video: Moments in Civil Rights history (2:45)
October 16, 1968 - U.S. Olympic Sprinters Protest Racial Inequality

U.S. Athletes Give Black Power Salute on Olympic Podium

Hispanic School Protests in Los Angeles

Mendez versus Westminster
Develop this aspect more fully

East LA Walkouts

Sal Castro the key name
Sal Castro and the 1968 East LA Walkouts

Chicano Movement

Video playlist
^Chicano! - History of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement

Hispanics Are Forgotten in Civil Rights History - Education Week

Latino Civil Rights Timeline, 1903 to 2006 | Teaching Tolerance

In class today: new material>>>Civil Rights module

Left over from last class session:

Arkansas National Guard Bars “Little Rock Nine” From School

Great video series:
Eyes on the Prize (Episode 1): Awakenings, 1954-1956

Eyes on the Prize (Episode 2): Fighting Back, 1957-1962

Eyes on the Prize (Episode 3): Ain't Scared of Your Jails, 1960-1961

Video: Eyes on the Prize (Episode #4): No Easy Walk, 1962-1963

Video: Eyes on the Prize (Episode #5):Mississippi, Is This America? 1962-1964

Video: Eyes on the Prize (Episode #6): Bridge to Freedom, 1965

In class today: new material



MLK and his wife spent a month in India studying Gandhi's non–violence.

Video: Sound Smart
Mahatma Gandhi

MLK and Gandhi

King's Trip to India
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)



Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit-in

Details of what happened:
Four African-American freshman (Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair Jr., and David Richmond) at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro, North Carolina.
Decided to sit in at a Woolworth's lunch counter and request service.

Greensboro sit-ins

Greensboro Four: Civil Rights Sit-in

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Video: SNCC's legacy: A civil rights history (5:56)

(SNCC—pronounced "snick).
Established to coordinate sit–ins across the south.

Nashville sit-ins

American Freedom Stories: John Lewis

John Lewis
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

The question Diane Nash Asked the Memphis Mayor To End Desegregation

"Who the hell is Diane Nash?" From Freedom Riders

Feb. 29, 1960 - Student Sit-in Organizers Expelled

MLK jailed (October).

October 19, 1960 - Martin Luther King Arrested in Atlanta Sit-In Protest
[right before 1960 Presidential election]

During the 1960 presidential election campaign, concern expressed by both JFK and Robert Kennedy for the arrest and prison sentence of Martin Luther King, Jr., earned Kennedy the black vote.


Freedom Rides

A group of black and white persons set out by bus from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans to test the "whites only" facilities of southern interstate bus terminals.

Video: Sound Smart
Freedom Rides

Freedom Riders: The Young Witness (Anniston)

Video: Freedom Riders: Jim Zwerg

Interview with white Freedom Rider Jim Zwerg

Freedom Ride Protests Provoke Violent Backlash Across American South (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)


University of Mississippi Desegregated

James Meredith desegregated the University of Mississippi.

Video: Moments in Civil Rights history (2:21)
October 1, 1962 - James Meredith Integrates Ole Miss

James Meredith Graduates From Ole Miss

[Put in the actual day/month for this year]

Project "C" [Confrontation] in Birmingham

Birmingham, Alabama (called "Bombingham" by civil rights workers, due to so many unsolved bombings).

1. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"

Written by MLK while in jail. Response to an ad from white pastors telling him that he was stirring up too much trouble.

Video: Letter from Birmingham Jail (5:39)

Letter from Birmingham Jail (Encyclopedia of Alabama)

2. Birmingham Children's march.
Police dogs and fire hoses. TV coverage shocked America.

American Freedom Stories: Children's Crusade of 1963

American Freedom Stories: Civil Rights Foot Soldiers

Childrens' Crusade
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

3. Sheriff "Bull Connor.

Bull Connor

4. JFK TV speech.

He was afraid of losing votes of white southern Democrats. He finally spoke out: "Civil rights is a moral issue."

Video: JFK speech on Civil Rights (1:35)

Kennedy's finest moment

Medgar Evers murdered

Evers was the Mississippi head of NAACP.

Video: Medgar Evers mini bio

American Freedom Stories: Medgar Evers Assassination (3:10)

American Freedom Stories: Medgar Evers Legacy

Medgar Evers

Medgar Evers
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

In class today: new material>>>Civil Rights module


The following extensive chronology will help us tie together the events of the civil rights movement:

Follow with me by using Google Images on your laptop for each person and event.

Pay close attention to the videos. I am trying really hard to bring material that will support your preferred visual learning styles.

Jim Crow laws (Segregation)

Video: What were the Jim Crow laws? Video

Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (PBS)
Note the terrific chrobology

Green Book: The forgotten way African Americans stayed safe in a racist America

Plessy versus Ferguson (1896) (Supreme Court decision)

Video: Sound Smart
Plessy versus Ferguson

Plessy v. Ferguson (Drake's "One Dance" Parody) Mr. Betts

Plessy versus Ferguson (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Separate but equal is ok.

Black leaders: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois

Their legacies represent differing approaches within the civil rights movement.

Video: Why Booker T. Washington and W.E.B.DuBois matter (Mr. Betts class) (3:25)

1. Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)

Son of a slave woman and a white man.

Atlanta Compromise (1895): Known for major speech
Blacks should not yet push for political or social equality
Blacks should work hard and show themselves worthy
Blacks should accommodate (temporarily) to white society

2. W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963)

First African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard.
He disagreed with Booker T. Washington
DuBois wanted blacks to be more aggressive and militant
Wanted to educate the top 10% of blacks ("talented tenth")
Demonstrate blacks could compete effectively with whites.
Helped form the NAACP in 1909.

Video: WEB DuBois mini bio


Post World War II. Returning black veterans unwilling to accept second–class status back home.

Racial desegregation of the armed forces (1948) by executive order of President Truman.

July 26, 1948 - President Harry S. Truman orders the integration of U.S. armed forces.


Brown v. Board of Education (Supreme Court decision)

Overturned the decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).

"Separate facilities are inherently unequal" and therefore unconstitutional.

Argued by Thurgood Marshall on behalf of the NAACP.

Brown v. Board of Education (PBS' The Supreme Court)

Brown v. Board of Education

Mr. Betts Brown vs. Board of Education

Supreme Court Ends School Segregation

Kenneth Clark's "doll" test

How an experiment with dolls helped lead to school integration

Video: Kenneth Clark doll test (3:46)
Simple Justice: The Social Science Evidence of Racism

Video: A Girl Like Me [modern adaptation of that doll test]


Emmett Till's Murder (28 August 1955)

Murder in Mississippi of a young black teenager from Chicago for having insulted a white women.

Video: Moments in Civil Rights history (3:33)
14-year-old Emmett Till Abducted and Murdered in Mississippi Delta

Video: American Freedom Stories: Emmett Till (2:18)


Montgomery, Alabama, Bus Boycott (Rosa Parks)

Rosa Parks arrested on 1 December 1955

Video: Rosa Parks mini bio

American Freedom Stories: MLK as the new pastor

Dec. 1, 1955 - Rosa Parks Arrested for Violating Segregation Laws

Martin Luther King will lead the Montgomery Improvement Association
That group will sponsor the bus boycott

American Freedom Stories: Montgomery Bus Boycott

The Montgomery Bus Boycott Ends

Rosa Parks (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Video: Martin Luther King, Jr mini bio

Martin Luther King, Jr. (Bruno Mars' "When I Was Your Man" Parody
Put on wiki page plus use for HIST 152

Martin Luther King’s Christian America


Southern Manifesto

Document signed by 100 Southern members of Congress saying they would not obey the Brown versus Board of Education decision.

White Citizens' Councils

Class and White Citizen's Councils

White Citizens' Councils
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)


Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Grouping of African-American pastors.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Encyclopedia of Alabama)

Little Rock Central High School

Central High School desegregated.
Governor Faubus.
Nine black students.
President Eisenhower sent 101st Airborne.

Arkansas National Guard Prevent School Desegregation - 1957 | Today in History | 4 Sept

Colonel (Ret.) Heath Twichell on securing Little Rock Central High School

Video: Moments in Civil Rights History (2:41)
September 27, 1958: Little Rock Schools Close Rather Than Integrate

Arkansas National Guard Bars “Little Rock Nine” From School

In class today: new material

President John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy (Aha's "TakeOnMe" Parody) Mr. Betts

Photos: President Kennedy (Big Picture | Boston Globe)

1960 Presidential Election: Kennedy wins

Nixon and Kennedy Hold First Ever Presidential Debate

1960 Election campaign commercials

Peace Corps

Video: Peace Corps

Peace Corps (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum)

Great image collage about Peace Corps (Washington Post)

Mr. Betts: Cold War Berlin

Berlin Wall (August 1961)

The Berlin Crisis, 1958–1961 (US State Department)

Video: East Germany Closes Border - 1961 | Today in History | 13 Aug

Video: The Building of the Berlin Wall (August 1961) (5:45)

Video: Berlin Wall deconstructed (2:27)

Soviets built a wall to keep people from fleeing East Berlin.

Photo essay: Berlin Wall (The Big Picture | Boston Globe)

President Kennedy's Speech at the Berlin Wall (June 1963)

Video: JFK Berlin Wall speech (26 June 1963)
[start at 0:44]

President Kennedy Declares “Ich bin ein Berliner”

Cuba and Castro

1. Fidel Castro ousted American–backed dictator Fulgencio Batista (1959)

Castro takes power (1 January 1959)

Batista Flees Cuba and Castro Takes Power

Video: Cuban Revolution 1959 Today in History 1 January (1:21)

2. Castro's Cuba became an ally of the Soviet Union.

3. America freaked. President Eisenhower (Ike) broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.

Eisenhower Places Embargo on Exports to Cuba

4. Ike ordered CIA to use Cuban exiles to try to overthrow Castro.

Bay of Pigs invasion (April 1961)

Video: Cuba and the Bay of Pigs

The Bay of Pigs Invasion and its Aftermath, April 1961–October 1962 (US State Department)

1. Kennedy approved the Eisenhower-initiated plan to topple Castro.
2. The 1,500 man invasion force was unsuccessful.
3. No uprising against Castro occurred.
4. Kennedy took all the blame. His poll ratings went up! Kennedy in his first Hundred Days.

Lawyer who helped negotiate Bay of Pigs prisoner release dies at 90

Bay of Pigs Invasion Embarrasses US

Cuban missile crisis (October 1962)

Video: Cuban Missile Crisis Explained - @MrBettsClass

Photo essay: The Cuban Missile Crisis (Alan Taylor/The Atlantic) [26 photos]

The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962 (US State Department)

1. Soviet's secretly installed offensive missiles in Cuba.

2. Kennedy (JFK) learned from his mistakes earlier at Bay of Pigs. Laid out a range of options.

3. JFK chose a naval blockade (quarantine) of Cuba.

Video: Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962): JFK speech to the nation

Video: Tom Lehrer - We Will All Go Together When We Go (3:26)i

4. Soviets ships eventually turned back before they got to U.S blockade.

Interactive: World on the Brink: Thirteen Days in October 1962

In class today: new material


Anti–communist hysteria
Named for Republican Senator from Wisconsin Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin)

Anti-Communist hysteria
Arthur Miller: The Crucible

Video: Sound Smart
Joseph McCarthy

Video: McCarthyism (8/10)

Video: McCarthyism (Sia's "Chandelier" parody) [Mr. Betts class]

What Donald Trump Learned From Joseph McCarthy’s Right-Hand Man, Roy Cohn

Video: US Senator Joseph McCarthy and Counsel Roy Cohn at Senate hearing

Video: Roy Cohn defends Senator McCarthy

Edward R. Murrow
Movie: Good night, and good luck

Arthur Miller
The Crucible: Parallels to today (2012)

Here are some of the key names and major events associated with McCarthyism:

1. J.Edgar Hoover (head of the FBI): fear of internal subversion by Communist spies became intertwined with fear of external attack by the Soviet Union.

2. Spy revelations gave people cause to be alarmed

Red Scare and House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) (6/10)

Video: Red Scare (Sound Smart)

3. People began pointing accusing fingers at each other.


How to spot a Communist

4. "Hollywood Ten" (screenwriters and directors) jailed for contempt of Congress.

Video: Sound Smart
Hollywood 10

Video: Sound Smart

They refused to provide names of alleged Communists.

Others were blacklisted—even if only accused.

Those who did provide names (Elia Kazan) suffer to this day

5. Schoolteachers had to take loyalty oaths and were fired if they refused.

6. Alger Hiss case (1950)

Alger Hiss Case and the Rosenbergs (7/10)

Hiss accused by Whittaker Chambers of being a Communist spy.

Role of House of Representatives Committee on Un–American Activities (Richard Nixon a member).

7. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed (1953) for having supposedly spied for the Soviet Union.

8. Downfall of McCarthy

a. Eisenhower reluctance to confront McCarthy.

b. Televised hearings: Army–McCarthy.

Army-McCarthy Hearings First Televised

Reconstruction of Japan

Occupation and Reconstruction of Japan, 1945–52 (US State Department)

Korean War and Japan’s Recovery (US State Department)

Role of U.S. in controlling postwar Japan (Douglas MacArthur)

To help contain communism in Asia, we eventually built up Japan.

Japan turned into a formidable economic competitor.

People's Republic of China (PRC) (1949)

The Chinese Revolution of 1949 (US State Department)

Video: Mao's Communists take over China 1949

1. Chinese Civil War (1945-1949)
War between the forces of Mao Tse-Tung's Commuists and our World War II ally, Chang Kai-Shek.

2. Mao Tse-Tung's Communists won. Establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949).

3. Chang Kai-Shek and his supporters were forced to leave mainland China and move to the island of Taiwan (formerly called Formosa).

4. The Communist victory had a major influence on American politics.

Republicans criticized Democrats for the "loss" of China to the Communists.

A defeat for containment.

NSC-68 (1950)

NSC 68: America's Cold War Blueprint

Korean War (1950-1953)

Video: Start of Korean War (4/10)

Video: MacArthur Dismissed and Korean Armistice (5/10)

The Korean War, 1950–1953 (US State Department)

Let's spend a few minutes with this map of the Korean War

Here is a summary of the specific events during the war:

1. North Korea attacked across 38th parallel into South Korea (25 June 1950)

2. President Truman, determined to "contain" communism, committed U.S. forces to battle.

MacArthur Named Commander of UN Forces

3. Pusan perimeter

a. North Koreans advanced all the way to southern tip of South Korea.

b. America feared an Asian "Dunkirk"

4. Inchon invasion. Douglas MacArthur reversed initial tide of the war.

5. U.S. moved to 38th parallel, thereby recovering all of South Korea.

6. U.S. decided to take North Korea, too. Moved north of 38th parallel.

7. U.S. forces pushed to the Yalu River (North Korea's border with PRC)

8. Chinese troops entered the Korean War.

9. U.S. embarrassed militarily, particularly at the Chosin Reservoir

Ballad of the Chosin (5:01)

10. MacArthur now looked like a chump.

11. Civilian control of the military became a hot issue.

12. MacArthur: wanted to expand the war to the Chinese mainland; use nuclear weapons

13. Truman: wanted to keep conflict limited; not risk Soviet entry and a possible World War Three.

14. President Truman fired General MacArthur

Video: Lessons Learned: General MacArthur's Dismissal (6:20)

15. War's results. U.S. casualties: 34,000 dead.

16. Sometimes called the "Forgotten War": frustrating; no clear victory.

17. Issues today: U.S. troops in South Korea; North Korea threat to peace.

Check out today's front page of Washington Post: US prepared to take military action.

Photo essay: Korean War (Boston Globe | Big Picture) (48 photos)

President Dwight D. Eisenhower

Video: Dwight D. Eisenhower bio

Video: 60-Second Presidents (PBS)
Dwight D. Eisenhower

1952 Presidential Election: Eisenhower wins

Check out this great web site:

1952 election campaign commercials

1956 Presidential Election: Eisenhower wins

1956 election campaign commercials

Sputnik (1957)

Video: Sputnik (1957) [National Air and Space Museum]

Sputnik, 1957 (US State Department)

Soviets launched a satellite that scared America and put them ahead (temporarily) in the space race.

Video: Space Race (Taylor Swift's "Blank Space" parody) (Mr. Betts class)

U–2 incident (1960)

Video: U-2 Incident (10/10)

U-2 Overflights and the Capture of Francis Gary Powers, 1960 (US State Department)

U–2 spy plane carrying high–powered cameras crashed 1,200 miles inside the Soviet Union.

After denying presence of such a spy plane, President Eisenhower (Ike) accepted the blame

Exam #2

A=(average of 67 points) 90%
B=(average of 60 points) 80%
C=(average of 52 points) 70%
D=(average of 45 points) 60%

Minus points for excess absences
Plus points for participation and contribution to class sessions.

Extra credit: I will make opportunities available.

In class today: new material>>Cold War

Sources Of The Cold War

Main focus is the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (USSR).

Video: Cold War (part 1): from World War to Cold War

USSR=Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Here is a listing of which Republics the USSR included:
Russia by far the major part of the USSR.

Hot war==actual shooting
Cold war==hostility but either no actual shooting or war through surrogates


Containment of Soviets became the cornerstone of American foreign policy.

Video: Policy of Containment (1/10)

George F. Kennan

Kennan and Containment (US State Department)

1. Kennan's "Long telegram" 1946

a. American diplomat in Moscow.

b. Soviet fanaticism made even a temporary understanding impossible.

c. His report played into a growing belief among American officials that only toughness would work with the Soviets.

2. Kennan's "Mr. X" article.

a. The article, titled the Sources of Soviet Conduct and based on the "long telegram," was published in the prestigious Foreign Affairs magazine.

b. Author (Kennan) advocated a policy of firm containment of the Soviets.

c. "Confront the Soviets with unalterable counterforce at every point where they show signs of encroaching on the interests of a peaceful and stable world."

Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech (1946)

Churchill Delivers 'Iron Curtain' Speech - 1946 | Today In History | 5 Mar

1. Warned that a Soviet "iron curtain" had cut off Eastern European countries from the West.

2. Called for an Anglo–American partnership to resist the communist menace.

Map: After World War II. Iron Curtain

President Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Harry Truman bio

Truman Doctrine (1947)

Video: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan (2/10)

The Truman Doctrine, 1947 (US State Department)

1. British had no money to continue to help Greece and Turkey.

2. British claimed that Communists threatened both countries.

3. Congress approved $400 million economic aid to Greece & Turkey.

4. Truman doctrine: "U.S. policy to support free peoples who are resisting attempted takeover by (a) armed minorities or (b) outside pressure."

Marshall Plan (1948)

Video: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan (2/10)

Marshall Plan, 1948 (US State Department)

The Marshall Plan Speech: Rhetoric and Diplomacy

1. War damage and dislocation in Europe invited communist influence:

a. Food was scarce; workers were demoralized; winter of 1947 was the worst in 50 years.

b. Communist voting strength was growing in France and Italy

2. U.S. offered economic aid to all European countries (including Soviets)

3. Soviets declined: fearing aid might defeat their control of Eastern Europe

Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance ( This Day in History | 7/2/1947)

4. U.S. gave $17 billion in aid over four years.

5. That aid helped rebuild Europe. It was also good for American business.

Israel Became a Separate Country

UN Votes to Partition Palestine (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Video: 1948 Nation of Israel is Born

Creation of Israel, 1948 (US State Department)

History of the Israel conflict

Maps of Israel

Berlin blockade and airlift (1948–49)

Video: Berlin Airlift and Formation of NATO (3/10)

The Berlin Airlift, 1948–1949 (US State Department)

Berlin Airlift Map

1. Soviets blocked land access to Berlin.

2. U.S. airlifted food and fuel for 2 million West Berliners.

Operation Little Vittles

3. Flights of 1,000 planes a day (every 3 minutes) for ten months.

4. Soviets finally called off blockade.

Soviet Union Ends Berlin Blockade

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)

Video: Berlin Airlift and Formation of NATO (3/10)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949 (US State Department)

1. Established to defend Europe against a Soviet invasion.
2. U.S. foreign policy change: not since French–American alliance (1778)
3. Members pledged to treat an attack against one as an attack on all.
4. Dwight Eisenhower named initial NATO commander.
5. Four U.S. divisions stationed in Europe to evidence American support.
6. Soviets later formed Warsaw Pact in response.

Issue in 2018: US approach to NATO

In class today: new material>>World War II

World War II lineup of the leaders:

A. The Allies

1. United States: Franklin D.Roosevelt

2. Great Britain: Winston Churchill

The World Wars: Winston Churchill

3. Soviet Union: Josef Stalin

Video: Joseph Stalin

U.S.-Soviet Alliance, 1941–1945

4. France: Charles DeGaulle

5. China: Chang Kai–Shek

Chiang Kai-shek (Wikipedia)

B. The other side:

1. Germany: Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler

2. Italy: Benito Mussolini

3. Japan: General Hideki Tojo; Emperor Hirohito


Lend–Lease Act

U.S. became the "arsenal of democracy" by lending and leasing American military goods to those fighting against the Axis powers.

American unemployment dropped as our industries geared up to produce war material.

Lend-Lease and Military Aid to the Allies in the Early Years of World War II

FDR and the Lend Lease Act

Germany invaded Soviet Union (June 22)

Major mistake.

22 Jun 1941: Hitler invades the Soviet Union (BBC News On This Day)

Hitler Turns On Stalin

Japan attacked Pearl Harbor (December 7)

Japan, China, the United States and the Road to Pearl Harbor, 1937–41

Why did the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor Mr. Betts

Internment of Japanese-Americans

Manzanar Historic site virtual museum

FDR Executive Order 9066
Photographer Ansel Adams

Photo essay: Japanese-American internment

Japanese initial victories:

Philippines, Malaya, Thailand, Hong Kong.

Remember: the war between China and Japan going on simultaneously.


Doolittle raid on Tokyo (4/18)
US raiders dropped bombs on Tokyo

Animated Map

Great video

Battle of Midway

U.S. wins. Turning point in Pacific war

7 Jun 1942 Japanese beaten in Battle of Midway (BBC On This Day)

Video: The Battle of Midway



Turning point of the war in Europe.

2 Feb 1943 Germans surrender at Stalingrad (BBC On This Day)

Soviets can now go on the offensive.

Tehran Conference (1943)

Video: World leaders meet in Iran (1943)

Dispute between Britain & U.S: when/where Europe invaded.

Soviets demanded a second front.

Soviets bore brunt of land war until mid–1944.

Decision was finally made on a cross-channel invasion against Europe mainland

Eisenhower was named to be Supreme Commander of Allied Forces

The Tehran Conference, 1943

1 Dec 1943 Allies united after Tehran conference (BBC On This Day)


D-Day==Normandy invasion==Operation Overlord==6 June 1944

Biggest invasion armada in world history (5,000 ships, 150,000 men).

Animated Map: The D-Day Landings
Read the description for each of the four maps: The Atlantic Wall, Concentration of Forces, The Landings, Securing the Beachheads

D-Day 6 June 1944

Battle of the Bulge (December 1944)

Map showing the "bulge"

17 Dec 1944 Germany attacks in Ardennes (BBC On This Day)

Video: Battle of the Bulge

Malmedy: Germans massacred US prisoners

Video: Malmedy Massacre during Battle of the Bulge)


Yalta Conference (February)
Located in the Crimea

Video: The Big Three at Yalta (1945)

Soviets would control most of Eastern Europe.
Germany would be divided.
Soviets would fight Japan three months after German surrender

The Yalta Conference, 1945

Yalta Conference (BBC On This Day)

Iwo Jima (February-March)

Video: The story behind the Iwo Jima flag-raising photo

Video: Ballad of Ira Hayes (Johnny Cash)

23 Feb 1945: US flag raised over Iwo Jima (BBC On This Day)

Okinawa (April)

Attacks by 3,000 kamikaze planes on U.S. fleet.

Footage of Kamikaze Attack on US Ships

Victory in Europe

FDR died (12 April 1945)

Hitler killed himself (30 April 1945)

Germany surrendered (7 May)

Victory against Japan

Factors involved in the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan:

1. Fear that the Soviet Union would soon enter the war against Japan
2. Concern that a land war in Japan would result in massive American casualties


1. First atomic bomb: Hiroshima (6 August 1945)

6 Aug 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima (BBC On This Day)

2. Soviets entered war in Pacific with 1.5 million troops (8 August 1945)

3. Second atomic bomb: Nagasaki (9 August 1945)

9 August 1945 U.S. drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki (BBC On This Day)

4. Japanese surrendered (2 September 1945)

Emperor allowed to keep his throne
Allied Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur would rule Japan.

Japanese Surrender Signing On USS Missouri (1945)

American and the Holocaust

SS St. Louis: The ship of Jewish refugees that nobody wanted

What did America know as the Holocaust unfolded. Quite a lot, as it turns out.

Death Toll of World War II

World–wide: 55 million
United States: 405,000
Soviet Union: 21 million (one–ninth of Soviet population).

Postwar position of the U.S.

We suffered little damage to our own land.
We emerged as the world leader

In class today: new material>>World War II

World War Two: Our material is arranged by year.


Japan became a major threat to U.S. goals in Asia:

Standard Map: Pacific Theater

(1) Japan's "New Order" in Asia

Wanted a sphere of influence in Asia
Similar to United States in Latin America

U.S. unwilling to permit such Japanese influence.

United States had major interests at stake in Asia:
Philippines and various Pacific islands
Religious missions
Trade and investments
Open Door in China.

(2) Japanese seized Manchuria (1931)

Video: Japanese invasion of Manchuria and mainland China

American response: Stimson Doctrine of nonrecognition
Mere moral lecture
U.S. had neither the means nor the will to use military force to kick out the Japanese from Manchuria.


Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany (1/30)

Video: Adolf Hitler

Franklin Roosevelt became President of the United States (3/4)

U.S. recognized Soviet Union. To increase trade. To halt Japanese expansion.


U.S. Neutrality Acts. Neutrality Acts an expression of isolationist sentiment.

Congress sought to protect the nation by outlawing the contacts that had compromised U.S. neutrality during World War I.


Expansion in Europe by Germany, 1930s

First step in German expansion:
Germany reoccupied the Rhineland (3/7)

Video: Rhineland re-occupation

1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin (August)
Jesse Owens wins 4 Gold medals

Civil war in Spain. (1936-1939)

Video: Francisco Franco and the Spanish Civil War (Khan Academy)


Democratically-elected (left-wing) Spanish government: supported by Soviet Union and international mercenaries (Abraham Lincoln brigade from America)

Challenger: General Francisco Franco (right-wing) supported by Germany and Italy (fascists).

Franco eventually won.

Britain, France, and U.S. looked the other way.


Beginning of World War II in Asia.

Japanese invasion of mainland China (7 July 1937)

China then was a U.S. ally.


Map: Expansion in Europe by Germany, 1930s

1. Second step in German expansion:
German invasion and annexation of Austria (12 March 1938)

2. Munich agreement (Chamberlain/Hitler) (15 September 1938)

Third step in German expansion:
Czechoslovakia Sudetenland to Germany.

Munich Agreement Signed - 1938 | Today in History | 30 Sept

Appeasement issue: not stopping a dictator early on

Appeasement (Ariana Grande "One Last Time" Parody)


1. Fourth step in German expansion: Germany occupied remainder of Czechoslovakia (March)

2. German-Russian Non-Aggression Pact (8/23).

Video: German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

The odd couple: fascists and communists. Agreed not to attack each other.

3. German invasion of Poland (1 September 1939).

Beginning of World War II in Europe

Nazi Germany Invades Poland, Starting World War II (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Polish allies France and Britain Declare War

4. U.S. declared neutrality (5 September 1939). U.S. still trying to stay out of war

The Neutrality Acts, 1930s

Neutrality Act signed (:29)

American Isolationism in the 1930s


1. German blitzkrieg (lightning warfare) [today we call it "shock and awe"]

Dive bombers, tanks, mechanized infantry all combined

Blitzkrieg: Germany's Lightning War (BBC)

2. Germans invade Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium

3. Dunkirk: over 300,000 British and French evacuated from beach

Dunkirk: animated history

4. France conquered (6/5-6/25)

14 June 1940 German troops enter Paris (BBC On This Day)

Photos of Paris through a Nazi lens

[Keep in mind:]

Hitler's conquests and attacks in Europe made French, Dutch, and British colonies in Asia vulnerable to Japanese attack.

Japan had been at war in China since 1937.

Japan will not attack Pearl Harbor until December 1941.

[Return to chronology]

Blitz and Battle of Britain: Britain attacked by air (June-December 1940).

"Blitz." Prelude to expected German invasion.

7September 1940 London Blitzed by German Bombers (BBC On This Day)

The Blitz cartoon, 1940-1941 (World War II )

Video: RAF Fighters scramble

Why this was important?

US needs to help Britain hang on against possible Nazi invasion.

US is still neutral (or at least not involved in any fighting) at this point.

Mood Music: 1920s

A decade of 1930s music

Great Depression Songs: Brother Can You Spare a Dime Lyrics

Judy Garland - Life Is Just A Bowl Of Cherries (The Judy Garland Show)

Gold Diggers of 1933 - "We're in the Money"

Woody Guthrie - The Dust Bowl Balladeer

No Depression in Heaven
New Lost City Ramblers (use the entire playlist)

In class today: new material

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt

Great advocate of social justice; admired by African-Americans.

Marion Anderson concert at the Lincoln Memorial, 1939

Depression Slang


First 100 Days

Congress was in session for one hundred days before it adjourned.
During this period, FDR went fifteen for fifteen in major legislation.
Subsequent presidents are measured by this impossible standard.

Video: The First 100 Days (FDR Library)

Saving the Banks

Context: prior bank failures
FDR issued a decree closing all banks in America
This approach called a "banking holiday"

Video: Worsening crisis of bank failures (FDR Library)

Video: FDR goes to church, then makes plans for Bank Holiday

Emergency Banking Relief Act.

Provided for government supervision and assistance to banks
Strong ones would be reopened with federal support
Weak ones would be closed
Deposit insurance ($5,000) would be available

Video: Emergency Legislation: Banking Holiday (FDR Library)

Banking Crisis (University of Virginia)

Fireside chats

FDR made great use of radio to reach public.

Video: FDR's first Fireside Chat (Gwyn Ifell)

First Fireside Chat: Banking Crisis (Miller Center)

First Fireside Chat: The Banking Crisis

New Deal ("Uptown Funk" Parody)

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

Farming in the 1930s

Video: Rural Reforms (FDR Library)

Three million people left farms in the 1930s.
Agricultural Adjustment Act was designed to help farm problems:

Low prices paid for crops
Low income of farmers
Difficulty of paying mortgages
Rise in farm foreclosures

The act provided for the following:
Government paid subsidies to farmers who
a) Restricted crop acreage: wheat, cotton, corn, rice, or tobacco
b) Reduced number of livestock, particularly pigs.

Dust Bowl

Drought and poor farming techniques led to dust storms.
Many from Oklahoma (Okies) and Arkansas (Arkies) fled to California.

Video: Dust Bowl (FDR Library)

Woody Guthrie I ain't got no home

Dust Bowl (Finding Dulcinea)

Route 66


Time lapse video of trip along Route 66 (3:00)

John Steinbeck, Grapes of Wrath

Grapes of Wrath

Grapes of Wrath "Two for a Penny" Movie Clip

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Job corps for young men, aged 18–25.
Supervised by U.S. army.
Workers paid $30 per month, of which $25 had to be sent to family.
Pumped $2 billion into economy (equivalent to $200 billion today).
Work planned by National Park Service:
Tree planting (North Dakota to Texas), flood control, road construction.

CCC Song
Loveless C.C.C.

Opposition to the New Deal

a) Conservative critics.

Republicans did not like government control of the economy.

b) Liberal critics:

1) Father Charles Coughlin

Video clip: Drive the money-changers from the temple

Catholic priest from Detroit
Weekly radio sermons (30 million audience)
Criticized the New Deal
Proposed a National Union for Social Justice to counter the New Deal.
Anti-Semite: depression caused by international Jewish bankers.
Expressed support for Hitler's approach to running Germany.

2) Dr. Francis E. Townsend

Proposed an Old Age Revolving Pensions plan
Every person over age 60 would get a $200 per month pension.
His plan would cost 50% of national income to help 7% of population.

3) Huey Long.

Former Governor of and Democratic Senator from Louisiana.
Proposed a Share Our Wealth Society
Tax rich people heavily
Furnish each family an annual income of $2,500

Assassinated in 1935

Every Man a King (American Rhetoric Speech Bank)

Social Security Act

Video: Social Security (FDR Library)

FICA deduction today.
Designed to prevent more radical alternatives (Townsend and Long)
Workers required to pay into it
Answer to critics of "relief"
Worker's payment matched by employer

Social Security Act (Finding Dulcinea)

Frances Perkins

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

Video: Jobs and Relief (FDR Library)

WPA (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Emphasized under-consumption.
Massive public works programs for the jobless
Home relief (the dole) versus work relief.

Employed 3 million men as manual laborers: roads, hospitals, bridges.

Criticized by conservatives as make-work

Presidential Election of 1936

FDR won a second term easily

FDR attempt at "Court Packing" (Supreme Court)

Video clip: FDR Court Packing
Reshaping the Supreme Court

Video: New Deal setbacks (FDR Library)

Court Packing (Finding Dulcinea)

Court declared AAA and NIRA unconstitutional on 5-4 votes.
FDR wanted to appoint pro–New Deal justices
Proposed six new ones (one for every member over age 70).
Congress (both parties) opposed the plan
Felt he was overreaching and looking like a dictator.

Issue became moot: a swing justice changed his voting pattern.

The so-called "switch in time that saved nine"
Owen Roberts (Wikipedia)

Presidential Election of 1940,_1940

War had started in Europe on 1 September 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland.

FDR won historic third term.

New Deal coalition

Democratic Party then consisted of the following:

Urban immigrants
Organized labor

White southerners

Northern blacks
Ever since the Civil War, blacks had usually voted Republican.
Big shift occurred during the New Deal: blacks began voting for Democrats

This New Deal coalition held together until the 1960s, when the civil rights movement created internal tension in the Democratic Party.

New Deal assessed

New Deal failed in its fundamental purpose: to put people back to work and end the depression.

Depression only ended due to World War II.

But New Deal gave Americans back their psychological will to overcome.

In the past, federal government had served as an economic regulator.
During New Deal, it became an economic guarantor and stimulator as well.

Congressional Republicans are currently trying to limit the size of government, much of which began with the New Deal.

In class today: reactions to the video about the Great Depression

Video: The Century: America's TIme - 1929-1936: Stormy Weather (45:00_

In class today: new material

Business did well in the 1920s

1. Presidents.

All three were Republicans: Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover.

Warren Harding (60-second Presidents)

Calvin Coolidge (60-second Presidents)

Herbert Hoover (60-second Presidents)

All three were pro–business ("The business of America is business").

2. Supreme Court.

Protected business and private property as it had in the Gilded Age.
Sheltered business from government regulation
Hindered organized labor from striking.

3. Congress. Responsive to corporate lobbying.

4. Welfare capitalism.

Corporations countered the appeal of unions by offering pensions, profit–sharing, picnics, and company-sponsored sports teams.

5. Consumerism

[We will see a replay of this consumerism when we look later at the 1950s.]

Consumer society.

Number of consumers increased by advertising (increased sophistication plus increased expenditures), credit, and higher wages

6. Automobile

Ford Model T

Video: Driving a Ford Model T

a. The car altered American life as much as the railroad had 75 years earlier.
b. Car registrations went from 8 to 23 million in the 1920s.
c. Car prices more affordable: mass production and competition

Automobile industry fostered growth of other industries
  • Items to make cars: steel, glass, rubber, textiles.
  • Roads: "good roads" movement.
  • Motels and diners
  • Oil drilling
  • Gas stations.

1928 Presidential Election

Hoover won the 1928 election against Al Smith

Dirty Campaigning in the Roaring Twenties: Herbert Hoover vs. Al Smith - Mental Floss

Should a Catholic Be President?: A Contemporary View of the 1928 Election

Hoover's administration
Not too successful.
Remedies relied upon self–help, not government assistance.
Traditional: tried to balance the budget
Vetoed several relief measures.

Video: Objective 5.3-Hoover's Volunteerism

Hooverville (Wikipedia)

Bonus Army March (1932)

Bonus Army (Wikipedia)

Video: Veterans March on Washington

Bonus Expeditionary Force

World War I veterans (15,000) camped in Washington

Demanded payment immediately of promised (1945) cash bonuses

President Hoover ordered the army to evict the veterans

Army, commanded by Douglas MacArthur, operated harshly

"Cheered in 1917, Jeered in 1932"

1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles
(Today in History, Library of Congress)


Stock Market Crash (1929)

Stock Market Crash (Mr. Betts)

Video: Objective 5.1- The Great Crash

Stock Market Crash (Decades TV)

Most of the 1920s saw an upbeat business climate. Then things went south.

Business context

1. Increasing flow of consumer goods: autos, radios, and household appliances

2. Installment credit increased sales

3. Optimism in the air
Unlimited prosperity would never end

Irving Kaufman - Blue Skies (1927)

4. But the consumer–goods revolution contained seeds of its own collapse.

  • Factories produced more than country could consume.
  • Workers had insufficient purchasing power.
  • Farmers were particularly suffering.

5. Stock market crash in October 1929 burst the bubble.

Black Tuesday, Stock Market Crash Ushers in Great Depression (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Beginning of the depression.

1. Between 1929 and 1932, industrial production declined by almost 45%
Decline of production led to plant closings and unemployment.

2. Unemployment rose quickly:
  • 1930—5 million (15% unemployment)
  • 1931—9 million (25%)
  • 1932—12 million (40%)

3. Bank failures rose steadily.

4. Protectionism

Smoot–Hawley tariff raised U.S. import duties to an all–time high.
Difficult for other countries to sell their products in U.S.
Difficult for them to earn dollars to buy American products.
Other countries raised their tariffs in retaliation.

The legacy of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff

Ben Stein take on Smoot-Hawley in Ferris Bueller's Day Off (YouTube)

5. Depression dominated American life for 10 years (1929–1939).

a. People postponed marriage; married couples postponed having children.
b. Malnutrition and deteriorating diets made people susceptible to disease.
c. Out–of–work fathers felt ashamed of their diminished roles.

1932 Presidential Election

Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) defeated Herbert Hoover

Video: Promise of change in 1932 election (FDR Library)

Happy Days are Here Again
FDR's 1932 campaign song

President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) (1933-1945)

Paralyzed nation strengthened by physically–handicapped President

Video: Franklin Roosevelt bio

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt

Details on her life.

Video: Eleanor Roosevelt

Great advocate of social justice; admired by African-Americans.

Marion Anderson concert at the Lincoln Memorial, 1939

Depression Slang


First 100 Days

Congress was in session for one hundred days before it adjourned.
During this period, FDR went fifteen for fifteen in major legislation.
Subsequent presidents are measured by this impossible standard.

Video: The First 100 Days (FDR Library)

Saving the Banks

Context: prior bank failures
FDR issued a decree closing all banks in America
This approach called a "banking holiday"

Video: Worsening crisis of bank failures (FDR Library)

Video: FDR goes to church, then makes plans for Bank Holiday

Emergency Banking Relief Act.

Provided for government supervision and assistance to banks
Strong ones would be reopened with federal support
Weak ones would be closed
Deposit insurance ($5,000) would be available

Video: Emergency Legislation: Banking Holiday (FDR Library)

Banking Crisis (University of Virginia)

Fireside chats

FDR made great use of radio to reach public.

Video: FDR's first Fireside Chat (Gwyn Ifell)

First Fireside Chat: Banking Crisis (Miller Center)

First Fireside Chat: The Banking Crisis

In class today: video about the Great Depression

For your viewing enjoyment: another great Peter Jennings-narrated video that will introduce our next material: the Great Depression.

Please open the Word document you used before and record your reactions and questions. We will discuss them on Tuesday.

Video: The Century: America's TIme - 1929-1936: Stormy Weather (45:00_

In class today: new material

Immigration continued:

Video: New Grounds - Isle of Hope, Isle of Tears {Celtic Woman}
[My thanks to Dana Watkin for this suggestion]

Video: Short film reveals terrible history of No Irish Need Apply

How to strike a balance between assimilation and ethnic identity

Melting pot or salad bowl as appropriate metaphor?

Generational divide

First generation: not speak English
Second generation: not speak native tongue
Third generation: aware of heritage

Nativist response

Distrust of foreigners by "natives" a consistent theme in U.S. history.

New immigrants were particularly seen as utterly alien
Threaten "American" values based on their language, religion, and culture

1920s: Conservatives battle changing times


Dilemma for many: How does one anchor oneself in a world of rampant materialism and social change?

1. Many people felt threatened by change.
2. Some reacted defensively by looking for scapegoats.
3. An increase in nativism,
4. Fear of radicalism
5. Strengthened religious fundamentalism

"New" morality

The 1920s saw an acceleration of the tempo of American life.

Ku Klux Klan

1. Result of increase in nativism.
2. Revived (1915) to insure "native, white, Protestant supremacy."
3. Drew its membership from villages and small towns untouched by immigration, industrialization, and illiberal thought.
4. Unlike its predecessor: which was mostly against blacks, New Klan devoted to 100% Americanism
5. New Klan was anti–Catholic, anti–Semitic, anti–foreigner.
6. Peak publicity: 30,000 down Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington, D.C.
Google Images:
7. Not just in the South. Klan controlled much of the state of Indiana.
8. Klan declined by 1930s.
9. Today's Klan is third wave.

The day 30,000 white supremacists in KKK robes marched in the nation’s capital

Video: KKK in the 1920's

Sacco and Vanzetti (1921)

1. Two Italian immigrants were accused of murder in a payroll robbery
2. Both were anarchists (want to destroy all government)
3. It is not clear they were really guilty, but both executed
4. Fear of radicalism: antiforeign, antianarchist sentiment

Italian-Born Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti Executed

Sunset Hall's Red Twilight

Video: The Red Scare & Sacco and Vanzetti

Video: Sacco and Vanzetti - song by Woody Guthire & David Rovics

Scopes trial (1925)

1. Held in Dayton, Tennessee

2. John Scopes, a high school Biology teacher, had apparently taught evolution, a violation of Tennessee law.

3. Clarence Darrow, noted trial lawyer and non-religious, defended Scopes.

4. William Jennings Bryan, an evangelical, argued against evolution.

5. Evolution undermines Biblical account of creation

6. The issues at stake:

Faith v. reason
Science v. creationism
Rural v. urban values.

Tennessee Educator John Scopes Indicted for Teaching Evolution

Video: Monkey Trial (1925)

Video: Scopes Trial

Sister Aimee Semple McPherson (1920s)

Aimee Semple McPherson, Founder of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel

Aimee's Religious Message

The mysterious disappearance of a celebrity preacher

Video: Sister Aimee Semple McPherson - Opening of Angelus Temple in Los Angeles, California

Charles A. Lindbergh

Video: Charles Lindbergh pilots the first flight from New York to Paris, May 20th 1927

Video: Charles Lindbergh: A Young, American Hero

The "Phenomenon of Lindbergh"

1. First solo transatlantic flight: New York to Paris (1927)

2. Combination of radio and talking movies (used for newsreels) gave him a world–wide attention that would previously have been impossible.

3. Later kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh baby

Charles Lindbergh, American Aviator

Lindbergh Does It! To Paris in 33 1/2 Hours; Flies 1,000 Miles Through Snow and Sleet;
Cheering French Carry Him Off Field

In class today: new material

Spanish Flu epidemic (1918)

Influenza epidemic killed some 20 million people world–wide (700,000 Americans)

1918 Flu Pandemic

The Influenza Pandemic of 1918

The 1918 Spanish Flu wasn't Spanish, so how did it get it’s name?


Bolshevik Revolution (1917)

1. Bolsheviks (Communists under Lenin) overthrew the Czar

2. March 1918: Treaty of Brest Litovsk—Russia pulled out of the World War

3. Civil war erupted between Bolsheviks (Red Russians) and their internal enemies (White Russians)

The Century: America's Time - 1914-1919: Shell Shock
Russian Revolution at 26:07

U.S. Intervention in Soviet Union (1918-1920)

1. Wilson sent 15,000 U.S. troops to Soviet Union
2. American aim was to defeat Bolsheviks (Red Russians) in civil war against White Russians
3. American troops remained in Russia until 1920
4. Created bad blood between U.S. and Soviets

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

Polar Bear Expedition

Red Russians versus White Russians article

Red Scare in America (1919-1920)

Provoked by fear of Bolshevik influence
Remember: Russian Revolution in 1917
Fear in America of a similar social revolution
Much labor violence in America; many saw it as Bolshevism

First Red Scare

The Red Scare []

Sound Smart: The Red Scare

Palmer raids

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer coordinated raids on alleged Communists, whose civil liberties were denied.

Seeds of McCarthyism planted during these years

Rise of J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI

American Legion. War veteran organization stood for 100% Americanism, social conformity, and anticommunism.


Social workers: Settlement Houses

Key name: Jane Addams

Hull House in Chicago (1889).

Located in center–city, immigrant neighborhoods.
Staffers: young; middle–class; college–educated; white women.

Emphasis placed on:
English language classes
Courses in cooking, sewing, and household skills
Infant welfare clinics

Jane Addams | National Women's History Museum

Jane Addams & The Hull House

Hull House
Urban Experience In Chicago: Historical Narrative Contents


Antwerp to Ellis Island: Journey of a Lifetime

Roman Catholics and Immigration in Nineteenth-Century America (National Humanities Center)

Chinese Exclusion Acts (Historian of the State Department)

The Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act)

Push factors:

Food shortages
Anti–Semitism (Poland and Russia).

Pull factors:

America as a land of opportunity. Was it for everyone or did some people choose to stay home?

Role of chain migration.

Role of return migration.

U.S. has always had immigration:

Asylum of liberty.

Source of immigration changed from roughly 1890-1900

Prior immigrants: northern and western Europe and the British Isles
Newer immigrants: eastern and southern Europe.

Characteristics of newer immigrants (1890-1900)

Generally poor
Often illiterate
Jewish or Catholic
Had very different customs.
Most settled in eastern cities.
Few settled in South.

Immigrant cultures

Role of ethnic enclaves: to preserve their culture

Ethnic associations
Schools (tied to religion: parochial and rabbinical)

Mood Music

Songs of World War I

Oh It's A Lovely War Sung (Courtland & Jeffries)

K-K-K-Katy - Bob Wilson and His Varsity Rhythm Boys with the Blazers

Keep The Home Fires Burning (John McCormack)

Send Me Away With A Smile (John McCormack)

The Rose Of No Man's Land (Henry Burr)

In class today: new material


American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

Over There

Video: Objective 4.2-Over There

1. Name given to the American armies in France

2. Commanded by General John "Black Jack" Pershing

Leadership, Personal Courage, Devotion to Troops Won for Pershing Affection of Nation

Donald Trump keeps mentioning General John J. Pershing. Who was he?

3. U.S. came in on the side of the Allies: Britain and France

When the Americans turned the tide

War in the Air

WWI Air War

Video: Dogfights - WW1 Uncut - Dan Snow - BBC

A soldier's life in the trenches

First World -Life in the Trenches

The Christmas Truce miracle: Soldiers put down their guns to sing carols and drink wine

Why barbed wire?

A WWI soldier's food

Machine guns in WWI

Conditions in trenches

Life in a trench

(Here are some other articles I thought you might enjoy):

First World -No Man's Land

First World - Observation Balloons

First World -Poison Gas

First World -Big Bertha

First World -Tanks

First World - Snipers

First World - Wiring Parties

First World - Women and WWI

Major battles (all in 1918) involving Americans:

Map of the US participation

1. Arrival of U.S. forces was just in time

Video: US troops enter WWI

2. As a result of Bolshevik Revolution, Russia had gotten out of the war

Germans could shift their troops from Russia to France

Germans launched a major offensive in March 1918 on the Western front in France

3. Americans fought at

Belleau Wood



Saint Mihiel


4. By November 1918, Germany was retreating all along the front

Fighting ceased on 11 November 1918: our current Veterans' Day

US Casualties

American dead totaled 118,000

Total dead= 9 million


Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles

Video: The Treaty of Versailles, What Did the Big Three Want? 1/2

Video: The Treaty of Versailles, Terms of the Treaty 2/2

1. British and French demanded harsh approach to defeated Germany
2. Wanted defeated Germany disarmed
3. Wanted Germany's colonies: Africa, Asia
4. Wanted monetary payback (reparations) of Allied war costs
5. Hoped reparations would cripple Germany forever ($33 billion)
6. Severity of reparations a main cause of World War II

New and reconstituted nations after the Versailles Treaty

Wilson's program (Fourteen Points)

Video: Fourteen Points (14 T-Shirt Challenge) (Mr. Betts)

World peace based on American principles. Highly idealistic.
Some of his points were as follows:

Open diplomacy
Freedom of the seas
Removal of trade barriers
Reduction of armaments
Impartial adjustment of colonial claims
Evacuation of occupied lands
National self-determination

Woodrow Wilson, World War I, and American idealism

League of Nations

League of Nations the most important point to Wilson
To police the world: forerunner of United Nations
Article 10: required major power intervention against aggressors
U.S. unwilling to commit to such potential intervention abroad

U.S. Senate rejection of the peace treaty

1. Senate has to approve any treaty by 2/3 vote

Wilson was a Democrat
Senate had 96 members: 49 Republicans, 47 Democrats
Close party balance as in 2001
Most Republicans opposed the treaty as written

2. Wilson stubbornly refused to work with his Republican opponents
Took his case to the American people: tiring speaking tour
Wilson suffered a stroke

3. Senate rejected the peace treaty

4. America did not join the League of Nations

March 19, 1920 | Senate Rejects Treaty of Versailles for Second and Final Time (New York Times)

U.S. Post-World War I Foreign Policy

1. Major foreign policy debate
2. Collective security versus unilateralism
3. Most Americans preferred historical tradition of nonalignment
4. Willing to act unilaterally in world to achieve national interests
5. Reluctant to take on binding commitments to collective action

A 100-year legacy of World War I [use this wonderful interactive]

Video: Dogfights - WW1 Uncut - Dan Snow - BBC

In class today: reaction to homework

The teenage soldiers of World War I

In class today: your reactions to the video we watched last Thursday

In class today: new material

My go-to website for the World War I

First World War dot com

WWI Memoirs and diaries

WWI Prose and poetry

WWI Photographs
Click on a category
Then click on a picture. A sort of slide show begins
Example: Animals

WWI Postcards

World War I in Photos 10-part series


Video: Causes of WWI (Moana's "How Far I'll Go" Parody) - @MrBettsClass

War Beginnings

1. Large armies (web of alliances) dominated European continent

[See section below: War Lineup]

2. In Sarajevo, Archduke Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated.

Video: Objective 4.1- The Great War
[this is good]

Black Hand (Serbia)

Dan Snow in Sarajevo : The Assassination

In Sarajevo, divisions that drove an assassin have only begun to heal

3. America's initial reaction: Wilson urged "impartiality in thought and action

4. America not sure whom to root for: we had immigrants from many places

War Lineup:

European Alliances and battlefronts

Allies: Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and Italy

Central Powers: Germany, Austria–Hungary, Turkey

Initially, the United States attempted to remain neutral

American financial assistance to the Allies

1. England and France bought huge amounts of arms, grain, and clothing

2. American bankers helped finance purchases:

3. Loans to Allies exceeded $2 billion; Loans to Germany: only $27 million

4. U.S. was not exactly neutral

German submarine (U-boat) warfare

1. A real threat to freedom of the seas came from German submarines

2. (Feb 1915) Germans declared the waters around British Isles a war zone
Threatened to sink any ship there

3. (May 1915) Germans sank passenger liner Lusitania

Among 1,198 dead were 128 Americans

PR impact: comparable to Maine in Havana harbor

But this time, America just protested through diplomatic notes.

4. Major German miscalculation

(1 Feb 1917). Germans decided on unrestricted submarine warfare

Germany hoped to defeat Allies before American troops reached Europe

Zimmermann telegram (25 Feb 1917)

Video: The British Codebreaker Who Cracked The Zimmerman Telegram

1. Germany asked Mexico to be their ally—and perhaps even invade a part of the U.S.—if U.S. entered the war against Germany.

2. In return, Germany would help Mexico get back territory U.S. received from the Treaty of Guadalupe (1848) ending the Mexican War.

Why was the Zimmermann telegram so important?

Wilson's War Message (2 April 1917)

President Wilson bio sketch

Video: Woodrow Wilson

Video: Woodrow Wilson decision to declare war

Woodrow Wilson, World War I, and American idealism

1. Wilson wanted to make the world "safe for democracy."

Idealism, progressivism, "city on a hill"

2. America: a special sense of mission—to reform world politics

3. Wilson believed taking part in the war necessary to guarantee U.S. a seat—and an insider's voice—at the peace table.

Mobilizing and Managing the home front

Mobilization of the nation for war altered American life

War cost $32 billion—U.S. yearly budget only $1 billion

Centralized planning boards: New Deal and World War II precedents

Video: War Industries Board and Food Administration

Video: War bonds

(1) War Industries Board

Key name: Bernard Baruch

Coordinated the national economy

(2) Food Administration

Key name: Herbert Hoover

a. Victory gardens

b. Meatless and wheatless days

(3) Fuel Administration

a. Daylight savings time

b. Gasless days

(4) Committee on Public Opinion

Video: Committee on Public Information Propaganda

Key name: George Creel
Propaganda agency to get America behind the war effort

75,000 four-minute speakers
Four-Minute Men: Volunteer Speeches during World War One [check out this History Matters website]

Anti-German sentiment became pronounced in U.S.
Schools stopped teaching the German language
Sauerkraut became "liberty cabbage"
Saloons removed pretzels
German composers were not played

Espionage and Sedition Acts:

Stopped people from speaking out
Compare to Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798

Fear on the Homefront: The Espionage and Sedition Acts

Espionage Act (1917)—limited First Amendment rights

Sedition Acts (1918)—further limited free speech