Azusa Pacific University
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Department of History and Political Science

HIST 382 Emergence of Modern America (3 credits)

HIST 382-01 #12945 TR 11:10-12:35 TR Ronald #113

Thorn in the Flesh

My aim is always to be as transparent and as real with you, my students, as possible. So here goes:

I have been dealing with a problem with my eyes, dating back to childhood, which has resurfaced in the last year or so.

My drifting eyes: Technical term is "strabismus."

Please excuse me for the times when I am apparently not seeming to look straight at you. I can't do anything about it on my own. It is most embarrassing to me, I assure you. It is probably also awkward for you.

For various reasons, eye specialists have concluded that any operation would be too risky at this point in my life. I will just have to deal with the situation as it is.

I often take comfort from the following Bible verses in which the Apostle Paul speaks of a "thorn in the flesh" afflicting him. That "thorn" may have related to an eye problem. For him, and for me, the problem does serve to keep one humble.

Galatians 4:13-15 NIV

As you know, it was because of an illness that I first preached the gospel to you, and even though my illness was a trial to you, you did not treat me with contempt or scorn.

Instead, you welcomed me as if I were an angel of God, as if I were Christ Jesus himself. Where, then, is your blessing of me now? I can testify that, if you could have done so, you would have torn out your eyes and given them to me.

2 Corinthians 12:7-9 NIV

Therefore, in order to keep me from becoming conceited, I was given a thorn in my flesh, a messenger of Satan, to torment me. Three times I pleaded with the Lord to take it away from me. But he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness.” Therefore I will boast all the more gladly about my weaknesses, so that Christ’s power may rest on me.

Faculty Information

David E. Lambert, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of History
My office is located on the first floor (Room #124) of the Ronald Building on the East Campus.

The best way to reach me is by email:
We can always meet before and after class and by appointment (I live very close to campus and can be here quickly if you need to see me). But let's try virtual office hours via email.

Virtual office hours:
Wednesday 2-3:30 pm
Thursday 2-3:30 pm

My office phone number is 626-815-6000, ext. 3341, but I do not check that phone for messages. Instead, please feel free to call me on my home phone (626) 335-4787. Try to call between 8AM & 8PM.

APU Mission Statement

Azusa Pacific University is an evangelical Christian community of disciples and scholars who seek to advance the work of God in the world through academic excellence in liberal arts and professional programs of higher education that encourage you to develop a Christian perspective of truth and life.

Course Information

a. Course description from our APU catalog

HIST 382 Emergence of Modern America (3)

This course is a study of the period 1878-1918, including political and intellectual change, the advent of big business, urbanization, reform, and the coming of World War.

b. Credit hour policy

Following the APU Credit Hour policy, to meet the identified student learning outcomes of this course, the expectations are that this 3 unit course, delivered over a 15 week term will approximate 3 hours/week in classroom or direct faculty instruction. In addition, out-of-class student work will approximate a minimum of 6 hours each week.

c. Course goals

My minimum goals are that we could learn together the following:

1. Who were the people?
History (or HERstory) amounts to using a reverse time capsule to peek in on how people lived their lives. Newspapers are a first draft of that story. What is to us an historical event was for them usually just the daily news. They were living their lives, without knowing the future outcomes.

2. Where are the places?
I believe strongly in the value of knowing geography.

3. What were the events?
I tend to emphasize political/diplomatic/religious aspects of history. No need to remember dates as such, but it is critical to be aware of chronology so we can determine cause and effect relationships.

4. What were the problems (as viewed by each player) and how were they handled?
You are welcome to have your own emotional position as a bottom line, but I want you to be able to analyze dispassionately as if you were training to be a lawyer and argue either prosecution or defense.

But more than these standard objectives, I have a greater dream for you (in relation to our class). When you look back on this course several after you have graduated from APU: I want the following for you:

5. That you benefited from my teaching style in using different kinds of evidence/techniques to connect with your varied learning styles (more toward visual and kinetic):

6. That you experienced US History as a much more fun/enjoyable subject (more than you expected).

7. That you learned how to analyze as a historian through the techniques of sourcing, contextualization, corroboration, and close reading.

8. That you recognize the past as a foreign country.

9. That you appreciate those in the past as men and women that God cares for.

10. That what others that we studied in history have faced might well be issues that possibly connect to similar ones in your life.

11. That you got better at your walk with the Lord as a result of our time together.

d. Methods of instruction

I am pretty well educated in a professorial way. I have a B.A. in International Affairs from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, an M.A in Political Science from the University of Pittsburgh, an M.B.A. in Finance and International Business from the Stanford University Graduate School of Business, and a Ph.D. in U.S. History from the Claremont Graduate University. You can further check out my background by reviewing the material on the About Me page of this wiki:

My teaching strategy is to employ as much active learning as possible, using different kinds of evidence/techniques to reach your varied learning styles (more toward visual and kinetic):

Rather than burden this syllabus with too much detail, you might want to take a look at a separate page on this wiki entitled "Techniques." On that page, I have outlined various approaches I hope to implement in our classes.

How we will generally handle our assigned reading during class time:

I don't want you to think I'm just reading to you when we go over an article together in class..

I want you to practice an important skill: close reading.

I pick short, tightly-written articles.

It is tempting for all of us to merely skim them.

But the meat of our course is in these articles.

So rather than me lecturing or doing power points, I am developing the material through the close reading of the articles.

A great advantage for you is to be able to reread the article to review for our exams.

Student Learning Outcomes

We will achieve these outcomes by means of exams, refection exercises, class discussion, and a variety of active learning techniques (see the reference above to the wiki page entitled "Techniqes.")

Our standard learning outcomes are as follows:

a. Describe and analyze major events, themes, ideas, and personalities in U.S. history from 1877.

b. Analyze primary source materials in U.S. history.

c. Articulate the relationship of the Christian faith to major events, themes, ideas, and personalities in U.S. history..

d. Analyze how major events, themes, ideas, and personalities in U.S. history have shaped American life today.

But I have additional outcomes I hope we can achieve based on an APU seminar for professors I took entitled "Designing Significant Learning Experiences" Here is the link to a PDF of the booklet which describes the methodology:

e. Application goal: How will you develop your critical thinking skills.

f. Integration goal: what connections you make about how our past affects present times and your personal life.

g. Human Dimensions goal: What have you learned about yourself as you confront those who lived in the past?
What further understanding does this give you of others?

h. Caring goals: I hope to see changes in your feelings toward people in the past who differ from you.

i. "Learning-how-to-learn" goals: How to use your "Strengths" and how to be a self-directed learner

Required textbooks and resources

a. There are no required textbooks for this class. We will be using online sources exclusively. The appropriate URL or reference information for each source will be noted on our specific wiki pages for the course.

b. You will need to have a laptop with you at every class session.

Course Calendar/Schedule

CAVEAT: The course schedule, topics, evaluation, and assignments may be changed at the instructor’s discretion.

Specific day-to-day assignments will be posted to the following page on our Learning Professor wiki:


Tuesday, 9 January Introduction to our course

Thursday, 11 January [no class: I will be having a cataract operation]


Monday, 15 January [Martin Luther King Day holiday: no class]

Tuesday, 16 January: Gilded Age

Thursday, 18 January: Social Darwinism versus Social Gospel


Tuesday, 23 January: Political Machines

Thursday, 25 January: Jane Addams/Hull House


Tuesday, 30 January: Immigration in general, Ellis Island, Angel Island

Thursday, 1 February: Chinese in California, Nativism


Tuesday, 6 February: Industrialization: US strengths, Alger, Rockefeller, Carnegie

Thursday, 8 February: JP Morgan, Ford, Vanderbilt, Edison, Taylor


Tuesday, 13 February: Changing status of labor, union movement, Haymarket Riot

Thursday, 15 February: Panics 1873/1893, Strikes: Railroad, Homestead, Pullman


Tuesday, 20 February: Election of 1896 (Vassar website)

Thursday, 22 February: Election of 1896 (Vassar website)


Tuesday, 27 February TAKE-HOME MID=TERM EXAM DUE

Wednesday, 28 February [Common Day of Learning]

Thursday, 1 March: Imperialism (colonies, Turner, Mahan, Beveridge, Nellie Bly)


[Semester Break]

Tuesday, 6 March [Semester Break]
Thursday, 8 March [Semester Break]

WEEK #10

Tuesday, 13 March: Manifest Destiny/White Man's Burden

Thursday, 15 March: Hawaii

WEEK #11

Tuesday, 20 March: Spanish-American War

Thursday, 22 March: Spanish-American War

WEEK #12

Tuesday, 27 March: Spanish-American War/Newsies strike

Thursday, 29 March [Easter Break]

WEEK #13

Tuesday, 3 April: Debate over acquisition of the Philippines

Thursday, 5 April: Philippine-American War

WEEK #14

Tuesday, 10 April: US-China (John Hay, Open Door, spheres of influence)

Thursday, 12 April: US-China (Boxer Rebellion, Protestant missionaries)

WEEK #15

Tuesday, 17 April: US-Japan (Matthew Perry, growth of Japanese empire)

Thursday, 19 April: US-Japan (SF school segregation, Gentlemen's Agreement)

WEEK #16

Tuesday, 24 April: Roosevelt Corollary/Panama Canal

Thursday, 26 April: Mexican Punitive Expedition/John Pershing

WEEK #17



a. Exams

Exams will be of the take-home variety.

Take-Home Mid-Term Exam

Paper should be 5-7 pages, double-spaced.

Grading will be by means of the material on this wiki page:

Study Guide will be on the following wiki page:
A missed exam may not be made up, except for legitimate reasons and with the instructor’s approval. See policy below about make up exams.

Final Exam will be given on the assigned date and not before— make travel plans accordingly. Please note the following from the current Undergraduate Catalog: “Final examinations are required in all courses. No final examination shall be given to individual students before the regularly scheduled time. No exception can be made to this rule without the written approval of the instructor, the department chair, and the appropriate academic dean.”

b. Term paper

a. General guidelines for paper:

Due on the last day of final exam week.

(20% of your grade): 1,500 words (not counting the footnotes and bibliography), typed (hard copy), double-spaced, with properly documented footnotes and bibliography (at least 15 solid sources).

b. Grading Rubric

c. Topic selection and content analysis

Think of your paper as a case study.

I want you to gain an understanding of how bureaucratic/political decisions get made by people--not in a vacuum and usually messy--and how those decisions are then critiqued, attacked, and defended (spin control) in our political system.

Take one event from our timelines.

Try to get at the following:
Who, what, when, where, why, how
What result
What effect

Example of a possible term paper topic:
What were the factors/people/controversies involved in the U.S. decision to invade Mexico in 1915?

How to get your sources:

Use Washington Post and New York Times as base resources.

Use the Lexis Nexis (Lexis Nexis) database for other articles

Different points of view to round out your coverage.

Finding Opinions, Editorials, and Opposing Viewpoints (University of Texas)

Leanings of Magazines and Newspapers (Lorain County Community College)

Get further articles from APU database search

c. Classroom attitude/participation: general

Class participation includes attendance, punctuality, preparedness, attentiveness, and compliance with all instructions, timely submission of all assignments, and contribution to class discussion through comments or questions.

Excellent class participation can improve your grade as much as two steps (that is, a B- can be raised to a B or even to a B+). It is not possible to get an A in this course without at least good (B level) class participation. Excessive tardiness, early departure, un-preparedness, inattention, disruption, eating food in class, texting, or absence will lower your class participation grade.

d. Classroom attitude/participation:

First of all, come to class. You can't participate if you are not present. Success in life is often merely showing up. My expectation is that you WILL be engaged in the class.

Second, come with your proper tools each time: You will be docked half an unexcused absence if you come to class without your required materials, principally your laptop. Your laptop is required for this course.

A word about laptops. Our laptops are to enhance learning. Excessive dinging around with it will grieve the Holy Spirit (and me) and will warrant half an unexcused absence. In other words, your participation grade will drop each time this dinging occurs.

All of us need to be faithful in appropriately using our laptops during class time. I don't want to have to spy on you but hope to count on you not to be using your laptop to do email or surf the web. Conduct yourselves so that I can feel confident that you (and your mates) are working away appropriately even if I am not watching. [Note the reference to eye-service in both Ephesians 6:5-6 (NAS) and Colossians 3:22 (NAS).]

Third, do something once you are here. Your class participation will make the difference between an "A" and a non-A. Most of my grading of you is on-going, as I observe you day after day in class. Verbally and non-verbally, demonstrate enthusiasm and a positive attitude. Look toward me and make eye contact periodically. When you look continually at your computer when I am talking, I question—perhaps unfairly to you—what you are doing.

Demonstrate a positive attitude toward whatever feedback I may provide. Aim to get better, not bitter.

Even if you think you are done with what has been assigned for the class period, keep yourself legitimately busy until dismissal. Return to websites we used during prior class periods.

Information Literacy and Use of the Library

Information literacy is defined as “a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” (American Library Association, 1989). In this course, teaching and learning processes will employ the following information literacy standards, as endorsed by the American Association for Higher Education (1999), the Association of College and Research Libraries (2000), and the Council of Independent Colleges (2004).

The students in this course will:
  • determine the nature and extent of the information needed;
  • access needed information effectively and efficiently;
  • evaluate information and its sources critically and incorporate selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system;
  • individually or as a member of a group, use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose.

The APU University Libraries contain a myriad of resources to assist students in the completion of course assignments. Research assistance is available via the University Libraries staff and the APU Libraries website:

Evaluation/Assessment Rationale and Grade Determination

a. Here are the factors that will contribute to the final course grade:

Term paper: (20%)
Mid-term (35%)
Final (35%)
Participation (10%)

5 points deducted for excess absences over two

b. Criteria used to calculate grades

Grades on coursework will be awarded as follows:

“A” work - Outstanding
Above and beyond the requirements of the assignment; outstanding effort, significant achievement, and personal improvement are clearly evident. Some measure of remarkable skill, creativity, or energy is also evident.

“B” work – Above Average
Fulfills all aspects of the assignment and goes a bit beyond minimum competence to demonstrate extra effort, extra achievement or extra improvement.

“C” work - Average
Fulfills all aspects of the assignment with obvious competence and grace. Assignments are completed exactly as assigned.

“D” work – Below Average
Below average either because some aspect of the assignment has not been fulfilled or because a preponderance of errors (more than one or two per page) interferes with clear communication. A “D” may also indicate failure to follow directions, failure to follow specific recommendations, or failure to demonstrate personal effort and improvement.

“F” work – Not Acceptable
Not acceptable, either because the student did not complete the assignment as directed, or because the level of performance is below an acceptable level for college work.

c. Grading Scale

93-100=A 87-89=B+ 77-79=C+ 67-69=D+
90-92=A- 83-86=B 73-76=C 63-66=D
80-82=B- 70-72=C- 60-62=D- 0-59=F

Course Policies:

a. Class attendance

Your attendance is considered mandatory for the class, and attendance will be taken regularly. You will be allowed two unexcused absences without any grade drop. For each unexcused absences thereafter, your grade will drop 5 points.

Please note that pre- or post-holiday travel is not cause for an excused absence.

An excused absence (i.e. medical, family emergency, university business) must be properly documented by an acceptable authority. When possible, you should inform me of an anticipated absence in advance.

Please try to be in class on time. Excessive tardiness (more than 10 minutes late) will be considered half an unexcused absence. If other responsibilities require you to be tardy on a regular basis, you should discuss the matter with me by the end of the first full week of class.

b. Incompletes/late work/extra credit

Only in rare instances (medical reasons) will I be willing to accept a request for an incomplete. You should plan to finish your course requirements within the parameters of this semester.

Late papers will be accepted, but one letter grade will be deducted per calendar day late.

Normally, extra credit work is not accepted. On occasion, however, I may offer limited bonus points for your attendance at various academic functions such as lectures, seminars, and the Common Day of Learning.

c. Make Up Exam Policy and Procedures:

1. Present written request to your professor to take make-up exam, detailing reasons for the request, and including medical or other documentation.
2. Receive permission from your professor to take make-up exam.
3. Contact Dept. Program Coordinator at to schedule the exam, including your name, the course, the professor’s name and three times you are available to take the make-up exam.
4. Understand that make-up exam time slots are limited and that advance planning on the student’s part is essential.

d. Academic Integrity

The mission of Azusa Pacific University includes cultivating in each student not only the academic skills that are required for a university degree, but also the characteristics of academic integrity that are integral to a sound Christian education. It is therefore part of the mission of the university to nurture in each student a sense of moral responsibility consistent with the biblical teachings of honesty and accountability. Furthermore, a breach of academic integrity is viewed not merely as a private matter between the student and an instructor but rather as an act which is fundamentally inconsistent with the purpose and mission of the entire university. A complete copy of the Academic Integrity Policy is available in the Office of Student Life, the Office of the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Programs, and online.

Both the expectations for this course and the consequences for violations of academic integrity are consistent with those outlined in the academic integrity policy.

e. University or Department Policies

All university and departmental policies affecting student work, appeals, and grievances, as outlined in the Undergraduate Catalog and/or Department Handbook will apply, unless otherwise indicated in this syllabus.

f. Available Support Services for Students with Disabilities

Students in this course who have a disability that might prevent them from fully demonstrating their abilities should meet with an advisor in the Learning Enrichment Center as soon as possible to initiate disability verification and discuss reasonable accommodations that will allow the opportunity for full participation and for successful completion of course requirements. For more information, please visit, or contact the LEC by phone at 626-815-3849 or email at


Additional sources are available on the specific wiki pages used for the class.