Take-Home Mid-Term

Tuesday, 21 February
No face-to-face class session that day.

Thursday, 23 February
Paper due in class on Thursday, 23 February

4-5 typewritten pages/hard copy
Give a lecture to a high school class/new people in military

Study guide
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+484+Mid-Term

Grading rubric
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Grading+Rubric




Iranian Revolution

Iran history timeline [read up to 1988]
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14542438

Shah of Iran flees into exile
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/16/newsid_2530000/2530475.stm

Video: Iranian Revolution documentary
http://youtu.be/aQhgsgD7WLQ



The Age of Unsatisfying Wars - NYTimes.com John Nagl
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/07/opinion/the-age-of-unsatisfying-wars.html?_r=1

At West Point, Asking if a War Doctrine Was Worth It - NYTimes.com
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/28/world/at-west-point-asking-if-a-war-doctrine-was-worth-it.html?_r=2&hpw&pagewanted=all

James Mann (Rise of the Vulcans)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/pentagon/interviews/mann.html


Soviet Union in Afghanistan

Timeline: Soviet war in Afghanistan (BBC News)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7883532.stm

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the US response
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/soviet-invasion-afghanistan

Video: Soldiers of God (CNN Cold War) (46 minutes)
https://youtu.be/5bdE1D_fbV0



Taliban

a. Who are the Taliban?" (FRONTLINE)
http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/afghanistan604/who.html

Read the introductory screen and then hover over each of the following tabs under "A Timeline to Power"

The Taliban Emerge (1994)
The Fall of Kandahar and Kabul (1996)
New Order Under Sharia Law (1996 to 1998)
Sanctions, Atrocities and Reprisals (1999 to 2001)
Taliban In Retreat, Karzai on the Rise (2002 to 2005)
The Taliban Are Back (2005)
Afghanistan: A New Iraq? (2006)
The Poppy Rises (2006 to 2007)
A New Offensive (2007)

b. Who are the Taliban? (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11451718

c. Afghanistan: Before and after the Taliban
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-26747712



Evolution of Bush Doctrine: Broad strokes summary

Even prior to his candidacy for the Presidency
As he began his tutorials
Cheney as his VP running mate
Once he became President on 20 January 2001

Cheney in charge of transition; planting fellow neo-cons in key places
Paths To Power - Nixon Administration | Rumsfeld's War
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/pentagon/paths/

Powell as Secretary of State; seemingly going to be the powerful one
Might influence military policy as well

Condoleezza Rice as National Security Council (NSC) advisor

Rumsfeld as Secretary of Defense; his long alliance with Cheney

Prior to 9/11, it was still unclear what Bush's policies would be

9/11 changed the playing field

Role of George Tenet and the CIA in Afghanistan



Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)

The Iran-Iraq War (25 years later)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4260420.stm

The beauty and the horror of the Iran-Iraq war
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-34353349

Legacy of the Iran-Iran war lives on
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34444337



Gulf War

Iraq invades Kuwait (1990)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/2/newsid_2526000/2526937.stm

The Gulf War (1991)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1989-1992/gulf-war

Video: Gulf War (20th Century Battlefields)
http://youtu.be/HMV_0iTk1qs


US invasion of Afghanistan

U.S. Army Captain Jason Amerine | Campaign Against Terror | FRONTLINE
[He was the A-Team leader who made sure Hamid Karzai stayed alive}
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/campaign/interviews/amerine.html

U.S. attack on Afghanistan
http://www.nytimes.com/2002/01/21/world/nation-challenged-battlefield-conduct-war-redefined-success-special-forces.html?pagewanted=all

What will Trump do about Afghanistan?
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-38730061



US military operations in Afghanistan

Battle Company is Out There (Korengal Valley)
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/24/magazine/24afghanistan-t.html?pagewanted=all

U.S. retreat from Afghan valley marks recognition of blunder (Korengal Valley)
Read each of the 4 pages of the article
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/14/AR2010041401012.html

Video: The War Briefing (56:06) 2008 Korengal Valley
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/warbriefing/
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/warbriefing/etc/script.html

US military approach in Afghanistan

Counter-insurgency (COIN) versus counter-terrorism (CT)

a. Who is/was our main enemy: Taliban
1. Our war aims sort of got mixed up between [initially] going after Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda with the continuous conflict against the Taliban insurgency.
2. Taliban: natives to Afghanistan>>>>Counter-Insurgency (COIN)
3. Al Qaeda (foreign fighters)>>>>Counter-terrorism (CT)

b. How has the US approached the war?
We have flip-flopped on our approach:

c.. Counter-insurgency (COIN) [nation-building] to defeat the Taliban
1. But we limited ourselves to a "light footprint."
2. US Political issue of wanting to avoid NATION BUILDING

d. Counter-terrorism (CT) [to defeat Al Qaeda]
1. 2003 US invasion of Iraq
2. Light footprint got lighter after we got involved in Iraq; resources diverted to Iraq
3. Total number of US troops ultimately in both Afghanistan and Iraq [get that good graph]

Issues in the debate over how to proceed: COIN versus CT

COIN: we have to work through the Afghan government. That has problems.

CT: we can do this through raids on high-value targets. That has problems, too.

Big unanswered questions:
What is the nature of the current insurgency?
Can the Afghan government defeat it?



Influence of Pakistan on the Afghan war

Madrassas (Saudi Time Bomb FRONTLINE)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saudi/analyses/madrassas.html

"Even Where Pakistani Law Exists, Taliban Find a Porous Border"
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/05/world/asia/05baluch.html?hpw

Interview: Lt. Col. John Nagl (ret.) | Obama's War
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/obamaswar/interviews/nagl.html

Video: Return of the Taliban FRONTLINE 2006 (54:53)
[a report about the Pakistan tribal areas]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/taliban/
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/taliban/etc/script.html

Pakistan's role in the Afghan conflict

In their own country: main enemy is India to the east.

They want a weak Afghanistan (one they can control) on their west.

Key to our war in Afghanistan: Pakistan provides a sanctuary for our enemy (Al Qaeda as well as Taliban).

Porous border (1,500 miles long) between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Some comparative examples:
Length of Mexico-US border=1,950 miles
Distance Boston to Miami=1,500 miles
Distance Seattle-San Diego=1,250 miles

Three different aspects to this Pakistan issue:

a) Pakistan's choice after 9/11. Support US.
But they have played off both ends against the middle since then.
Is Pakistan an ally of the US or an enemy or both (frenemy)?

b) Pakistan as a sanctuary for the enemy. But nuances within this view.

c) What if US withdraws?

This is one part of the dilemma from Pakistan's point of view.



Current issues in Afghanistan

Afghan Taliban reach is the widest since 2001, per United Nations report
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/12/world/asia/afghanistan-taliban-united-nations.html

Afghanistan's hidden Taliban government
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/07/world/asia/07taliban.html?hp=&pagewanted=all

The Women of Afghanistan (Photos)
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2013/09/the-women-of-the-afghanistan-war/100585/

Tasked with combating opium, Afghan officials profit from it
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/16/world/asia/afghanistan-opium-heroin-taliban-helmand.html?_r=2

The Karzai years: from hope to recrimination
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-28257108

Afghanistan's new president, Ashraf Ghani
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-27142426

The Afghan War and the Evolution of Obama
http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/01/world/asia/obama-afghanistan-war.html?_r=1