IMMIGRATION MODULE




Add to module:

German immigration
https://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/german4.html

Irish immigration
https://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/irish2.html

Antwerp to Ellis Island: Journey of a Lifetime
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/28/arts/design/antwerp-to-ellis-island-journey-of-a-
lifetime.html?contentCollection=weekendreads&_r=0



Learning Objectives:

What were the similarities and differences between the immigrants of the period 1880-1920 and previous immigrants?

How did immigrants adjust to and reshape their adopted homeland?

What push (why they left their native country)/pull (why they came to America) factors might have influenced the migration of different immigrant groups: German, Italian, Polish, Jewish, etc.

What influence did the immigrant cultures have on America? What influence did America have on them?


Political Bossism

Urban growth strained city government.
Political machines and their bosses filled in the cracks for immigrants
Solving problems of everyday life:
Son arrested
Husband needed a job
Family needed coal for furnace
Traded such favors for votes

Political bosses made money on:
Public contracts (trash collection, for example)
Utility or streetcar franchises
Distribution of city jobs

See also:

The Sage of Tammany Hall (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/28/nyregion/thecity/28plun.html?pagewanted=all

George Washington Plunkitt of Tammany Hall (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text7/plunkitt.pdf



Social workers: Settlement Houses

Key name: Jane Addams

Jane Addams obituary
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0906.html

Hull House in Chicago (1889).

Located in center–city, immigrant neighborhoods.
Staffers: young; middle–class; college–educated; white women.

Emphasis placed on:
English language classes
Courses in cooking, sewing, and household skills
Infant welfare clinics
Bathhouses

See also:

University of Chicago: Hull House and its Neighborhoods
http://www.uic.edu/jaddams/hull/urbanexp/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-hull-house.html



IMMIGRATION

Immigration (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-immigration-library.html

Push factors:

Wars
Unemployment
Food shortages
Anti–Semitism (Poland and Russia).
German Jews versus Polish/Russian Jews

Pull factors:

America as a land of opportunity
Patterns of settlement and adaptation.
Role of chain migration.

Role of return migration.

The "new" immigration.

U.S. has always had immigration:

Asylum of liberty.

Source of immigration changed.
Prior immigrants: northern and western Europe and the British Isles.
New immigrants: eastern and southern Europe.

Characteristics of newer immigrants (1890-1900)

Generally poor
Often illiterate
Jewish or Catholic
Catholicism became largest American religion
Had very different customs.
Most settled in eastern cities.
Few settled in South.

Immigrant cultures

Role of ethnic enclaves: preserve culture

Ethnic associations
Newspapers
Schools (tied to religion: parochial and rabbinical)
Churches
Restaurants
Stores

How to strike a balance between assimilation and ethnic identity

Melting pot or salad bowl as appropriate metaphor?

Generational divide

First generation: not speak English
Second generation: not speak native tongue
Third generation: aware of heritage

Nativist response

Distrust of foreigners by "natives" a consistent theme in U.S. history.

New immigrants were particularly seen as utterly alien
Threaten "American" values based on their language, religion, and culture.



IMMIGRATION: ELLIS ISLAND

Ellis Island Interactive Tour
http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/tour/index.htm
http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/webcast.htm

Great material from Mapping History website:
Immigration and Population
Introduction
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-00.html
Population Maps
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-01.html
Foreign-Born Population
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-02.html
Graph of Immigration
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-03.html
Summary
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-04.html

Roman Catholics and Immigration in Nineteenth-Century America (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/nromcath.htm



IMMIGRATION: CHINESE IN CALIFORNIA

Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/chinese-immigration

Immigration Act of 1924 (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/immigration-act


1. Chinese Immigration to the United States (Library of Congress American Memory Timeline)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/

Each of the documents are contained on the above page

Mark Twain's Observations About Chinese Immigrants in California
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/twain.html

A Memorial from Representative Chinamen in America to President U.S. Grant
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/briggs.html

Mary Cone Describes the Chinaman in California
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/mcone.html

David Phillips Discusses the "Chinese Question"
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/phillips.html

Hinton Rowan Helper on Chinese Immigration
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/helper.html

"Enactments So Utterly Un-American"
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/cummings.html

Edward Holton's Observations About Denis Kearney, a Leading Advocate of Chinese Exclusion
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/holton.html

William C. Pond's Ministry Among Chinese Immigrants in San Francisco
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/pond.html

2. A Chinese Immigrant Makes his Home in Turn-of-the-Century America
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/41/