Political Machines/Political Bosses

Urban growth strained city government.

Video: Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25
https://youtu.be/RRhjqqe750A

Political machines and their bosses filled in the cracks for immigrants
Solving problems of everyday life:
Son arrested
Husband needed a job
Family needed coal for furnace
Traded such favors for votes

Political bosses made money on:
Public contracts (trash collection, for example)
Utility or streetcar franchises
Distribution of city jobs

The New City
https://www.learner.org/series/biographyofamerica/prog15/index.html

Boss Tweed (William M. Tweed)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_M._Tweed

13 honest facts about Boss Tweed
http://mentalfloss.com/article/72252/13-honest-facts-about-boss-tweed

Tammany Hall
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammany_Hall

Video: Boss Tweed (Justin Bieber's "Baby" Parody) (Mr. Betts)
http://youtu.be/BKRkEKi0Qw0

Thomas Nast brought down Boss Tweed
https://www.thoughtco.com/thomas-nast-1773654

Thomas Nast Political Cartoons (Harper's Weekly)
http://www.thomasnast.com/

Thomas Nast's crusade against Boss Tweed: exploring the power of the editorial cartoon
https://m.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtu.be&v=Xz6I-Nk3Tas

The Sage of Tammany Hall (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/28/nyregion/thecity/28plun.html?pagewanted=all

George Washington Plunkitt of Tammany Hall (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text7/plunkitt.pdf

George Washington Plunkett
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Plunkitt

I seen my opportunities and I took them
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5030/

Boss Tweed Escapes from Prison (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/December/Boss-Tweed-Escapes-From-Prison.html

The Boss and the Reformer (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text7/text7read.htm

Images of Big City Politics (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text8/text8read.htm






Social workers: Settlement Houses

Jane Addams obituary
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0906.html

Key name: Jane Addams

Hull House in Chicago (1889).

Located in center–city, immigrant neighborhoods.
Staffers: young; middle–class; college–educated; white women.

Emphasis placed on:.
English language classes
Courses in cooking, sewing, and household skills
Infant welfare clinics
Bathhouses

Video: Jane Addams
https://youtu.be/Tw4GZeABlNI

Jane Addams | National Women's History Museum
http://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biographies/jane-addams

Jane Addams & The Hull House
http://youtu.be/11QWd-1thPQ

Hull House
Urban Experience In Chicago: Historical Narrative Contents
http://hullhouse.uic.edu/hull/urbanexp/main.cgi?file=new/historical_narrative_contents.ptt






IMMIGRATION

Roman Catholics and Immigration in Nineteenth-Century America (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/nromcath.htm

Video Ellis Island
https://youtu.be/8X4CypTaOQs

Antwerp to Ellis Island: Journey of a Lifetime
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/28/arts/design/antwerp-to-ellis-island-journey-of-a-lifetime.html

Lewis W. Hine, photographs of immigrants, Ellis Island
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text4/hine.pdf

Immigration
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/immigration.html

Interactive Map Showing Immigration Data Since 1880
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/03/10/us/20090310-immigration-explorer.html?ref=us

Free Technology for Teachers: Interactive Immigration Map
http://www.freetech4teachers.com/2009/12/interactive-immigration-map.html

H-Migration | H-Net
https://networks.h-net.org/h-migration

Immigrant and Ethnic America at HarpWeek.com
http://immigrants.harpweek.com/

Syllabus
HIST 270: Immigration and ethnicity in American history, 1815 to the present
http://www1.assumption.edu/users/McClymer/his270/

Family Stories as Secret Text for Immigrants
https://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/16/nyregion/16hunter.html

Many Immigrants No Longer Change Their Names to Fit In Fewer Immigrants to U.S. Change Their Surnames
https://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/26/nyregion/26names.html

Ellis Island Interactive Tour
http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/tour/index.htm

The Best Sites For Learning About Immigration In The United States | Larry Ferlazzo’s Websites of the Day…
http://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2010/05/26/the-best-sites-for-learning-about-immigration-in-the-united-states/

Leaving Home for the "Promised Land", 1894
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/promisedland.htm

Exploring U.S. History | alien menace
http://chnm.gmu.edu/exploring/19thcentury/alienmenace/index.php

Tenement Museum | Urban Log Cabin
http://www.thirteen.org/tenement/logcabin.html

Lewis Hine: photos of immigrants (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text4/text4link.htm

Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text5/text5read.htm

Two Wives (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text7/text7read.htm

Americanization Movement
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americanization_(immigration)

Learning Objectives:

What were the similarities and differences between the immigrants of the period 1880-1920 and previous immigrants?

How did immigrants adjust to and reshape their adopted homeland?

What push (why they left their native country)/pull (why they came to America) factors might have influenced the migration of different immigrant groups: German, Italian, Polish, Jewish, etc.

What influence did the immigrant cultures have on America? What influence did America have on them?




Angel Island
http://www.kqed.org/w/pacificlink/history/angelisland/

IMMIGRATION: CHINESE IN CALIFORNIA

Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/chinese-immigration

Chinese Exclusion Act (Harvard University)
http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/exclusion.html

Biography of a Chinaman (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text8/text8read.htm

Chinese Resist West Coast Discrimination (NHC lesson plan)
http://americainclass.org/the-chinese-question-from-a-chinese-standpoint-1873/

Immigration Act of 1924 (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/immigration-act

1. Chinese Immigration to the United States (Library of Congress American Memory Timeline)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/

Each of the documents are contained on the above page

Mark Twain's Observations About Chinese Immigrants in California
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/twain.html

A Memorial from Representative Chinamen in America to President U.S. Grant
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/briggs.html

Mary Cone Describes the Chinaman in California
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/mcone.html

David Phillips Discusses the "Chinese Question"
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/phillips.html

Hinton Rowan Helper on Chinese Immigration
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/helper.html

"Enactments So Utterly Un-American"
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/cummings.html

Edward Holton's Observations About Denis Kearney, a Leading Advocate of Chinese Exclusion
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/holton.html

Denis Kearney
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denis_Kearney

William C. Pond's Ministry Among Chinese Immigrants in San Francisco
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/pond.html

2. A Chinese Immigrant Makes his Home in Turn-of-the-Century America
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/41/

A Chinese Immigrant Makes his Home in Turn-of-the-Century America
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/41/

Don’t think Trump will ever pass a Muslim Exclusion Act? Just ask Sen. James G. Blaine.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/12/08/the-gop-front-runner-wants-to-ban-a-whole-group-of-people-this-isnt-the-first-time-thats-happened/

Donald Trump meet Wong Kim Ark, the Chinese American cook who is the father of ‘birthright citizenship’
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/08/31/donald-trump-meet-wong-kim-ark-the-chinese-american-cook-who-is-the-father-of-birthright-citizenship/

Chinese Immigration
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/chinese.html

Angel Island: Chinese immigration
http://www.kqed.org/w/pacificlink/history/angelisland/china.html

The Chinese Laundryman: A Study in Social Isolation
http://www.amazon.com/The-Chinese-Laundryman-Isolation-Chinatown/dp/0814778747

Confucius [Kong-foo-tsze]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucius

Affidavit and Flyers from the Chinese Boycott Case | National Archives
https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/chinese-boycott

An "Un-American Bill": A Congressman Denounces Immigration Quotas
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5079

"We Are Not the Degraded Race You Would Make Us": Norman Asing Challenges Chinese Immigration Restrictions
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6561

Locke and Walnut Grove: Havens for Early Asian Immigrants in California
https://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/locke/locke.htm

"We Chinese Are Viewed Like Thieves and Enemies": Pun Chi Appeals to Congress to Protect the Rights of Chinese, ca. 1860
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6618




JAPANESE IMMIGRATION

A | More | Perfect | Union Japanese immigration
http://amhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/non-flash/immigration_main.html

Japanese immigration
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/japanese.html

"The Senate's Declaration of War": Japan Responds to Japanese Exclusion
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5077

Angel Island: Japanese immigration
http://www.kqed.org/w/pacificlink/history/angelisland/japan.html





German Immigration to the United States
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/german.html

Read these subtopic links at the bottom of the page:
Introduction | The Call of Tolerance | Building a New Nation | A New Surge of Growth | Filling the Nation's Breadbasket | Urban Germans | Building Institutions, Shaping Tastes | Shadows of War

"A German Beer Garden on Sunday Evening."
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6722

Whatever happened to German America? [we will go over this in class]
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/23/opinion/whatever-happened-to-german-america.html?_r=0





Italian Immigration to the United States
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/italian.html

Click through the subtopic links at the bottom of the page:

Introduction | Early Arrivals | The Great Arrival | L’Isola dell Lagrime | A City of Villages | Tenements and Toil | Working Across the Country | Under Attack | A Century in the Spotlight





Irish Immigration to the United States
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/irish.html

Read these subtopic links at the bottom of the page:
Colonial Immigration | Irish-Catholic Immigration to America | Adaptation and Assimilation | Joining the Workforce | Religious Conflict and Discrimination | Racial Tensions | Irish Identity, Influence and Opportunity





Push factors:

Wars
Unemployment
Food shortages
Anti–Semitism (Poland and Russia).
German Jews versus Polish/Russian Jews

Pull factors:

America as a land of opportunity
Patterns of settlement and adaptation.
Role of chain migration.
Role of return migration.

The "new" immigration.

Change in origin:
Scotch-Irish and German earlier
Irish during famine time (1848)

Irish and German Immigration [from our online textbook]
http://www.ushistory.org/us/25f.asp
This connects to the Nativism articles we read for today

The new immigrants (1880-1920)
Catholic and Jewish
http://www.ushistory.org/us/38c.asp

U.S. has always had immigration: Asylum of liberty.

Source of immigration changed.
Prior immigrants: northern and western Europe and the British Isles.
New immigrants: eastern and southern Europe.

Characteristics of newer immigrants (1890-1900)

Generally poor
Often illiterate
Jewish or Catholic
Catholicism became largest American religion
Had very different customs.
Most settled in eastern cities
Few settled in South.

Great material from Mapping History website: Immigration and Population
Introduction
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-00.html
Population Maps
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-01.html
Foreign-Born Population
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-02.html
Graph of Immigration
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-03.html
Summary
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-04.html

Immigrant cultures

Role of ethnic enclaves: preserve culture

Ethnic associations
Newspapers
Schools (tied to religion: parochial and rabbinical)
Churches
Restaurants
Stores

How to strike a balance between assimilation and ethnic identity
Melting pot or salad bowl as appropriate metaphor?

Generational divide

First generation: not speak English
Second generation: not speak native tongue
Third generation: aware of heritage





Nativism response

Distrust of foreigners by "natives" a consistent theme in U.S. history.

New immigrants were particularly seen as utterly alien
Threaten "American" values based on their language, religion, and culture.

Immigrant Exclusion (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text9/text9read.htm

1896: McKinley and the American Protective Association
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/apa.html

Protestant Paranoia: The American Protective Association Oath
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5351/

Donald Trump Isn’t The First Know Nothing to Capture American Hearts | The New Republic
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/122427/donald-trump-isnt-first-know-nothing-capture-american-hearts

Know Nothings
[They came earlier!!
http://exhibits.library.villanova.edu/chaos-in-the-streets-the-philadelphia-riots-of-1844/know-nothings/

Immigration and the Rise & Fall of the Know-Nothing Party | RealClearPolitics
http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2015/02/18/immigration_and_the_rise__fall_of_the_know-nothing_party_125649.html