INDUSTRIALIZATION MODULE




Gilded Age

Illinois during the Gilded Age (Northern Illinois University)
http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-illinois-in-gilded.html



Note to myself: Insert these below where applicable

The Industrial Age in America: Sweatshops, Steel Mills, and Factories EDSITEment
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/industrial-age-america-sweatshops-steel-mills-and-factories

May 10, 1869 | First Transcontinental Railroad Is Completed - NYTimes.com
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/10/may-10-1869-first-transcontinental-railroad-completed/

Today in History: May 10 Transcontinental Railroad (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may10.html

Transcontinental Railroad (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tcrr/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-transcontinental.html

Battle of the Little Bighorn, 1876 (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%206_Gilded%20Age/Battle%20of%20Little%20Bighorn1.pdf

Battle of the Little Bighorn (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun25.html

Boomer Sooners land rush (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0422.html#article



GROWTH OF BIG BUSINESS

U.S. had extensive natural resources

  • Coal, iron, timber, petroleum, and waterpower.

U.S. had abundant labor

  • Ex–farm families
  • Immigrants.

U.S. became the largest free trade market in the world.

  • Role of the railroad in knitting the country together.
  • A nationwide transportation network.

Investors liked the profit outlook.

Government at all levels helped business:

  • Money
  • Land
  • Stability
  • Upheld private property
  • Laissez–faire approach.

Accelerated technological innovation: new inventions




U.S. had capable business leadership

  • Called captains of industry by their admirers
  • Called robber barons by their critic

Let's talk about the difference in the terms: captains of industry versus robber barons

We will focus on several business leaders:

John D. Rockefeller
Andrew Carnegie
J.P. Morgan
Thomas Edison
George Westinghouse
Henry Ford
Frederick Taylor


John D. Rockefeller (oil)

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines
http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi

John D. Rockefeller (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rockefellers/index.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-john-d-rockefeller.html

John D. Rockefeller obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0708.html

John D. Rockefeller (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/r/john-d-rockefeller.html

First Oil Well in U.S. Strikes Oil (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--First-Oil-Well-in-U-S--Strikes-Oil.html

Standard Oil Ordered to Dissolve (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Standard-Oil-Ordered-to-Dissolve.html


Andrew Carnegie (steel)

Andrew Carnegie: The Richest Man in the World (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-andrew-carnegie.html

Andrew Carnegie obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1125.html

Andrew Carnegie (Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/carnegie/aa_carnegie_phil_i_r.html

The Gospel According to Andrew: Carnegie’s Hymn to Wealth (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5767

Carnegie Libraries (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar12.html

Carnegie Libraries (Teaching with Historic Places)
http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50carnegie.htm


J[ohn] P[ierpont] Morgan (investment banking)

J.P. Morgan (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/peopleevents/pande10.html

J.P. Morgan (Digital History)
http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=194

J.P. Morgan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._P._Morgan

See also:

Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (Teaching with Historic Places)
http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/105brucemore/105brucemore.htm


Thomas Edison (DC—direct current)

Thomas Edison obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0211.html

Electrical industry.

Importance of electricity to American industrial growth
Changes in American life style.

Thomas Edison biographical sketch (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edbio.html

Thomas Edison (Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/edison/aa_edison_subj.html

Thomas Edison Develops Incandescent Light-Bulb (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Oct/Thomas-Edison-Develops-Incandescent-Light-Bulb.html

Thomas Edison Announces Invention of Phonograph (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/science/On-This-Day--Thomas-Edison-Announces-Invention-of-Phonograph.html


George Westinghouse (AC—alternating current)

George Westinghouse (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/westinghouse_hi.html

Inside an American Factory Westinghouse Factories (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/papr/west/westhome.html


Henry Ford. Mass production of the automobile.

Henry Ford obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0730.html

Henry Ford (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul30.html

Henry Ford (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/ford_hi.html

Assembly–line methods (1913)
Model T cars cheap and readily available.

The First Model-T Ford Is Produced (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--The-First-Model-T-Ford-Is-Produced.html

Horseless Carriages and Ford's Model T (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/horseless.html

Model T Road Trip (Henry Ford Museum)
http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/smartfun/welcome.html


Frederick W. Taylor

Frederick Taylor (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/taylor_hi.html

Frederick Taylor (NY Times obituary)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0320.html

Guru: Frederick W. Taylor (Economist)
http://www.economist.com/node/13051591

Emphasis on efficient production using
Scientific management methods
Time studies.



LABOR

Let's check out these recent articles about Apple.

What comparisons to America during the Gilded Age.

Apple Accused of Ignoring 'Human Cost' of Manufacturing (PC World)
http://www.pcworld.com/article/248840/apple_accused_of_ignoring_human_cost_of_manufacturing.html

Apple’s iPad and the Human Costs for Workers in China (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/business/ieconomy-apples-ipad-and-the-human-costs-for-workers-in-china.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

"8-Hour Work Day" (Today in History, Library of Congress)
This article sets the stage for our discussion of the labor movement.
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug20.html


Changing status of labor
  • Industrialization changed the nature of work
  • Power of employers increased
  • Worker independence and self-respect declined
  • Industrial workers were employees rather than crafts persons
  • Robot-like tasks made them feel like machines.
  • Emphasis on quantity over quality dehumanized the workplace
  • Workers resisted these trends
  • Worker resistance only led employers to tighten restrictions

Iron law of wages
  • Employees paid according to conditions of supply and demand.
  • Employers would set wages as low as possible

At a level where some persons would accept the work

Rise of Industrial America, 1876-1900 (Library of Congress: American Memory Timeline)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/

Work in the Late 19th Century

Companies hired women and children to further cut costs
  • Prevailing free–market views stifled protective legislation for workers
  • Employers denied responsibility for employees' well–being.
  • Repetitive work decreased concentration and caused industrial accidents.

Child Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1569&nm=Child-Labor

Child Labor in America, 1908-1912 (History Place)
http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/childlabor/index.html

No workers' comp at the time.
If you got hurt, tough luck.
  • Is beating down the worker a prerequisite for industrialization? Should we care how Thailand runs its factories today?
  • Courts reinforced iron law of wages

Denied workers the right to bargain collectively
Wages a private negotiation b/n employee & employer.

Important Supreme Court cases on the issue of management/labor

(1) Holden v. Hardy (1896)—ok to limit hours of miners, a dangerous job
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/capitalism/sources_document7.html

(2) Lochner v. New York (1905)—cannot limit bakers' hours, not a dangerous job
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/capitalism/landmark_lochner.html

(3) Muller v. Oregon (1908)—10-hour limit ok for women; protect their fragility.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/capitalism/sources_document7.html

A Look at Muller v. Oregon with Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg (C-SPAN)
http://www.c-span.org/Events/A-Look-at-Muller-v-Oregon-with-Justice-Ruth-Bader-Ginsburg/10737420619/



THE UNION MOVEMENT

Our Day: Turning Our Backs on Unions (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/05/opinion/nocera-turning-our-backs-on-unions.html?src=me&ref=general

Out of frustration, some workers began to participate in unions
Unionization efforts took various directions.

A. Knights of Labor

Terence V. Powderly (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=307

Terence V. Powderly Distances the Knights of Labor from the Haymarket Martyrs (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/96/

Knights of Labor was broadly based: Accepted all workers

Knights of Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=910&nm=Knights-of-Labor

Skilled
Unskilled
Women
African–Americans
  • Opposed the idea of strikes.
  • Envisioned a cooperative society

Laborers would own the companies

2. American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Key name: Samuel Gompers

Samuel Gompers (AFL-CIO)
http://www.aflcio.org/About/Our-History/Key-People-in-Labor-History/Samuel-Gompers-1850-1924

Samuel Gompers (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=158&nm=Samuel-Gompers

American Federation of Labor was a craft (skill) union.

American Federation of Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=835&nm=American-Federation-of-Labor

Did not accept unskilled workers
Pressed for concrete goals:

Higher wages
Shorter hours
Right to collective bargaining.

Willing to work within the capitalist system.



PANIC OF 1873

Panic of 1873 (On This Day, New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/1011.html

Panic of 1873 (Teaching History.org)
http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/beyond-the-textbook/24579

New York and the Panic of 1873 (New York Times)
http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/14/learning-lessons-from-the-panic-of-1873/?hp




HAYMARKET RIOT (1886)

Summary of the Haymarket Riot:

Riot protested police brutality against labor demonstrators.
Police killed by a bomb thrown by supposed anarchists (want no govt)
Revived middle–class fears of unions.

Haymarket (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%206_Gilded%20Age/Albert%20Parsons%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Haymarket (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/haymarket/haymarket.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-haymarket-trial.html

The Dramas of Haymarket (Chicago Historical Society)
http://www.chicagohistory.org/dramas/overview/over.htm

Chicago Anarchists on Trial: Evidence from the Haymarket Affair, 1886-1887 (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ichihtml/hayhome.html


HAYMARKET (1886)

Riot protested police brutality against labor demonstrators.
Police killed by a bomb thrown by supposed anarchists (want no govt)
Revived middle–class fears of unions.

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines
http://www.google.com/imghp?h

Chicago Anarchists on Trial: Evidence from the Haymarket Affair (LOC)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ichihtml/hayhome.html

Anarchists (Chronicling America)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/anarchy.html

Today in History: December 30 Altgeld, Anarchists
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html

The Dramas of Haymarket
http://www.chicagohistory.org/dramas/overview/over.htm

Haymarket Affair (Chronicling America)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/haymarket.html

Haymarket (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/haymarket/haymarket.html

Haymarket
http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/haymarket/index.html



HOMESTEAD STRIKE (1892)

Homestead (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%206_Gilded%20Age/Homestead%20Strike%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Steelworkers strike against Carnegie Steel Company.
Henry Frick hired Pinkerton guards to protect the plant.
Workers battled the guards.
National guard called out.

1. Background articles

The Homestead and Pullman Strikes
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/strikes.html

Homestead Strike (AFL-CIO)
http://www.aflcio.org/About/Our-History/Key-Events-in-Labor-History/1892-Homestead-Strike

2. From the Andrew Carnegie website (American Experience)
a. Overview (from the "People and Events"
section) http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/peopleevents/pande04.html

b. Details (from the "Special Features" section) Strike at Homestead Mill
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/sfeature/mh_horror.html

The Homestead Letters
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/sfeature/mh_letters.html
The Hated Men in Blue
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/sfeature/mh_blue.html
A New Judas Iscariot
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/sfeature/mh_judas.html

The Strike at Homestead (OSU eHistory)
http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/homesteadstrike1892/

http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/history/history/homestead_strike.cfm

Homestead
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/peopleevents/pande04.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/sfeature/mh_horror.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/sfeature/mh_letters.html



PULLMAN STRIKE (1894)

Pullman (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/chicago/peopleevents/p_pullman.html

Samuel Gompers: Editorial on the Pullman Strike (1894)
https://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/samuel-gomperss-editorial-on-the-pullman-strike

Pullman (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%206_Gilded%20Age/Pullman%20Strike%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

The Homestead and Pullman Strikes
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/strikes.html

Pullman Strike (Chicago Historical Society)
http://www.chicagohs.org/history/pullman.html

George Pullman (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/p/george-pullman.html

Pullman Porters (Chronicling America LOC)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/pullman.html

Eugene Debs and Pullman Strike (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/d/eugene-debs.html

PULLMAN STRIKE (1894)

http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/p/george-pullman.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/chicago/peopleevents/p_pullman.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/chicago/index.html

Pullman Strike
http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/pullman/index.html

http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/p/george-pullman.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/chicago/peopleevents/p_pullman.html

Origins of Labor Day and Pullman Strike
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/business/july-dec01/labor_day_9-2.html

http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/1912/content/pullman.cfm

Broken Spirits: Letters on the Pullman Strike http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5363/

  • Against exploitative policies of Pullman Palace Car Company.
  • Government intervened on the side of management

To ensure mail deliveries (supposedly)
President Cleveland sent troops to put down the strike.

Pullman Porters (Chronicling America LOC)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/pullman.html

See also:

Eugene Debs and Pullman Strike
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/d/eugene-debs.html

Eugene Debs and Pullman Strike
http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/history/history/debs.cfm



GILDED AGE POLITICS

Political Songs (2 screens)
http://www.parlorsongs.com/issues/2002-11/thismonth/feature.php
http://www.parlorsongs.com/issues/2002-11/thismonth/featureb.php

Party Politics
  • Politics was the most popular form of local recreation,

More popular than baseball, vaudeville, or circuses.
  • Political torchlight parades, picnics, and speeches were exciting.
  • Close political party balance.
  • [Commentators compared the 2000 election results to that during the Gilded Age.
  • Neither political party gained clear control for any sizable time.
  • Presidential elections were close
  • Swing states (New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois) made the difference.
  • Political party choice dependent on religion and ethnicity.

Republican party

  • Party of evangelical Protestants.
  • Believed government could be an agent of moral reform
  • World must be purged of evil
  • Legislation necessary to protect people from sin.
  • Opposed parochial schools.
  • Supported prohibition of liquor.

Republicans and the Bible
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/goldbible.html

Democratic party

Party of immigrant Catholics and Jews.
Opposed interference by government in

Matters of personal liberty
Use of leisure time
Celebration of Sunday.
  • Supported parochial schools
  • Opposed prohibition of liquor



ELECTION OF 1896

  • Major realigning election in U.S. history
  • Winner: William McKinley—a Republican

McKinley conducted a traditional "front porch" campaign
McKinley supported the gold standard.
Republican platform emphasized
  • Federal government support of the economy
  • The virtues of the urban–industrial society
  • Progress and prosperity: a full dinner pail
  • Loser: William Jennings Bryan—a Democrat

Bryan broke with tradition; traveled across the country
Bryan supported free silver
Bryan argued for an older America
  • Farms as important as factories,
  • Rural and religious life outweighed sinfulness of the city
  • Common people, not corporations, still ruled.
  • Election of 1896 realigned national politics.

Old split: North versus South

The "Bloody Shirt"
Vote as you shot

New split:

East versus West
City versus farm



Election of 1896

1896 Presidential Campaign (Vassar)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/1896home.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-1896-vassar.html

To get some context, read the portion regarding the Election of 1896 from this biographical material about William McKinley.
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley/essays/biography/3

Try to understand the 1896 material on its own terms, but--to a brief extent--consider the current 2012 Presidential campaign dynamics as a comparison.

William McKinley
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/mckinley.html

The Republicans, Mark Hanna, and Labor
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/hanna.html

William Jennings Bryan
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryan.html

William Jennings Bryan (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar19.html

1896 Election (New York Times, On This Day)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0709.html

Election of 1896:

Political Parties in the 1896 Presidential election campaign:
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/parties.html

The Republican Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/republicans.html

The Democratic Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/democrats.html

The Populist Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/populists.html


Bryan and the Bible
Bryan, Religion, and the Silver Question
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryanreligion.html

McKinley Supporters and the Bible
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/goldbible.html

Racial Prejudice
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/prejudice.html

Plessy versus Ferguson
(Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may18.html

Antisemitism
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/antisemitism.html

Women in the Campaign
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/women.html

Bicycles
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bicycle.html

The Currency Issue
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/currency.html

Check out these sites; both gold and silver fluctuate in price:
http://money.cnn.com/data/commodities/
http://www.monex.com/liveprices

Gold Standard

March 14, 1900 | U.S. Officially Adopts Gold Standard - NYTimes.com
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/march-14-1900-u-s-officially-adopts-gold-standard/

In Rise of Gold Bugs, History Repeats Itself - NYTimes.com
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/03/business/in-rise-of-gold-bugs-history-repeats-itself.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1331722960-zicLewt1yGtRvOCUXlOWag&pagewanted=all

Back to a Gold Standard? - Room for Debate - NYTimes.com
http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2010/11/09/back-to-a-gold-standard

FDR takes United States off gold standard — History.com This Day in History — 6/5/1933
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-takes-united-states-off-gold-standard

Economic Depression of 1893
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/depression.html

Immigration
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/immigration.html

Farmers and Laborers
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/labor.html


WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines
http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi
Search term: William Jennings Bryan 1896

1896 Election (New York Times, On This Day)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0709.html

Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5354/
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=163

William Jennings Bryan (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar19.html

Bryan (Vassar)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryan.html


WILLIAM McKINLEY

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines
http://www.google.com/imghp?h

William Mckinley (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley

William McKinley (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/presidents-mckinley/

McKinley Administration (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/McKinley.html

McKinley Assassination
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/mckinley.htm
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0914.html

September 6, 1901| President McKinley Assassinated - NYTimes.com
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/06/september-6-1901-president-mckinley-assassinated/

On This Day: President McKinley Fatally Shot by Anarchist
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--President-McKinley-Fatally-Shot-By-Anarchist.html