GROWTH OF BIG BUSINESS

U.S. had extensive natural resources

  • Coal, iron, timber, petroleum, and waterpower.

U.S. had abundant labor

  • Ex–farm families
  • Immigrants.

U.S. became the largest free trade market in the world.

  • Role of the railroad in knitting the country together.
  • A nationwide transportation network.

Investors liked the profit outlook.

Government at all levels helped business:

  • Money
  • Land
  • Stability
  • Upheld private property
  • Laissez–faire approach.

Accelerated technological innovation: new inventions




U.S. had capable business leadership

  • Called captains of industry by their admirers
  • Called robber barons by their critic

ROBBER BARONS or CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY

Video: Robber Barons Sing Pharrell's "Happy" - @MrBettsClass
https://youtu.be/kc-zU9WHVO0

Robber Barons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robber_baron_(industrialist)

Video: Robber barons and the industrial age
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=st3_8LEQvck

SOCIAL DARWINISM

Social Darwinism versus Social Gospel (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text9/text9read.htm

THOSE WHO BUILT AMERICA

The Men who built America
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Men_Who_Built_America

YouTube Playlist
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLB7KQfNocgIjjiVB27lyZ2EGfW8Erg5zi

HORATIO ALGER

Rags to Riches stories

Horatio Alger
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horatio_Alger

Horatio Alger (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text3/text3read.htm

Horatio Alger
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text3/alger.pdf

Horatio Alger
https://web.stanford.edu/dept/SUL/library/prod/depts/dp/pennies/1860_alger.html

Video: Horatio Alger
http://youtu.be/1WvGG2K_km4

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER=oil

John D. Rockefeller
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_D._Rockefeller

Video: John D. Rockefeller bio
http://youtu.be/O2BKPeHNkxU

Video: Business Legends: Rockefeller
https://youtu.be/SQzA7OWddWs

John D. Rockefeller obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0708.html

John D. Rockefeller (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/r/john-d-rockefeller.html

First Oil Well in U.S. Strikes Oil (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--First-Oil-Well-in-U-S--Strikes-Oil.html

Standard Oil Ordered to Dissolve (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Standard-Oil-Ordered-to-Dissolve.html

ANDREW CARNEGIE=steel

Andrew Carnegie
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Carnegie
https://www.biography.com/people/andrew-carnegie-9238756

Andrew Carnegie (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/progress/text7/text7link.htm

Video: Business Legends: Andrew Carnegie
https://youtu.be/_agjHJTmY7s

Video: America: The Story of Us
http://www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-us/videos/andrew-carnegie

Carnegie Libraries in California
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Carnegie_libraries_in_California

Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/progress/text7/carnegie.pdf

Andrew Carnegie obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1125.html

The Gospel According to Andrew: Carnegie’s Hymn to Wealth (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5767

J.P. MORGAN=investment banking
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._P._Morgan

Video: JP Morgan
https://youtu.be/b_-TuGiY2Bs
https://youtu.be/CGDvFBJ2aKU
http://youtu.be/LgtCXD141sE

Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (Teaching with Historic Places)
http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/105brucemore/105brucemore.htm

HENRY FORD=Mass production of the automobile.

Henry Ford obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0730.html

Henry Ford
[This is good]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/henryford/

Henry Ford (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul30.html

Assembly–line methods (1913)
Model T cars cheap and readily available.

The First Model-T Ford Is Produced (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--The-First-Model-T-Ford-Is-Produced.html

Horseless Carriages and Ford's Model T (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/horseless.html

Henry Ford
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Ford
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/ford_hi.html

Video: The men who build America: the rise of Henry Ford
http://www.history.com/shows/men-who-built-america/videos/the-rise-of-henry-ford

Video: Business Legends: Henry Ford
https://youtu.be/vUXol6aUr1M

Driving a Ford Model T
http://youtu.be/MLMS_QtKamg

Why the Model T Matters - @MrBettsClass
https://youtu.be/O8AvHAZzC90

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT=railroads

Cornelius Vanderbilt
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelius_Vanderbilt

Video: The Men who built America: the rise of Cornelius Vanderbilt
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H9Gq-eKO6SQ

Video: Transcontinental Railroad
https://youtu.be/wvQyBcbHJkg

Video: Business Legends: Cornelius Vanderbilt
https://youtu.be/xYd-yRABI-M

Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site: Monument to the Gilded Age
https://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/78vanderbilt/78vanderbilt.htm

THOMAS EDISON=(DC—direct current)

Thomas Edison obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0211.html

Electrical industry.

Importance of electricity to American industrial growth
Changes in American life style.

Thomas Edison (Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/edison/aa_edison_subj.html

Thomas Edison Develops Incandescent Light-Bulb (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Oct/Thomas-Edison-Develops-Incandescent-Light-Bulb.html

Thomas Edison Announces Invention of Phonograph (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/science/On-This-Day--Thomas-Edison-Announces-Invention-of-Phonograph.html

Thomas Edison
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Edison

Thomas Edison (National Historic Park)
https://www.nps.gov/edis/learn/historyculture/edison-biography.htm

Video: Business Legends: Thomas Edison
https://youtu.be/pMqJB4Mbaqw

Video: Thomas Edison (Bio.com)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQ2RJC1a8T0

FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR=Father of scientific management

Frederick W.Taylor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Winslow_Taylor

Frederick Winslow Taylor (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/progress/text3/text3read.htm

Progressivism in the Factory (NHC lesson plan)
http://americainclass.org/progressivism-in-the-factory/

Frederick Taylor
Viewpoint: Are Amazon's feedback tactics unusual?
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-33988479

Who Made America: Frederick W. Taylor
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/taylor_hi.html

Frederick Taylor (NY Times obituary)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0320.html

Guru: Frederick W. Taylor (Economist)
http://www.economist.com/node/13051591

Frederick Winslow Taylor
Viewpoint: Are Amazon's feedback tactics unusual?
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-33988479

Emphasis on efficient production using
Scientific management methods
Time studies.

SOCIAL GOSPEL

Social Gospel
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/twenty/tkeyinfo/socgospel.htm

Social Gospel
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Gospel

Walter Rauschenbusch
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Rauschenbusch
http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/people/activists/walter-rauschenbusch.html
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/walter-rauschenbusch.html

Walter Rauschenbusch
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text9/rauschenbusch.pdf

Video: Walter Rauschenbusch
?????

Links: Foreign Missionary movement
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nlinksfmmovement.htm

Billy Sunday
http://www2.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/sunday/sunday01.html

Hitting the Sawdust Trail with Billy Sunday
http://www2.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/sunday/sunday01.html

Billy Sunday
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billy_Sunday
http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/people/evangelistsandapologists/billy-sunday.html

Dwight Moody
http://www.washingtonubf.org/Resources/Leaders/DwightMoody.html

Dwight Moody
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_L._Moody
http://www.christianitytoday.com/history/people/evangelistsandapologists/dwight-l-moody.html



LABOR

Capital and Labor
https://www.learner.org/series/biographyofamerica/prog17/index.html

Let's check out these recent articles about Apple.

What comparisons to America during the Gilded Age.

Apple Accused of Ignoring 'Human Cost' of Manufacturing (PC World)
http://www.pcworld.com/article/248840/apple_accused_of_ignoring_human_cost_of_manufacturing.html

Apple’s iPad and the Human Costs for Workers in China (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/business/ieconomy-apples-ipad-and-the-human-costs-for-workers-in-china.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

"8-Hour Work Day" (Today in History, Library of Congress)
This article sets the stage for our discussion of the labor movement.
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug20.html


Changing status of labor
  • Industrialization changed the nature of work
  • Power of employers increased
  • Worker independence and self-respect declined
  • Industrial workers were employees rather than crafts persons
  • Robot-like tasks made them feel like machines.
  • Emphasis on quantity over quality dehumanized the workplace
  • Workers resisted these trends
  • Worker resistance only led employers to tighten restrictions

Iron law of wages
  • Employees paid according to conditions of supply and demand.
  • Employers would set wages as low as possible

At a level where some persons would accept the work

Rise of Industrial America, 1876-1900 (Library of Congress: American Memory Timeline)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/

Work in the Late 19th Century
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/work/
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/city/

Companies hired women and children to further cut costs
  • Prevailing free–market views stifled protective legislation for workers
  • Employers denied responsibility for employees' well–being.
  • Repetitive work decreased concentration and caused industrial accidents.

Child Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1569&nm=Child-Labor

Child Labor in America, 1908-1912 (History Place)
http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/childlabor/index.html

Child Labor in the Industrial Revolution (Sound Smart)
https://youtu.be/ejc8oDOcN_o

Protest songs
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protest_songs_in_the_United_States

No workers' comp at the time.
If you got hurt, tough luck.
  • Is beating down the worker a prerequisite for industrialization? Should we care how Thailand runs its factories today?
  • Courts reinforced iron law of wages

Denied workers the right to bargain collectively
Wages a private negotiation b/n employee & employer.

Important Supreme Court cases on the issue of management/labor

(1) Holden v. Hardy (1896)—ok to limit hours of miners, a dangerous job

(2) Lochner v. New York (1905)—cannot limit bakers' hours, not a dangerous job

(3) Muller v. Oregon (1908)—10-hour limit ok for women; protect their fragility.



THE UNION MOVEMENT

Turning Our Backs on Unions (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/05/opinion/nocera-turning-our-backs-on-unions.html?src=me&ref=general

Out of frustration, some workers began to participate in unions
Unionization efforts took various directions.

Introducing New Recruits to "Labor's Catechism"
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5022

"The Brotherhood of Man": A Unionist Uses the Bible
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5023

Was Christ a union man?
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5025

A Christ-like Character: A Catholic Priest Champions Henry George
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5320

National Labor Union
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Labor_Union

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Big Bill Haywood and Eugene Debs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Workers_of_the_World

A. Knights of Labor

Terence V. Powderly (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=307

Terence V. Powderly Distances the Knights of Labor from the Haymarket Martyrs
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/96/

Terence Powderly
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terence_V._Powderly

Knights of Labor
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knights_of_Labor

Knights of Labor was broadly based: Accepted all workers

Knights of Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=910&nm=Knights-of-Labor

Skilled
Unskilled
Women
African–Americans
  • Opposed the idea of strikes.
  • Envisioned a cooperative society

Laborers would own the companies

2. American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Key name: Samuel Gompers

Samuel Gompers
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Gompers

Samuel Gompers (AFL-CIO)
http://www.aflcio.org/About/Our-History/Key-People-in-Labor-History/Samuel-Gompers-1850-1924

Samuel Gompers (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=158&nm=Samuel-Gompers

American Federation of Labor was a craft (skill) union.

American Federation of Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=835&nm=American-Federation-of-Labor

Did not accept unskilled workers
Pressed for concrete goals:

Higher wages
Shorter hours
Right to collective bargaining.

Willing to work within the capitalist system.



PANIC OF 1873

Panic of 1873
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_of_1873

Video: Illinois in the Gilded Age, Panic of 1873
https://youtu.be/D57dgatuPPg

Panic of 1873 (On This Day, New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/1011.html

Panic of 1873 (Teaching History.org)
http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/beyond-the-textbook/24579

New York and the Panic of 1873 (New York Times)
http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/14/learning-lessons-from-the-panic-of-1873/?hp




RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877

Role of railroads in America
Develop more data for this topic

Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Transcontinental_Railroad

When Railroads Designed Their Own Version of Time Zones
https://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/17/nyregion/17rooms.html

Great Railroad Strike of 1877
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Railroad_Strike_of_1877

Railroad Strike of 1877
http://explorepahistory.com/hmarker.php?markerId=1-A-1C1

Great Upheaval
http://www.ushistory.org/us/37a.asp




HAYMARKET RIOT (1886)

Riot protested police brutality against labor demonstrators.
Police killed by a bomb thrown by supposed anarchists (want no govt)
Revived middle–class fears of unions.

Haymarket Riot (Sound Smart)
https://youtu.be/ZT_ZWCB_1cM

Haymarket Riot
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haymarket_affair

Anarchy Archives
http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/index.html

John Peter Altgeld
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Peter_Altgeld

An Anarchist by Any Other Name: Albert Parsons and Anarchist Socialism
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5009

The Dramas of Haymarket (Chicago Historical Society)
http://www.chicagohistory.org/dramas/overview/over.htm

Chicago Anarchists on Trial: Evidence from the Haymarket Affair, 1886-1887 (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ichihtml/hayhome.html

Anarchists (Chronicling America)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/anarchy.html

Today in History: December 30 Altgeld, Anarchists
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html

Haymarket Affair (Chronicling America)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/haymarket.html

Haymarket (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/haymarket/haymarket.html

Haymarket Affair (1886)
[Note to myself: Causes and Effects of Emigration from Germany (1870s-1880s)]
http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=1739



HOMESTEAD STRIKE (1892)

Steelworkers strike against Carnegie Steel Company.
Henry Frick hired Pinkerton guards to protect the plant.
Workers battled the guards.
National guard called out.

1. Background articles

The Homestead and Pullman Strikes
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/strikes.html

Homestead Strike (AFL-CIO)
http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/history/history/homestead_strike.cfm

Homestead Strike
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homestead_strike

Henry Clay Frick
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Clay_Frick

"I Will Kill Frick": Emma Goldman Recounts the Attempt to Assassinate the Chairman of the Carnegie Steel Company During the: Homestead Strike in 1892
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/99

"An Awful Battle at Homestead, Pa."
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6768

The Musical Saga of Homestead
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5322





PANIC OF 1893

Panic of 1893
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_of_1893

Panic of 1893
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Panic_of_1893

Economic Depression of 1893
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/depression.html



Columbian Exposition in Chicago [1893]

Columbian Exposition (1893)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/World%27s_Columbian_Exposition

World's Columbian Exposition (1893): Idea, Experience, Aftermath
[as in pre-Columbian; Columbus 1492]
http://xroads.virginia.edu/%7EMA96/WCE/title.html



Coxey's Army march on Washington (1894)

Coxey's Army (1894)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coxey%27s_Army



PULLMAN STRIKE (1894)

The Homestead and Pullman Strikes
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/strikes.html

Pullman Strike (Chicago Historical Society)
http://www.chicagohs.org/history/pullman.html

George Pullman (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/p/george-pullman.html

George Pullman
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Pullman

George Pullman
http://www.pullman-museum.org/theMan/

Pullman Strike
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pullman_Strike

Pullman Strike (NHC)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text5/text5read.htm

Father Knows Best: Strikers Denounce Pullman
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5307

Pullman Porters (Chronicling America LOC)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/pullman.html

Eugene V. Debs
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugene_V._Debs

Bernie Sanders has a Eugene Debs problem
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/powerpost/wp/2016/01/22/the-daily-202-bernie-sanders-
has-a-eugene-v-debs-problem/?utm_term=.e567acbafedb

Eugene Debs and Pullman Strike (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/d/eugene-debs.html

Origins of Labor Day and Pullman Strike
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/business/july-dec01/labor_day_9-2.html

Broken Spirits: Letters on the Pullman Strike
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5363/

  • Against exploitative policies of Pullman Palace Car Company.
  • Government intervened on the side of management

To ensure mail deliveries (supposedly)
President Cleveland sent troops to put down the strike.

Eugene Debs and Pullman Strike
http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/history/history/debs.cfm