David M. Kennedy. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN: 978-0-19-514403-1

PROLOGUE: November 11, 1918, 1-9

Read it completely.

CHAPTER 1: The American People on the Eve of the Great Depression, 10-42
Here are several useful general articles to use as background:

Herbert Hoover

The Ordeal of Herbert Hoover (2 part series)

U.S. presidential election, 1928,_1928

Great Depression in the United States

11 Hoover sketch
14-16 Urban life
21-23 Industrialization
27-29 Women
29 Financial
32-33 Republican party
38-39 Causes of the Depression ???
41 Extent of stock ownership

CHAPTER 2: Panic, 43-69

44-46 Hoover sketch
49-50 Tariffs/protectionism
51-52 Orthodox economic theory/Hoover's understanding of it
53 Sustain purchasing power/don't cut paychecks
54 (+57) Stimulus of construction work
56 The future: veiled and inscrutable (Google: define inscrutable)
59 Not yet losing. But tide began to ebb.
60-62 Congressional political party makeup. Compare to today. Obstructionism.
63 George Norris. Who would be similar to him--opposing Obama today.
65-69 Read all 4 pages closely.

CHAPTER 3: The Ordeal of Herbert Hoover, 70-103

70-71 What do you think of Hoover's argument: WWI caused Depression?

72-73 What comparisons between debt forgiveness then and bailouts today? Germany recently paid off the final interest payment on WWI debt.

75-76 Let's talk about the Gold Standard
We now have a system of floating currencies. Check out this website:
The price of gold fluctuates as you can see at this website:

77 Is there a comparable "psychology of fear" today?

83 What is meant by the "political and ideological Rubicon"?

83 Is the Federal Reserve an "uncooperative partner" today?

84 To what proposal today can the Hoover's RFC be compared?

85 "If Hoover could be made to support federal relief for the banks, why not federal relief for the unemployed." What ideological comparisons today?

86-90 Impact of the Depression on people

93-94 What is comparable today to "we don't give a hoot in a rain barrel who controls North China." What are we doing today that may "set a match to a long fuse" leading to a future war.

95- What is your opinion of the capabilities/limitations of FDR at this point?
100 What do we need most from a President: first-class temperament or first-class intellect? Does it matter one way or another?

102 FDR simply "weaved together incompatible drafts." Is this surprising?

103 Do leaders generally grow in office?

CHAPTER 4: Interregnum, 104-130

Interregnum: Period between the election in early November and the inauguration of the new President.
Was longer then (March 2) than now (January 20).
Hoover and FDR did not work together during that transition period.

104 Is the interval before election and inauguration today still too lengthy?

I don't understand that bit about the congressional session.

105 Compare the coordination between Hoover/FDR to Bush/Obama.

106-107 How might different views of the causes (domestic/foreign) of Depression have led to different possible solutions?

111 Would U.S. ever be wise to just have a dictator solve problems?

111-113 Was FDR a "peanut brain"? React to the statement about FDR's capacity for "almost impenetrable concealment of intention."

113-115 To what other Presidents can FDR be compared?

117 Seemingly three purposes of New Deal: social reform, political realignment, economic recovery. Let's watch for these in actual policies.

119-120 What else can we learn about the "Brain Trust." Does Obama have/need a Brain Trust?

Brain Trust

Adolph Berle

Raymond Morley

Rexford Tugwell

Felix Frankfurter

125 Does Obama have comparable party majorities in Congress?

129 Are any members of Congress today comparable to "Depression babies"?

Franklin Delano Roosevelt,_1932

Groton School

Endicott Peabody

Muscular Christianity

Harvard--Porcellian Club

CHAPTER 5: The Hundred Days, 131-159

Issues during the New Deal

Policy issues [all of which can be subject to criticism]
Was it the job of the federal government to do any of this?
Today we debate how to reverse the role and intrusion of the federal government

133 How was it possible the "two men never saw each other again"?
134- Compare Obama's transition with what we read in these pages. How much bipartisan support was in evidence and for how long?
136 Emergency Banking Act.
Emergency Banking Act (Wikipedia)
136 What is equivalent today to FDR's Fireside Chats?
Fireside chats (Wikipedia)

FDR's Fireside Chats: The Power of Words (EDSITEment)

70th anniversary of FDR's Fireside Chats (12 March 1933) (Museum of Broadcast Communications)
137 How would citizens communicate with President Obama?
137 How will Obama handle press conferences? How will the press treat him compared to the treatment FDR received?
139 Is the Hundred Days a fair comparison for today's leaders?
FDR Project The First 100 Days
140-141 Great sentence. "It included …."
141 AAA. What was it? What about the idea of "domestic allotment?"
Agricultural Adjustment Act (Wikipedia)

Civilian Conservation Corps
144 Would you have joined the CCC? Any camps in California?
Civilian Conservation Corps (Wikipedia)
We can take it! (Civilian Conservation Corps) (GMU)

Check this out:
Go to Photo Gallery. Click through the photos there.

Interview with Kristin McSwain comparing AmeriCorps to CCC

Civilian Conservation Corps

145 What about that Alexander Hamilton comparison?
Look up material on Harry Hopkins.
Harry Hopkins (Wikipedia)

146 What is the Social Gospel tradition. Who espoused it?
Social Gospel
Walter Rauschenbusch
Washington Gladden

148 TVA: good or bad?
Tennessee Valley Authority (Wikipedia)

150 Work-spreading. Any such ideas today?
151 Major legislation.

Home relief (dole) versus work relief [can be criticized as make-work]

National Industrial Recovery Act (Wikipedia)
National Recovery Administration (Wikipedia)
Public Works Administration (Wikipedia)
151 Shut people in a room; don't come out until you have a solution. Yes?
153 Great summary of Hundred Days. Terrific concluding paragraph.
Glass-Steagall Act (Wikipedia)
155 Killing the London conference emboldened our potential enemies. Any current analogies?
158 FDR knew what was occurring internationally—or did he?

CHAPTER 6: The Ordeal of the American People, 160-189

160-162 Lorena Hickok. Footnote #6 is a fine example of format and informative quality.
Lorena Hickok (Wikipedia)
162-163 How much of stock value has eroded now compared to then? Bank deposits? Foreclosures?
164-165 Out migration to Russia. Would you have gone there? Our treatment of Mexican people has varied greatly. What do you think?
166 What is unemployment rate today?
167 That Rose Bowl example is powerful and a great way to bring to life an otherwise sterile statistic.
167 Hopkins: can't keep stirred up over six million. Yes?
168 Human wreckage of …… What do you think? True? Biased pinko?

171 FERA checks flowed to swing states. Are you shocked?

For swing states in 2012 election, see "Polls See Sharp Divide in 3 Swing States" (New York Times)

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (Wikipedia)

172-173 Are the needy to blame for their plight? How would you handle being a welfare administrator?
175" Mortifying" means test? Niggardly, condescending administrators?
176 CWA projects: mounted swiftly. People today say "shovel-ready."

CWA: A subdivision of Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
Civil Works Administration (Wikipedia)
177 Would you like to do have done lunch with Hugh Johnson? Great sentence: "Melodramatic in his temperament…."
Hugh Samuel Johnson (Wikipedia)

178 Major issue then as today: lavish or penny-pinching approach.

Major issue then as today: lavish or penny-pinching approach.

"Four Million Jobs in two years. FDR did it in 2 months." (Slate)
Compares Obama's stimulus with FDR's CWA/PWA

183 Look up the Blue Eagle. Comparable today to what?
Blue Eagle (Wikipedia)
Blue Eagle
184 What does "cartelization of American industry" mean?
189 Last paragraph. Any sense that we are in danger today?

CHAPTER 7: Chasing the Phantom of Recovery, 190-217

191 A New Deal or a stacked deck?
192 Any "desolate facts of American rural life" today?
194 Notice the theme of "the tense membrame of class and race" in South.

194-195 What can we learn about the "Dust Bowl" times from these websites?

Farming in the 1930s
Click through each of the seven modules:

Spirit of ’32 (Farm Holidays) (GMU)

Dust Bowl [see pages

Dust Bowl (Gilder Lehrman Summer Seminar))

Voices from the Dust Bowl, 1940-1941 (LOC)

U.S. Route 66 (Wikipedia)

The Grapes of Wrath (Wikipedia)
Grapes of Wrath

LOC American Memory Timeline
Section entitled "Great Depression and World War Two
Go to the following sections: "The Dust Bowl"
Go to article entitled "Trampling out the Vintage"

Surviving the Dust Bowl
Watch some of the videos
Then go to Photo Gallery.

197 FDR embraced a questionable economic theory. "Like a cracker-barrel argument: dubious premises to sputtering conclusion."
198-199 But it kept the farmers quiet.
Spirit of ’32 (Farm Holidays) (GMU)
199 Adam Smith and his "invisible hand." What do you think of it?
202 System of farm subsidies. What in the 2008-2009 stimulus package will outlive its current utility?
205 "The drama of their destruction fixed the AAA in the minds of many Americans." What other examples of good/bad PR then and now can we think of?
Agricultural Adjustment Act (Wikipedia)
210 FDR reaction to proposed anti-lynching bill. Will see more in next chapter.
211 Nucleus of young lawyers in a given government agency. What other examples then and now?
213 AAA like NRA protected big interests. Will big interests always come out on top?
214 American Liberty League and some of its key proponents.
American Liberty League (Wikipedia)
215-216 We will deal in next chapter with Long, Townsend, Sinclair, and Coughlin.
216 November 1934 mid-term election results.,_1934,_1934
217 Comparison of FDR to McClellan. Any other such comparisons?

CHAPTER 8: The Rumble of Discontent, 218-248

218-219 Read this introductory material carefully. Great overview.
Critics of the New Deal (Wikipedia)
219-220 What did the progressives argue? Are you convinced?,_1924)
223-224 Folks have always been suspect of us in California!

224-225 Francis Townsend
Francis Townsend (Wikipedia)

225-227 Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair (Wikipedia)

227-234 Father Charles Coughlin
Charles Coughlin (Wikipedia)
American Rhetoric Father Charles Coughlin - Roosevelt or Ruin
Father Coughlin (Social Security Online History)
Charles E. Coughlin radio broadcast 1935

234-242 Huey Long
Huey Long (Wikipedia)
Share Our Wealth (Wikipedia)

243 Alan Brinkley analysis of appeal of these critics.
244-248 Roosevelt's response

CHAPTER 9: A Season for Reform, 249-256 [CHECK PAGE NUMBERS]

249 John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes (Wikipedia)

The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money,_Interest,_and_Money

251 Should we follow today those criteria to give out work-relief funds?
252 Rural Electrification Administration
252 National Youth Administration.

252-256 Works Progress Administration. Plus each of its parts.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)

WPA (LOC) Today in History April 8

Webquest: Posters from the WPA

Employed educated persons: Federal Art, Writers', Theater Projects
Federal Music Project (Wikipedia)
Federal Theatre Project (Wikipedia)
Federal Writers' Project (Wikipedia)

Criticized by conservatives as make-work

LOC American Memory Timeline
Section entitled "Great Depression and World War Two
Go to the following section: "Americans React to the Great Depression"
Go to article entitled "WPA Road"

257-273 Social Security. Let's analyze these pages carefully.
Frances Perkins (Wikipedia)

273-281 1935 Special legislation session. Why did FDR handle it the way he did?

Old Right (United States) (Wikipedia)
281 Raymond Moley
Raymond Moley (Wikipedia)
283 Gerald K. Smith

285-287 Presidential Election of 1936
United States presidential election, 1936 (Wikipedia),_1936

CHAPTER 10: Strike
We will skip this chapter.

CHAPTER 11: The Ordeal of Franklin Roosevelt, 323-362
323 How could FDR have gotten into such difficulties? Was he overly bold after a sweeping victory in 1936?,_1936

324 Political risk: new President could reverse; Congress could dismantle; Supreme Court could overturn. How should a President proceed?

325 We will look at how FDR struck out at 1) judiciary, 2) Congress, and 3) southerners in his Democratic Party.

325-337 Judiciary, the so-called Court Packing attempt. Let's look in detail.

Court Packing Bill (Wikipedia)

FDR's Court-Packing Plan (History Now)

Roosevelt Goes Too Far in Packing the Court (GMU). This is useful.

332-333 How about the Vice President!!! Plus Burton Wheeler.
John Nance Garner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

335 Switch in time that saved nine.
The switch in time that saved nine (Wikipedia)

337 Use Google Search to define Pyrrhic victory. What were the deep fissures in the Democratic party at this juncture.

338 Are barons sort of like warlords. What is an American Runnymede.

339-341 Conservative coalition.
Conservative coalition (Wikipedia)

342-342 FDR's approach to an anti-lynching bill.

345-349 FDR went against southern wing of Democratic party. Poor results in 1938 congressional elections.,_1938,_1938

350-357 Roosevelt recession of 1937

Recession of 1937
What is Obama equivalent, if any?

What is Obama equivalent, if any?
Brain Trust

Felix Frankfurter
Thomas Corcoran
Harold L. Ickes
Henry A. Wallace

361 Two great summary paragraphs: one on FDR's New Deal, the other on the gathering storm clouds internationally.

CHAPTER 12: What the New Deal Did, 363-380

Look up how each of the following are playing out in 2011.

366 Glass-Steagall Banking Act
Glass-Steagall Act (Wikipedia)

367 Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities Act of 1933 (Wikipedia)

369 Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae)

377 Good summary.


CHAPTER 13: The Gathering Storm, 380-403 [first half of a long chapter]

What was happening in 1930s America/Germany?
What examples of isolationism in America as a result of remembrance of WWI?
What examples of dictators on the march?
What comparisons between how Britain saw a reluctant U.S. prior to WWII versus how U.S. saw a reluctant France prior to Iraq war?
How did each country make its geopolitical calculations based on prior events and new events?

Let's make sure we get to know each of the major leaders during World War Two:
Winston Churchill (Wikipedia)
Joseph Stalin (Wikipedia)
Chiang Kai-shek (Wikipedia)
Charles de Gaulle (Wikipedia)

Adolf Hitler
Benito Mussolini (Wikipedia)
Hideki Tojo (Wikipedia)
Hirohito (Wikipedia)

Let's make sure we understand the issues (and chronology) of the events in this chapter:

U.S. Neutrality Acts

Remilitarization of the Rhineland (Wikipedia)

Axis powers (Wikipedia)

Anti-Comintern Pact (Wikipedia)

German annexation of Austria (Anschluss)

Spanish Civil War (Wikipedia)
Abraham Lincoln Brigade (Wikipedia)
1st Lincoln Battalion flag.svg (Wikipedia)
Bombing of Guernica (Wikipedia)
Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War (Wikipedia)

Italian Invasion of Ethiopia (Wikipedia)

"Moral Embargo"

Events preceding World War II in Asia (Wikipedia)

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (Wikipedia)

Japanese invasion of Manchuria (Wikipedia)
Manchuria Invasion 1931 Mukden Incident (Wikipedia)

Marco Polo Bridge Incident (Wikipedia)

Nanking Massacre (Wikipedia)

Panay incident (Wikipedia)

Japanese Sympathy over Panay incident

Pearl S. Buck The Good Earth (Wikipedia)

Louis Ludlow

CHAPTER 13: The Gathering Storm, 404-425 [second half of a long chapter]

Robert R. McCormick
Chicago Tribune

"Quarantine" speech

1936 Summer Olympics
Jesse Owens (Wikipedia)

Jewish refugees' issue
1924 National Origins Act (Immigration Act of 1924)
SS St. Louis (Wikipedia)

Munich Conference
Neville Chamberlain (Wikipedia)


German occupation of Czechoslovakia (Wikipedia)

Italian invasion of Ethiopia

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (Wikipedia)


Here are some additional resources to use from our laptops:

Interactive: America on the Sidelines, 1931-1941 (Teaching American History)

U.S. Athletes Avoid Nazi Salute at 1936 Olympics NYT

YouTube - 1936 Berlin Nazi Olympics Opening Ceremonies

Kristallnacht in Words and Photographs - Photo Essays - TIME,29307,1857458,00.html

Neville Chamberlain and Hitler NYT

CHAPTER 14: The Agony of Neutrality, 426-464 [PUT IN SPECIFIC PAGE NUMBERS]

What were the various "methods short of war" that U.S. employed? Analyze each.
What might be some comparisons in 2011—our approach to Iran, for instance?

Quarantine the Aggressor (Wikisource)

Neutrality Bill debate lasted 6 weeks in Congress. Look at testimony and speeches.
How did FDR and Churchill work each other?

Churchill and the Great Republic (LOC))
DBQ FDR and Churchill (National Archives)

How did FDR zig and zag as he tried to move us to be ready for war. What were the obstacles facing him?
How did we attempt to balance U.S. needs versus those of our allies? What were the obstacles in this endeavor?

Tripartite Pact (Wikipedia)

1 September 1939 War in Europe Begins

BBC On This Day 1 September 1939 Germany invades Poland

German Army Attacks Poland NYT

Invasion of Poland (1939) (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 3 September 1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany

BBC On This Day 10 May 1940 Churchill takes helm as Germans advance

Battle of Britain (Wikipedia)
BBC On This Day 10 July 1940 Luftwaffe launches Battle of Britain

The Blitz (Wikipedia)
Edward R. Murrow (Wikipedia)
Flames Leap High during London Blitz
German Planes Raid London NYT

BBC On This Day 7 Sept 1940 London blitzed by German bombers

BBC On This Day 15 Sept 1940 Victory for RAF in Battle of Britain

Dunkirk evacuation
Little ships of Dunkirk (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 4 June 1940 Dunkirk rescue is over; Churchill defiant

BBC - History - World Wars Animated Map The Fall of France (Dunkirk)

BBC On This Day 14 June 1940 German troops enter Paris

CHAPTER 15: To the Brink, 465-515

465 "But for all the apparent inevitability of Anglo-American cooperation against the Nazi threat, in actual practice the transatlantic partnership was devilishly difficult to forge."
Let's analyze how this partnership evolved.

468-469 "Arsenal of Democracy" issue.
Evaluate the domestic and international implications of America's new role as "the arsenal of democracy."

467-475 Lend-Lease


YouTube - WWII - US announces Cash and Carry law

YouTube - WWII - War material shipment from US

President Signs Lend Lease bill NYT

Lend Lease debated for weeks in Congress.
Explain what the Lend-Lease program did and which countries it aided.
Analyze the way President Roosevelt presented the program to the public, the political spin surrounding the passage of the Lend-Lease Act.

469-470 Four Freedoms

471 To get involved or not to get involved
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (Wikipedia)
America First Committee (Wikipedia)

479 Pay particular attention to the questions at the top of the page.
Check out footnote #30 at bottom of the page for a glimpse of FDR at work.

480 Admiral Stark's plan is important.

482-483 Complication for the Allies: Germany invaded the USSR (6/22/40)
Should we ally ourselves with the "devil" (the Soviets)?
Operation Barbarossa (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 22 June 1941 Hitler invades the Soviet Union

484 Hopkins to Moscow. What might be a comparable trip in 2009?

486-487 Let's look at the Wedemeyer plan.

488-500 Battle of the Atlantic (good map on page 48)
Battle of Britain and Blitz gave way to the Battle of the Atlantic
How did FDR zig/zag?

BBC - History - World Wars The Battle of the Atlantic Game

491 Analyze this page carefully.

492 Greenland and Iceland. What do we know about each one today?

496 Famous meeting in Newfoundland between FDR and Churchill. Atlantic Charter.
Atlantic Charter (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 14 Aug 1941 Secret meetings seal US-Britain alliance

497-500 Look closely at this analysis of the escort policy.
497 Greer Incident (Wikipedia)
499 USS Kearny (Wikipedia)
499 USS Reuben James (Wikipedia)

500-515 Follow the ins-and-outs of US/Japan geopolitical moves leading to the outbreak of war.
Particular importance of China and the Stimson Doctrine

Was the US too unyielding to Japan?

What will future historians say about current US policy toward Iran and North Korea?

Events preceding World War II in Asia (Wikipedia)

CHAPTER 16: War in the Pacific, 516-564

516-526 Analyze the events up to/including/following Pearl Harbor.
Isoroku Yamamoto (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 7 Dec 1941 Japanese planes bomb Pearl Harbor

BBC On This Day 11 Dec 1941 Germany and Italy declare war on US

BBC On This Day 15 Feb 1942 Singapore forced to surrender

526-531 Philippines. MacArthur. Bataan.
Douglas MacArthur (Wikipedia)

Bataan Death March (Wikipedia)
Bataan Memorial Death March - White Sands New Mexico - March 27, 2011

532-543 War plans of US/Japan.

Doolittle Raid on Tokyo (4/18/1942)

Work your way through each of the parts of this wonderful animation: Prelude, Preparations, Deployment, Approach, The Raid, Aftermath

Battle of Midway (6/6). U.S. wins. Turning point in Pacific war.

BBC On This Day 7 Jun 1942 Japanese beaten in Battle of Midway

Battle of Midway (TWHP)

Animated Maps of the Battle of Midway:
Work your way through each of the parts of the following animation: Early 1942, Battle of the Coral Sea, Midway Island, Japanese Deployment, American Deployment, Fleet Movements, Action June 3, Action June 4-7

MAGIC (cryptography) (Wikipedia)

544-561 Guadalcanal
Naval strategy comparisons between US/Japan
Guadalcanal Campaign (Wikipedia)
Our Men In Drives On Guadalcanal
Guadalcanal Is Ours NYT
Japanese Soldier Describes Horrors of Guadalcanal (GMU)

History Animated interactive map of the Guadalcanal campaign:

Related resources:

554 Great writing on this page.

559 Death calculation.

560 Sullivan brothers.

561 Racial animosity. Japanese like animals. Is that a fair assessment?

563 PT-109 of John F. Kennedy fame.

564 US island-hopping strategy.

Here are some excellent overall web resources:

~THE WAR (Ken Burns PBS)

Website Spotlight: THE WAR

~Behind Closed Doors (PBS)

Website Spotlight: Behind Closed Doors

~World War II movies

~Interactive Map: Pacific Theater

~Interactive Map: European Theater

CHAPTER 17: Unready Ally, Uneasy Alliance, 565-614
Dissect the chapter title. Issues between FDR/Churchill/Stalin over war strategy
Quebec Conference, 1943 (Wikipedia),_1943

565-572 +Pages 588-590. Battle of the Atlantic. Analyze it. Why couldn't we use some of these techniques to eliminate today's pirate threat?
Battle of the Atlantic (1939–1945) (Wikipedia)

572-573 American way of war. Does it make sense?

573 Bolero plan. Main thrust from Britain. USSR wanted a second front in France sooner than the Brits would permit. Brits got their way (North Africa and Italy) initially until the US became the senior partner.

Dieppe Raid precedent for a cross-channel attack
Go back in time to the unsuccessful Dieppe Raid

BBC On This Day 19 Aug 1942 Allies launch daring raid on Dieppe

575 Soviet foreign minister Molotov

Yes, no, second front. Equivalent to Joe Biden's rap on Rudy Giuliani: noun+verb+9/11

576-577 Churchill argued for a "periphery" strategy.

577-584 +Page 590. Operation Torch.
North African landings. What were the military/political/diplomatic tradeoffs/challenges for the US?
Tradeoff with Bolero (invasion of Western Europe)

Operation Torch (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 4 Nov 1942 Rommel goes on the run at El Alamein

BBC - History - World Wars Animated Map The Battle of El Alamein

BBC - History - World Wars Animated Map The North African Campaign

Philippe Pétain
Vichy France (Wikipedia)

578 Read this page carefully

579 U.S. election cycle.
This election cycle issue constantly arose in our approach to the war in Iraq.

584-588 Casablanca Conference
Analyze it.
What about the idea of "unconditional surrender?" Was it the right approach in retrospect?

Casablanca Conference (Wikipedia)
Casablanca Conference NYT
Casablanca (LOC) Today in History November 26
Casablanca (1942)

589-590 Battle of Atlantic: power shift; Germany on the decline

590-601 Various issues in these specific pages:

~Trace the discontent of Stalin over the war strategy.

He probably rode his horse right by APU campus.

Issue of battle fatigue and slapping incident (p. 594)

~Allied invasion of Sicily (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 10 Jul 1943 Western allies invade Sicily

~Allied invasion of Italy (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 3 Sep 1943 Allied troops invade mainland Italy

Monte Cassino and Anzio

Bob Dole was wounded in Italy

BBC Animated Map: Italian Campaign

601-608 Analyze the tradeoffs in the Allied bombing offensive (area bombing at night by Brits; "precision"—was it precise?—bombing in day by US).
What problems in planes and men.
What targets (hard v. people).
US Strategic Bombing Survey (European War)

609 Analyze the allocation of resources to war effort in Europe/Pacific (now 30%). Compare today to Iraq/Afghanistan.
Battle of Tarawa.

611-613 Stalin still mad. He may well take most of Europe his way if US doesn't get into the game via France.

CHAPTER 18: The War of Machines, 615-668

615 Keep in mind the three fundamentals of the war's outcome—time, men, materiel—and their complex interaction.

617 Interesting observation: unused capacity from the Depression made the transition to war more efficient.

618-619 U.S. safe from enemy action. What an important advantage.

620-630 How did FDR gear up the US for war. Think about the issues of inefficiencies/profit potential/waste as compared to US in Iraq war.

Website Spotlight: Powers of Persuasion: Poster Art from WWII

Boy Scouts Distribute Posters during World War II (2 part series)

630-631 Battle of Stalingrad.
Understand it on its own merit.
Then consider how the Soviet victory convinced US that USSR would stay in the war.
US capped its military at 90 divisions.
How many divisions do we have today?

Battle of Stalingrad (Wikipedia)
Russians Liquidate Last Stalingrad Pocket

BBC On This Day 2 Feb 1943 Germans surrender at Stalingrad

631-637 US needed men, but who?

637-644 What do you think of the strikers? Would you have wanted to shoot them?

644-647 Rationing versus consumer's paradise. How can we assess this observation?

Rationing (UVA)
Rationing (Wikipedia)
Rationing on the US Homefront during WW II
Records from War Ration Books for Genealogy World War Two (1942 - 1945)

647-653 Synthetic rubber—shows what US can do if we have to.
Liberty Ships. Kaiser shipyards in Richmond and Fontana. Kaiser Health Care.
Liberty Ships and Victory Ships (TWHP)

653-655 Henry Ford. Willow Run. B-24 production compared to Liberty Ships.

655-668 Manhattan Project.
American Experience Race for the Super Bomb

CHAPTER 19: The Struggle for a Second Front, 669-686

669-674 Stop at Cairo on the way to Teheran.
Look at interrelationships between FDR/Churchill and Chiang Kai-Shek.

China's situation:
Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Flying Tigers

China Burma India Theater of World War II (Wikipedia)

History Animated interactive map of the Burma Campaign

674-686 Teheran (capital of Iran) conference

Dispute b/n Britain & U.S: when/where Europe invaded.
Soviets demanded a second front.
Soviets bore brunt of land war until mid–1944.
Decision was finally made on a cross-channel invasion against Europe mainland
Eisenhower was named to be Supreme Commander of Allied Forces

Important. Major meeting of Allied leaders.
FDR stayed at Soviet compound (it was bugged).
Personal dynamics of FDR/Churchill/Stalin.
Geopolitical issues: Second front, Poland, Eastern Europe, USSR help in war with Japan (would diminish China's importance to US strategy), etc.
Tehran Conference (Wikipedia)
Teheran Conference NYT

BBC On This Day 1 Dec 1943 Allies united after Tehran conference

Big Three in Teheran

In the following weblink, read the two paragraphs entitled "Objectives" and "Outcomes."

679 Note the quote from FDR "if the Japanese had not attacked."

683 Who is now the dominant partner in the U.S.-Great Britain alliance?

Ch. 19: The Struggle for a Second Front, 686-708 [SECOND HALF OF THE CHAPTER

686-698 Operation Overlord (D-Day, Normandy)
What determined when it would go?

Dwight D. Eisenhower (Ike) to command; what about him. Why not George Marshall?

Rommel to defend; what about him.
Erwin Rommel (Wikipedia)

What determined where Allies would land (Pas de Calais or Normandy) and how Germans would defend?

Normandy invasion overview:
Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (Wikipedia)

699 Invasion of Southern France competed with Normandy for men/materiel resources.
Big picture issues: Move away from "periphery" to main thrust at Berlin.

702-706 Allied air war. Details of bomber offensive.

707-708 Who will run France.
FDR's views.
Will effect eventually US view of French reentry to Indochina after the war.

Charles de Gaulle (Wikipedia)
Charles de Gaulle obit NYT

CHAPTER 20: The Battle for Northwest Europe, 709-737

Americans poured into England. Aircraft carrier metaphor
709-715 The American military buildup characterized.
Descriptions of G.I.s.

716-725 Preparation for and execution of the Normandy landings.

Normandy invasion=D-Day=Operation Overlord. (June 6, 1944).
Biggest invasion armada in world history (5,000 ships, 150,000 men).

New York Times article on that day

BBC On This Day 6 June 1944 D-Day

1. BBC Special Section: D-Day and Operation Overlord
Animated Map: The D-Day Landings
Read the description for each of the four maps: The Atlantic Wall, Concentration of Forces, The Landings, Securing the Beachheads

2. Paratroopers and their equipment

3. BBC Special Section: D-Day and Operation Overlord
Animated Map: Operation Overlord
Read the description for each of the seven maps: Operation Overlord, D-Day, The Slog for Normandy, A Slow Advance, The Breakout, The Falaise/Argentan Gap, The Liberation of Paris

4. LIFE magazine photo essay: D-Day

724 Bocage as terrain obstacle: hedgerows
Go to this link on Google Images:

726-728 Cobra I
Breakout from the Normandy pocket.
Cobra I (compare to Iraq Cobra II).

US Sherman tanks versus German Tiger tanks.

728 Attempted assassination of Hitler

732 Paris liberated
Liberation of Paris (Wikipedia)

Great read: Is Paris Burning?

French Resistance (Wikipedia)

Paris Liberated NYT

BBC On This Day 25 Aug 1944 Paris is liberated

733 Logistics of US armored thrust into Europe. Red Ball Express.

734 Implications for Allied strategy of the tradeoff decisions between the "this" of Montgomery and the "that" of Patton.
Montgomery was almost insubordinately insistent that he get all resources.

735-736 Market Garden

Operation Market Garden (Wikipedia)

BBC On This Day 17 Sep 1944 Airborne invasion of Holland begins

Movie: A Bridge Too Far

The 50 greatest World War Two movies (per a UK movie website)

CHAPTER 20: The Battle for Northwest Europe, 738-745

739-742 Battle of the Bulge.
Analyze it from each side.
A major setback for Allies but the last gasp of Germans on the Western front.

BBC On This Day 17 Dec 1944 Germany attacks in Ardennes

Battle of the Bulge
Surprise German attack. Ultimate Allied victory.

National Archives Bastogne

LIFE Photo Gallery: Battle of the Bulge

U.S. Army Historical Site: Battle of the Bulge

Website Spotlight: American Experience Battle of the Bulge

1. Gallery: Battle of the Bulge Photos
Click through the 12 photos
2. Gallery: Bill Maudlin Cartoons [taken from American Experience War Letters site]
Click through the 12 cartoons
3. Angels of Mercy: Nurses' Tales
The Fifty-Sixth General: Viola Molloy
Women in Combat: Grace G. Patterson
"Jolly Good Sports!": Florence Heermance Wiechman
Accomplishing Something Important: Esther Edwards
4. Interview with a soldier

742-744 Air war.
Bombings of Berlin, Hamburg, Dresden.

Bombing of Dresden in World War II (Wikipedia)
BBC On This Day 14 Feb 1945 Bombing of Dresden

Bombing of Hamburg in World War II (Wikipedia)

US Strategic Bombing Survey (European War)

745 Bridge at Remagen.

CHAPTER 21: The Cauldron of the Home Front, 746-775 [FIRST HALF OF LONG CHAPTER]

United States home front during World War II (Wikipedia)
United States Office of War Information (Wikipedia)

748-760 Japanese-American internment

Japanese American internment (Wikipedia)
War Relocation Camps (TWHP)
President Authorizes Japanese Relocation (GMU)
Evacuation Was a Mistake Anger at Being Interned (GMU)

Japanese-American Evacuees Celebrate New Year's Eve

LIFE magazine photo essay: Japanese-American Internment

Website Spotlight: Smithsonian National Museum of American History
A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution

Click on "Begin the Story Experience"
Each of the six pictures corresponds to the six major headings listed below.
Click on either the picture or the major heading to go to that section.

Here is an outline of the topics contained within each of the major headings of the exhibit. Within each topic, use the horizontal scroll bar to move through the exhibit materials.
A. Immigration
1. Issei: First Generation
2. Hawaii [use horizontal scroll bar at bottom of page]
3. U.S. Mainland
4. Legalizing Racism

B. Removal
1. Crisis: Pearl Harbor
2. Constitution and the Executive Order
3. Process
4. Moving Out
5. First Stop: Assembly Centers

C. Internment
1. Permanent Camps
2. Conditions
3. Home==Barracks
4. Work
5. Community Activities
6. Arts and Culture

D. Loyalty
1. The Questionnaire
2. Segregation Camp: Tule Lake
3. Expatriation and Repatriations
4. The Draft

E. Service
1. 100th and 442nd
2. Soldier's Life
3. Military Intelligence and Translation
4. Honors and Awards
5. Ironies of Service

F. Justice
1. Post-War
2. Court Cases
3. Formal Apologies and Redress
4. Repairing the Constitution
5. Japanese Americans Today

762-776 Racial issues

African Americans
Gunnar Myrdal's American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy.

A. Philip Randolph.

Blacks move north/white opposition in factories.
Racial clashes in cities and on military bases.

Port Chicago, California, explosion.

770 Zoot Suit Riots (Wikipedia)

Website Spotlight: American Experience Zoot Suit Riots
Let's work through various sections of this great website

Zoot Suits Can be Purchased Even Today

777 Bracero Program (Wikipedia)

Tuskegee Airmen (page 773)

A. In the comprehensive article in Wikipedia

1. Note particularly the section entitled "The First Lady's Flight"
2. Rose Bowl float: from the section titled "Postwar"

"In the 2010 Rose Parade, the city of West Covina, California paid tribute to the "service and commitment of the Tuskegee Airmen" with a float, entitled "Tuskegee Airmen—A Cut Above", which featured a large bald eagle, two replica World War II "Redtail" fighter planes and historical images of some of the airmen who served. The float won the mayor's trophy as the most outstanding city entry—national or international."

Click on this link for a picture of that float:

B. "Tuskegee Airmen" movie

C. The Tuskegee Airmen were honored guests at President Obama's inauguration

CHAPTER 21: The Cauldron of the Home Front, 776-797 [SECOND HALF OF A LONG CHAPTER]

776-781 Women worker issues.

Rosie the Riveter (Wikipedia)

LIFE magazine photo essay: Rosie the Riveter

780 Latchkey children

782-788 Elections during wartime: Congressional ones in 1942; Presidential in 1944.

787 GI Bill. Note that only the universities were against it!!
G.I. Bill (Wikipedia)

789 Thomas Dewey, 1944 Republican presidential candidate; what about him.

790-793 Harry S. Truman, FDR's choice for VP running mate. What about Truman.

793-794 Issue of showing picture of dead GIs. Compare to today: should we show flag-draped coffins of Iraq and Afghanistan war dead.

America and the Holocaust

794-797 Are you ok with the US approach to concentration camps?

SS St. Louis (Wikipedia)

FRONTLINE Memory of the Camps
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
The Holocaust (Wikipedia)

America and the Holocaust

BBC On This Day 27 Jan 1945 Auschwitz liberated

LIFE magazine photo essay: Buchenwald

CHAPTER 22: Endgame, 798-851


798-808 Yalta conference. Analyze the personalities and issues.
Yalta Conference (Wikipedia)

Soviets would control most of Eastern Europe.
Germany would be divided.
Soviets would fight Japan three months after German surrender

BBC On This Day 7 Feb 1945 Black Sea talks (Yalta) plan defeat of Germany

Website Spotlight: Behind Closed Doors
From the following weblink, read the two paragraphs entitled "Objectives" and "Outcomes."

806 Check out that first paragraph relating to Jewish immigration to Palestine.

806-807 Did the United States get a raw deal at Yalta?

808 Effect of FDR's death on the country and world.

808-809 End of WWII—in Europe. Japan is still in play.

809-814 Racial aspects of the war against Japan

814-829 Vastness of the Pacific theater.

816-818 Battle of Saipan. Civilians leaped to their death.

822-829 Battle of Leyte Gulf

History Animated interactive map of the Battle of Leyte Gulf

829-831 Battle of Iwo Jima

U. S. Marines Storm Ashore on Iwo Island

History Animated interactive map of the Battle of Iwo Jima

Code talkers (Wikipedia)

Code Talkers

Code Talkers virtual exhibit from the National Museum of the American Indian


Bataan Rescue
Bataan Death March (Wikipedia)

Website Spotlight: Bataan Rescue
This entire website is great. The movie "The Great Raid" is based on this event.

[Click through the 12 drawings in this section. Read the caption to each one.]
Montana native Ben Steele was a Bataan death march survivor. He spent the next 40 months in prison camps, [click on this link] on a hell ship, and working as a slave laborer in a Japanese coal mine before his liberation at the end of the war.

American POWs on Japanese Ships (2 part series)

831-835 Battle of Okinawa. Analysis of the battle.
Battle of Okinawa (Wikipedia)

Americans Invade Okinawa NYT

Ernie Pyle
Ernie Pyle obit NYT

Kamikaze attacks

History Animated interactive map of the Battle of Okinawa

835-837 Japan's internal deliberations. What might be going on within some of our enemies today?

837-845 Potsdam Conference
Analyze the issues and personalities.
"Unconditional surrender" approach: helpful or not.

845-851 Bombing of Japanese cities.
Curtis LeMay
Bombing of Tokyo (Wikipedia)

Atomic bombs
Japanese surrender; "bitter-enders" (thank you to Donald Rumsfeld) almost kept Emperor's message off the air waves.
Factors involved in the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan:

Hiroshima Photo Essay

Japanese survivor of both atom bombs

EPILOGUE: The World the War Made, 852-858

Work through these few pages.

What occurred in each country?

Note particularly the effects of the moves by Germany and Japan to shake loose various nations from colonialism.

Note some of the particularly wonderful sentence structures.


This is what you should look for when you are doing a big term paper, like Senior Seminar. Such a wonderful essay is a real time-saver to point you to the sources with which to begin your research.