NICARAGUA

Nicaragua history
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Nicaragua

Spanish conquest of Nicaragua
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_conquest_of_Nicaragua

History of Central America
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Central_America

Federal Republic of Central America
[United Provinces of Central America]
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Republic_of_Central_America

Central American crisis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_American_crisis

Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal (Nicaragua)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Joaqu%C3%ADn_Chamorro_Cardenal

Chamorro, Prize?Winning Editor Is Shot Dead In Nicaragua
http://www.nytimes.com/1978/01/11/archives/prizewinning-editor-is-shot-dead-in-nicaragua-he-
opposed-somoza.html

The US, El Salvador, Nicaragua (article is from 1981)
http://www.nytimes.com/1981/11/15/opinion/the-us-salvador-nicaragua.html

National Security Decision Directive NSDD 17 Nicaragua (1982)
https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-17.pdf

Nicaragua–Russia relations
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicaragua%E2%80%93Russia_relations

Setback for Contras : CIA Mining of Harbors 'a Fiasco' - latimes
http://articles.latimes.com/1985-03-05/news/mn-12633_1_harbor-mining

1972 Nicaragua earthquake
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972_Nicaragua_earthquake

Top Secret America | Iran-Contra
http://projects.washingtonpost.com/top-secret-america/

Iran-Contra Affair

Iran-Contra affair
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair

U.S supported those fighting against (contra) the communists in Nicaragua.

After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress anxious to oversee foreign policy

Congress ordered Reagan not to continue support of Contras

Reagan Endorses CIA Support of Nicaraguan Contras
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Reagan-Endorses-CIA-Support-of-Nicaraguan-Contras.html

Iran-Contra Scandal Breaks
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Iran-Contra-Scandal-Breaks-in-a-Lebanese-Magazine.html

Iran-Contra Affair: Nicaragua Timeline
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/timeline-nicaragua.php

Iran-Contra Affair: Sandinistas
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-sandinistas.php

Contras
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contras

Iran-Contra Affair: Contras
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contras.php

Iran-Contra Affair: US support for the Contras
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contrasus.php

1982 Boland Amendment
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boland_Amendment

Boland Amendment | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
[get password]
https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/age-reagan/timeline-terms/boland-amendment

Óscar Arias Sánchez (Costa Rica)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Óscar_Arias
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esquipulas_Peace_Agreement

Nicaraguan revolution
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicaraguan_Revolution

Somoza family
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somoza_family

National Guard (Nicaragua)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Guard_(Nicaragua)

Augusto César Sandino
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augusto_C%C3%A9sar_Sandino

Sandinista National Liberacion Front
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandinista_National_Liberation_Front

The Soviet Union fought the Cold War in Nicaragua. Now Putin’s Russia is back.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/the-soviet-union-fought-the-cold-war-in-nicaragua-now-putins-russia-is-back/2017/04/08/

Operation Charly (Argentine method used in Central America)
Nicaragua
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Charly






Central America and Nicaragua maps
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/central_america_map2.htm
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/nicaragua-political-map.htm

Nicaragua: BBC profile
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19735631

Nicaragua (Insight Crime)
http://www.insightcrime.org/nicaragua-organized-crime-news/nicaragua

Bill de Blasio's stand against Reagan's contra war on Nicaragua
[He is the current mayor of New York City]
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/sep/25/bill-deblasio-reagan-nicaragua

President Jimmy Carter's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/central-america-carter

President Ronald Reagan's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1981-1988/central-america

Few Nicaraguans among Central America's exodus to US
http://www.latimes.com/world/mexico-americas/la-fg-nicaragua-no-migrants-20140830-story.html

Confessions of a 'Contra' | The New Republic
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/confessions-contra

Adolfo Calero, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, Is Dead at 80
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/04/world/americas/adolfo-calero-contra-leader-in-nicaragua-is-dead-at-80.html

In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure
Page 1
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9.html
Page 2
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9_2.html

Brief summary of Nicaraguan history for our purposes:

Nicaragua Timeline
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19909695

1912-25 - US establishes military bases.

1927-33 - Guerrillas led by Augusto Cesar Sandino campaign against US military presence.

1934 - Sandino killed on the orders of the National Guard commander, General Anastasio Somoza

Somoza family dictatorship [US relations with dictators]

1937 - General Somoza elected president, heralding the start of a 44-year-long dictatorship by his family.

1961 - Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) founded [named for Augusto Sandino]

Revolution turns sour. Sandanista's got rid of a dictatorship - but civil war ensued.

The US supported the Contra rebels while the Soviet Union backed the FSLN government of Daniel Ortega.

Daniel Ortega
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-15544315

Nicaragua's broken dreams
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3856843.stm






CIA activities in Nicaragua
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIA_activities_in_Nicaragua

Nicaragua and the Contras
http://youtu.be/Ow5cnpTh0fs

Nicaragua and the Samoza Regime 1970's
http://youtu.be/7vi00fhOKLE