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Rubén Darío's Nicaragua

Nicaragua & Samoza Regime 1970's
From CNN Cold War video

Video: Nicaragua (9:01)
Use this for quick intro

The CIA in Central America: Nicaragua

National Guard (Nicaragua)

Nicaragua history

Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal (Nicaragua)

Chamorro, Prize-Winning Editor Is Shot Dead In Nicaragua

Exit Somoza, Enter the Sandinistas - ADST
Interview with Lawrence Pezzullo put with his obituary beloe

Anastasio Somoza García (father)
put dates

Luis Somoza Debayle (eldest son)

Anastasio Somoza Debayle (second son; overthrown by Sandinistas)

Lawrence Pezzullo, Broker of Somoza’s Abdication in Nicaragua, Dies at 91

Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua)

United States occupation of Nicaragua (1912-1933)
put earlier

Roberto Clemente
Died in 1972 while taking earthquake relief supplies to Nicaragua.

1972 Nicaragua earthquake
Somoza embezzled aid funds

Iran-Contra affair
put this last, then the article on Russia

U.S supported those fighting against (contra) the communists in Nicaragua.

After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress anxious to oversee foreign policy

Congress ordered Reagan not to continue support of Contras

Reagan endorses CIA support of Nicaraguan Contras

Iran-Control scandal breaks

Iran-Contra Affair: Nicaragua Timeline

Iran-Contra Affair: Sandinistas


Iran-Contra Affair: Contras

Iran-Contra Affair: US support for the Contras

1982 Boland Amendment

Nicaraguan revolution

Augusto César Sandino
put earlier with father and National Guard

Sandinista National Liberacion Front
put with Daniel Ortega

The Soviet Union fought the Cold War in Nicaragua. Now Putin’s Russia is back.

Operation Charly (Argentine method used in Central America)

Central America and Nicaragua maps

President Jimmy Carter's approach to Nicaragua

President Ronald Reagan's approach to Nicaragua

Confessions of a 'Contra' | The New Republic

Adolfo Calero, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, Is Dead at 80

In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure
Page 1
Page 2

1912-25 - US establishes military bases.

1927-33 - Guerrillas led by Augusto Cesar Sandino campaign against US military presence.

1934 - Sandino killed on the orders of the National Guard commander, General Anastasio Somoza

Somoza family dictatorship [US relations with dictators]

1937 - General Somoza elected president, heralding the start of a 44-year-long dictatorship by his family.

1961 - Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) founded [named for Augusto Sandino]

Revolution turns sour. Sandanista's got rid of a dictatorship - but civil war ensued.

The US supported the Contra rebels while the Soviet Union backed the FSLN government of Daniel Ortega.

Daniel Ortega

Nicaragua's broken dreams

CIA activities in Nicaragua

Iran-contra: Home

Overview (26 page PDF)

Background on Nicaragua

Hearings timeline

Hearings video gallery

Enduring issues


People profiles

Poindexter profile

Oliver North profile