NICARAGUA

Nicaragua & Samoza Regime 1970's
From CNN Cold War video
http://youtu.be/7vi00fhOKLE

Video: Nicaragua (9:01)
Use this for quick intro
http://youtu.be/M8Ihf9w_KCU

The CIA in Central America: Nicaragua
http://youtu.be/yRA7jXuFgn4

National Guard (Nicaragua)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Guard_(Nicaragua)




Nicaragua history
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Nicaragua

Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal (Nicaragua)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Joaqu%C3%ADn_Chamorro_Cardenal

Chamorro, Prize-Winning Editor Is Shot Dead In Nicaragua
http://www.nytimes.com/1978/01/11/archives/prizewinning-editor-is-shot-dead-in-nicaragua-he-opposed-somoza.html

Exit Somoza, Enter the Sandinistas - ADST
Interview with Lawrence Pezzullo put with his obituary beloe
http://adst.org/2015/04/exit-somoza-enter-the-sandinistas/

Anastasio Somoza García (father)
put dates
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastasio_Somoza_Garc%C3%ADa

Luis Somoza Debayle (eldest son)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Somoza_Debayle

Anastasio Somoza Debayle (second son; overthrown by Sandinistas)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastasio_Somoza_Debayle

Lawrence Pezzullo, Broker of Somoza’s Abdication in Nicaragua, Dies at 91
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/01/world/americas/lawrence-pezzullo-dead-ex-ambassador-in-nicaragua.html

Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Ortega

United States occupation of Nicaragua (1912-1933)
put earlier
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_occupation_of_Nicaragua

Roberto Clemente
Died in 1972 while taking earthquake relief supplies to Nicaragua.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roberto_Clemente

1972 Nicaragua earthquake
Somoza embezzled aid funds
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972_Nicaragua_earthquake

Iran-Contra affair
put this last, then the article on Russia
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran%E2%80%93Contra_affair

U.S supported those fighting against (contra) the communists in Nicaragua.

After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress anxious to oversee foreign policy

Congress ordered Reagan not to continue support of Contras

Iran-Contra Affair: Nicaragua Timeline
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/timeline-nicaragua.php

Iran-Contra Affair: Sandinistas
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-sandinistas.php

Contras
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contras

Iran-Contra Affair: Contras
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contras.php

Iran-Contra Affair: US support for the Contras
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contrasus.php

1982 Boland Amendment
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boland_Amendment

Nicaraguan revolution
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicaraguan_Revolution

Augusto César Sandino
put earlier with father and National Guard
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augusto_C%C3%A9sar_Sandino

Sandinista National Liberacion Front
put with Daniel Ortega
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandinista_National_Liberation_Front

The Soviet Union fought the Cold War in Nicaragua. Now Putin’s Russia is back.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/the-soviet-union-fought-the-cold-war-in-nicaragua-now-putins-russia-is-back/2017/04/08/

Operation Charly (Argentine method used in Central America)
Nicaragua
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Charly

Central America and Nicaragua maps
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/central_america_map2.htm
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/nicaragua-political-map.htm

President Jimmy Carter's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/central-america-carter

President Ronald Reagan's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1981-1988/central-america

Confessions of a 'Contra' | The New Republic
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/confessions-contra

Adolfo Calero, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, Is Dead at 80
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/04/world/americas/adolfo-calero-contra-leader-in-nicaragua-is-dead-at-80.html

In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure
Page 1
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9.html
Page 2
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9_2.html

1912-25 - US establishes military bases.

1927-33 - Guerrillas led by Augusto Cesar Sandino campaign against US military presence.

1934 - Sandino killed on the orders of the National Guard commander, General Anastasio Somoza

Somoza family dictatorship [US relations with dictators]

1937 - General Somoza elected president, heralding the start of a 44-year-long dictatorship by his family.

1961 - Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) founded [named for Augusto Sandino]

Revolution turns sour. Sandanista's got rid of a dictatorship - but civil war ensued.

The US supported the Contra rebels while the Soviet Union backed the FSLN government of Daniel Ortega.

Daniel Ortega
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-15544315

Nicaragua's broken dreams
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3856843.stm

CIA activities in Nicaragua
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIA_activities_in_Nicaragua