POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT TEMPLATE

Various impediments to political development

History affects the present in many ways

Colonial rulers: Spain in our case
US interventions
Cold War legacy
Effect of Cuba and Venezuela and other leftist places on these countries
This country vis-a-vis major powers currently: US, Russia, China, UK
U.S. sanctions against the country
Strings attached by US Congress to foreign aid allocations (CRS Reports)

Civil wars/fight for independence/wars with neighboring countries
IDP Internally Displaced Persons (disasters, civil war)
Reconciliation problems from past wars/atrocities
Role of disputes with neighboring countries
Role of military: external; internal (in policing, for example)

Dictators
History of coups d'état/ military takeovers
Role of militias/hit squads in past/currently (left-wing or right-wing or both)
++++++++++

Pressures from international (UN) and regional (OAS) organizations, and financial donors (like US):
human rights, corruption, impunity, etc.

Natural disasters: hurricanes, typhoons, earthquakes
IDP Internally Displaced Persons

Economics:
One-crop or one-product economy
Dependence--these days--on the price of oil
++++++++++

Corruption

Culture of impunity

Lack of security
Crime
Gang activity
Narco-trafficing

Poverty
Inequality (role of elites)

Migrations:
To US
To other countries
Remittances role in budget

Homogeneity problems:
Language(s)
Ethnic strife
Indigenous groups
Tribal rivalries
Role of terror groups/insurgents

Role of religion:
Catholic Church leadership
Liberation Theology
Evangelical activity
Religious enmity: (Muslim-Christian, for example)




GUATEMALA

Guatemala overview
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19635877

Guatemala Timeline
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19636725

Congressional Research Service Insight:
Guatemala: One President resigns, another elected
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/IN10354.pdf

Gangs in Central America (February 2014)
Congressional Research Service Report #34112
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34112.pdf

Guatemala [Read the following sections:
Introductory paragraphs prior to table of contents
Jorge Ubico regime (1931-1944)
Guatemalan Revolution (1944-1954)
Coup and Civil War (1954-1996)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guatemala

Banana Republic
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banana_republic

Arbenz and the CIA in Guatemala
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rb7XaF1rs1E&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Castro and Cuba [communism will really become a threat]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/peopleevents/p_castro.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/peopleevents/e_exiles.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/castro/peopleevents/e_coldwar.html

Guatemala Civil War
http://www.cja.org/article.php?list=type&type=294

Military rule threatans Mayans
https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/guatemala/military-rule-threatens-guatemalas-highland-maya-

Model villages in the Ixil region
http://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/guatemala/model-villages-ixil-region

Guatemala builds strategic hamlets
https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1984/12/21/guatemala-builds-strategic-hamlets/06a25c75-54cd-442d-9eb4-29870afcc314/

Guatemala [good on the civil wars]
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/guatemala.htm

Room for Debate: start with the main page
What guilt does the U.S. bear in Guatemala?
http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/05/19/what-guilt-does-the-us-bear-in-guatemala
From the main page, click on each of these four items:
a. Guatemalan slaughter was part of Reagan's hard line
b. Guatemala Suffered for U.S. Foreign Policy
c. Blaming the U.S. for Guatemalan Deaths Is Easy Propaganda
d. We Enabled Guatemalan Genocide, but the Elite Committed It

Assassination of Bishop Gerardi
http://www.ghrc-usa.org/our-work/important-cases/assassination-of-bishop-gerardi/

Historical Overview of Pentecostalism in Guatemala
http://www.pewforum.org/2006/10/05/historical-overview-of-pentecostalism-in-guatemala/

Church flourishes in Guatemala, but struggles to bridge cultural differences and train new priests
http://www.csmonitor.com/1986/0625/oguat3.html

Liberation Theology
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/beliefs/liberationtheology.shtml

Central America-4 Border Control Agreement.
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Central_America_Four

Guatemalan Migration in Times of Civil War and Post-War Challenges
http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/guatemalan-migration-times-civil-war-and-post-war-challenges

Waves of Guatemalan migrant children present unique language challenges
http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2014/06/27/326156407/wave-of-guatemalan-migrant-children-presents-unique-challenges

Guatemala Guerrillas Drawing Indians Into Ranks for the First Time
http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/guatemala/indians-ranks.htm

Guatemala: Rape sentences in landmark military trial
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-35674893

Healing Guatemala's emotional scars from the civil war
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-17313508

U.S. 'interference' toppled me, ex-Guatemalan leader Perez says
http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/10/us-guatemala-corruption-idUSKCN0RA0CL20150910

From President to Prison: Otto Pérez Molina and a Day for Hope in Guatemala
http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/from-president-to-prison-otto-perez-molina-and-a-day-for-hope-in-guatemala

Guatemala profile (Insight Crime)
http://www.insightcrime.org/guatemala-organized-crime-news/guatemala






EL SALVADOR

Video (74 minutes): In the Name of the People: El Salvador's Civil War 1985
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHO-WiiZba0&feature=youtube_gdata_player

El Salvador President: Salvador Sánchez Cerén [former FMLN leader]
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19401934

El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations
Congressional Research Service (4 February 2016)
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R43616.pdf

Driven by fear: the Salvadorean children sent on the perilous journey to the US
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/29/el-salvador-children-journey-us

Escalating violence in El Salvador
Congressional Research Service Insight (January 2016)
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/IN10382.pdf

El Salvador: BBC profile
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19401932

Historical timeline (BBC profile)
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19402222

El Salvador profile (Insight Crime)
http://www.insightcrime.org/el-salvador-organized-crime-news/el-salvador

At Salvadoran Factory, Helping Troubled Youth Makes Business Sense
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/22/world/americas/at-salvadoran-factory-helping-troubled-youth-makes-business-sense.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FEl%20Salvador

Two Salvadoran gangsters walk into a church
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/04/03/two-salvadoran-gangsters-walk-into-a-church/

El Salvador's Gang Truce: Positives and Negatives
http://www.insightcrime.org/investigations/el-salvadors-gang-truce-positives-and-negatives

How El Salvador's Barrio 18 spends extortion money
http://www.insightcrime.org/news-analysis/el-salvador-barrio-18-spends-extortion-profits

Driving a bus is a ‘death sentence’ in El Salvador’s capital city
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/07/31/driving-a-bus-is-a-death-sentence-in-el-salvadors-capital-city/

Christianity is growing rapidly in El Salvador — along with gang violence and murder rates
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/acts-of-faith/wp/2015/04/08/christianity-is-growing-rapidly-in-el-salvador-along-with-gang-violence-and-murder-rates/

El Salvador Civil War (Center for Justice and Accountability)
http://www.cja.org/article.php?list=type&type=199

Reagan's obsession with Central America
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/269619.stm

Dirty Hands (U.S. Policy in El Salvador)
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1998/12/dirty-hands/377364/

Farabundo Marti
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farabundo_Mart%C3%AD

Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farabundo_Mart%C3%AD_National_Liberation_Front

Report of the Commission of the Truth for El Salvador
http://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/file/ElSalvador-Report.pdf
a. Murder of Jesuit Priests, 38-47
b. Murder of American churchwomen, 54-59
c. El Mozote massacre, 105-113
d. Murder of Archbishop Romero, 118-123
f. Death squad pattern, 124-130

Roberto d'Aubuisson, 48, Far-Rightist in Salvador
http://www.nytimes.com/1992/02/21/world/roberto-d-aubuisson-48-far-rightist-in-salvador.html

El Salvador marks Archbishop Oscar Romero's murder
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8580840.stm

Romero beatification opens old wounds in El Salvador
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/in-el-salvador-beatification-of-slain-archbishop-reopens-old-wounds/2015/05/21/2fad3e90-fd84-11e4-8c77-bf274685e1df_story.html

Allies, beware: the US is a fair-weather friend (Elliott Abrams)
http://www.wsj.com/articles/allies-beware-the-u-s-is-a-fair-weather-friend-1433285681

U.S.-Funded War in El Salvador Casts Shadow over Romney/Ryan Campaign
[Elliott Abrams again!]
http://www.prwatch.org/news/2012/08/11710/us-funded-war-el-salvador-casts-shadow-over-romneyryan-campaign#sthash.VZ6rgO7D.dpuf

U.S. Wants Former Salvadoran Ally to Face Justice in 1989 Jesuit Massacre
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/14/world/americas/us-wants-former-salvadoran-ally-to-face-justice-in-1989-massacre.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FEl%20Salvador

El Salvador's suffering lingers on
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3879373.stm

Death Squad Was After The Jesuits In 1977, The White Warriors Union - A Right-wing Group - Ordered All Jesuits Out Of The Country Under Threat Of Death.
http://articles.philly.com/1989-11-20/news/26140891_1_jesuits-father-ignacio-ellacuria-death-squad

Liberation theology issues relating to Archbishop Romero
http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/news/2015/02/05/archbishop-romero-will-be-beatified-within-the-year-says-archbishop/

How One American Diplomat Solved the Case of the Murdered Churchwomen in El Salvador
http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/02/el-salvador-churchwomen-murders/460320/

Spanish trial of soldiers who killed priests raises hopes of ending impunity in El Salvador
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/08/spanish-trial-of-soldiers-behind-uca-atrocity-raises-hopes-of-ending-impunity-in-el-salvador








HONDURAS

The Deported:
Uprooted from his life and family in the United States, a Honduran deportee returns to the country that he tried so hard to escape.
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/13/magazine/the-deported.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FHonduras

Honduras Profile (Insight Crime)
http://www.insightcrime.org/honduras-organized-crime-news/honduras

5 facts about Honduras and immigration
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/08/11/5-facts-about-honduras-and-immigration/

Honduras: BBC profile
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-18954311
Timeline
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1225471.stm

Natural Disaster Issue:
Hurricane Mitch devastates Honduras.(October 1998)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/11/98/hurricane_mitch/202395.stm

Honduras struggles 10 years after Hurricane Mitch
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7682412.stm

Honduras becomes US military foothold in Central America
https://nacla.org/news/honduras-becomes-us-military-foothold-central-america

US proxy war in Nicaragua
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8Ihf9w_KCU&feature=youtu.be

Honduras (Center for Justice and Accountability)
http://www.cja.org/article.php?list=type&type=254

Cables Show Central Negroponte Role in 80's Covert War Against Nicaragua
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/13/politics/13contra.html?_r=0

Our Man in Honduras: John Negroponte
http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2001/sep/20/our-man-in-honduras/

Contras
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contras

1981- Honduras becomes embroiled in various regional conflicts.
US-run camps for training Salvadorans in counterinsurgency are set up on Honduran territory. [why Salvadorans?]

Past vanishes in Honduras
[Salvadoran refugee camps in Honduras]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3906977.stm

1982 - US-backed Nicaraguan counter-revolutionaries, or Contras, launch operations to bring down Nicaragua's Sandinista government from Honduran territory.

1984 - US-run training camps for Salvadoran counter-revolutionaries are shut down, but the government continues to cooperate with the US administration's anti-Sandinista activities in return for substantial economic aid.




NICARAGUA

Nicaragua: BBC profile
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19735631

Nicaragua (Insight Crime)
http://www.insightcrime.org/nicaragua-organized-crime-news/nicaragua

Bill de Blasio's stand against Reagan's contra war on Nicaragua
[He is the current mayor of New York City]
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/sep/25/bill-deblasio-reagan-nicaragua

The Counter-Revolutionaries (Contras)
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contrasus.php

President Jimmy Carter's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/central-america-carter

President Ronald Reagan's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1981-1988/central-america

Few Nicaraguans among Central America's exodus to US
http://www.latimes.com/world/mexico-americas/la-fg-nicaragua-no-migrants-20140830-story.html

Confessions of a 'Contra' | The New Republic
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/confessions-contra

Adolfo Calero, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, Is Dead at 80
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/04/world/americas/adolfo-calero-contra-leader-in-nicaragua-is-dead-at-80.html

In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure
Page 1
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9.html
Page 2
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9_2.html

Brief summary of Nicaraguan history for our purposes:

1912-25 - US establishes military bases.
1927-33 - Guerrillas led by Augusto Cesar Sandino campaign against US military presence.
1934 - Sandino killed on the orders of the National Guard commander, General Anastasio Somoza
1937 - General Somoza elected president, heralding the start of a 44-year-long dictatorship by his family.
Somoza family dictatorship [US relations with dictators]
1961 - Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) founded [named for Augusto Sandino]
Revolution turns sour. Sandanista's got rid of a dictatorship - but civil war ensued.
The US supported the Contra rebels while the Soviet Union backed the FSLN government of Daniel Ortega.

Daniel Ortega
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-15544315

Nicaragua's broken dreams
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3856843.stm