Homework

a. Homework for Tuesday, 19 April

How One American Diplomat Solved the Case of the Murdered Churchwomen in El Salvador
http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/02/el-salvador-churchwomen-murders/460320/

Spanish trial of soldiers who killed priests raises hopes of ending impunity in El Salvador
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/08/spanish-trial-of-soldiers-behind-uca-atrocity-raises-hopes-of-ending-impunity-in-el-salvador

The Deported:
Uprooted from his life and family in the United States, a Honduran deportee returns to the country that he tried so hard to escape.
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/13/magazine/the-deported.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FHonduras

Central America and Honduras maps
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/central_america_map2.htm
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/honduras-map.htm

Honduras Profile (Insight Crime)
http://www.insightcrime.org/honduras-organized-crime-news/honduras

5 facts about Honduras and immigration
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/08/11/5-facts-about-honduras-and-immigration/

Honduras: BBC profile
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-18954311
Timeline
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/country_profiles/1225471.stm

Natural Disaster Issue
1998 October - Hurricane Mitch devastates Honduras.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/11/98/hurricane_mitch/202395.stm
Honduras struggles 10 years after Hurricane Mitch
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7682412.stm

b. Homework for Thursday, 21 April

Honduras becomes US military foothold in Central America
https://nacla.org/news/honduras-becomes-us-military-foothold-central-america

US proxy war in Nicaragua [first half]
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8Ihf9w_KCU&feature=youtu.be

Honduras (Center for Justice and Accountability)
http://www.cja.org/article.php?list=type&type=254

Cables Show Central Negroponte Role in 80's Covert War Against Nicaragua
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/13/politics/13contra.html?_r=0

Our Man in Honduras: John Negroponte
http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2001/sep/20/our-man-in-honduras/

Contras
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contras

1981- Honduras becomes embroiled in various regional conflicts.
US-run camps for training Salvadorans in counterinsurgency are set up on Honduran territory. [why Salvadorans?]

Past vanishes in Honduras
[Salvadoran refugee camps in Honduras]
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3906977.stm

1982 - US-backed Nicaraguan counter-revolutionaries, or Contras, launch operations to bring down Nicaragua's Sandinista government from Honduran territory.

1984 - US-run training camps for Salvadoran counter-revolutionaries are shut down, but the government continues to cooperate with the US administration's anti-Sandinista activities in return for substantial economic aid.

c. Homework for Tuesday, 26 April

Central America and Nicaragua maps
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/central_america_map2.htm
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/nicaragua-political-map.htm

Nicaragua: BBC profile
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19735631

Nicaragua (Insight Crime)
http://www.insightcrime.org/nicaragua-organized-crime-news/nicaragua

Lost in Nicaragua: a Chinese tycoon's canal project
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/04/world/americas/nicaragua-canal-chinese-tycoon.html

Bill de Blasio's stand against Reagan's contra war on Nicaragua
[He is the current mayor of New York City]
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/sep/25/bill-deblasio-reagan-nicaragua

The Counter-Revolutionaries (Contras)
https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contrasus.php

President Jimmy Carter's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1977-1980/central-america-carter

President Ronald Reagan's approach to Nicaragua
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1981-1988/central-america

Few Nicaraguans among Central America's exodus to US
http://www.latimes.com/world/mexico-americas/la-fg-nicaragua-no-migrants-20140830-story.html

d. Homework for Thursday, 28 April

Confessions of a 'Contra' | The New Republic
http://www.newrepublic.com/article/confessions-contra

Adolfo Calero, Contra Leader in Nicaragua, Is Dead at 80
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/04/world/americas/adolfo-calero-contra-leader-in-nicaragua-is-dead-at-80.html

In Central America, Reagan Remains A Polarizing Figure
Page 1
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9.html
Page 2
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29546-2004Jun9_2.html

Brief summary of Nicaraguan history for our purposes:

1912-25 - US establishes military bases.

1927-33 - Guerrillas led by Augusto Cesar Sandino campaign against US military presence.

1934 - Sandino killed on the orders of the National Guard commander, General Anastasio Somoza

Somoza family dictatorship [US relations with dictators]

1937 - General Somoza elected president, heralding the start of a 44-year-long dictatorship by his family.

1961 - Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) founded [named for Augusto Sandino]

Revolution turns sour. Sandanista's got rid of a dictatorship - but civil war ensued.
The US supported the Contra rebels while the Soviet Union backed the FSLN government of Daniel Ortega.

Daniel Ortega
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-15544315

Nicaragua's broken dreams
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3856843.stm