PROGRESSIVE ERA

Blend in below:

PROGRESSIVISM

39a. Education
42. Progressivism Sweeps the Nation
42b. Muckrakers

43. Progressives in the White House
43f. The Election of 1912
43g. Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom

Digital History
Jane Addams
Progressivism
Roots of Progressivism

Frank Norris, The Octopus
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text3/octopusnorris.pdf

Ida M. Tarbell, "The History of the Standard Oil Company,"
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text2/standardoil.pdf

Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities, 1904, "Introduction and Some Conclusions"
http://www.historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5732

Kindergarten
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may16.html

Women Suffrage
https://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/progressiveera/suffrage.html

Woman's Christian Temperance Union
https://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/progressiveera/wctu.html

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Trial
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/triangle/trianglefire.html

100 Years Later: Examining the Impact of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/03/25/100-years-later-examining-the-impact-of-the-triangle-shirtwaist-factory-fire/

Foreign Missionary Movement in the 19th and early 20th Centuries (useful links)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nlinksfmmovement.htm

Evangelicalism as a Social Movement
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/nevansoc.htm

38e. Religious Revival: The Social Gospel

Dwight Moody
http://www.washingtonubf.org/Resources/Leaders/DwightMoody.html

Hitting the Sawdust Trail with Billy Sunday
http://www2.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/sunday/sunday01.html

Religious Revival: The "Social Gospel"
http://www.ushistory.org/us/38e.asp

Walter Rauschenbusch, Christianizing the Social Order,
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text9/rauschenbusch.pdf

Birth of Bull Moose Party
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun22.html

NWHM Woman Suffrage Cyber Exhibit
https://www.nwhm.org/html/exhibits/votesforwomen/intro.html




Progressive movement
  • How to deal with unregulated industrial capitalism.
  • Willing to use government power to do so.
  • Could not always agree on the problem or proposed solution.

Progressive contradictions.

Balancing act between will of the people and government acting as conscience.

Classic American political dilemma.

General goals:
  • Ending the abuse of power
  • Reforming social institutions
  • Promoting bureaucratic and scientific efficiency.

Women in the Progressive Era (National Women's History Museum)
http://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/progressiveera/home.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-women-in-progessive.html

Documents: Progressive Era
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?category=3

Authentic History: Progressive Era
http://www.authentichistory.com/1898-1913/2-progressivism/index.html



Leaders of the Progressive Movement

  • College-educated
  • Middle–class
  • Professionals: law, medicine, engineering, social work, teaching, business.




Muckrakers
  • Today's investigative reporters.
  • Exposed business abuses and political corruption.

Some of the best–known muckrakers:

Frank Norris

The Octopus (1901) attacked the Southern Pacific Railroad in California.

Frank Norris: The Octopus in the West (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text3/octopusnorris.pdf


Ida Tarbell

History of the Standard Oil Company (1904) showed how Standard Oil came to control an entire industry.

Ida Tarbell obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1105.html

Standard Oil Ordered to Dissolve (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Standard-Oil-Ordered-to-Dissolve.html

Ida Tarbell (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rockefellers/peopleevents/p_tarbell.html

National Humanities Center Toolbox
The Gilded & Gritty, America, 1870-1912
Power: Taming the Octopus
2. Standard Oil
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text2/text2read.htm
- Ida M. Tarbell, "The History of the Standard Oil Company," McClure's Magazine, 1902-1904, excerpts
- John D. Rockefeller, Random Reminiscences of Men and Events, 1909 (publ. 1933), excerpts
- U.S. Supreme Court, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey et al. v. U.S., 1911, excerpts


Lincoln Steffens

Shame of the Cities (1904) exposed corruption in various city governments.

Lincoln Steffens
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/s/lincoln-steffens.html

Lincoln Steffens Exposes “Tweed Days in St. Louis”
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5733/

Shame of the Cities: Steffens on Urban Blight
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5732

Plunkitt’s Plain Talk: Satirizing Steffens
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5731/


Upton Sinclair

The Jungle (1906) described awful conditions in Chicago meat–packing plants.

Upton Sinclair obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0920.html

Upton Sinclair (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/s/upton-sinclair.html

Upton Sinclair
http://www.uptonsinclair.com/bio.html

Upton Sinclair (New York Times)
http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/people/s/upton_sinclair/index.html

Upton Sinclair (Social Security)
http://www.ssa.gov/history/sinclair.html

The Jungle (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5727/


Muckrakers. Not much legislation resulted from all the effort.
  • Safer factories
  • Shorter workday
  • Workers' compensation
  • Better housing
  • Health safeguards.



Progressive reforms at the city and state levels

City level

Reformers first tried to eliminate corruption at the city level through
  • Civil service hiring
  • Nonpartisan elections
  • City–manager form of government
  • Public ownership of utilities

Prevent gas, electric, and streetcar monopolies



State level. To solve problems covering more than one city.

Reform governors. Several earned a national reputation.

Robert M. LaFollette (Wisconsin Historical Society)
http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp%2D035/
http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp-035/

Robert LaFollette (US Senate)
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/art/artifact/Painting_32_00010.htm

Robert LaFollette (Architect of the Capitol)
http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/lafollette.cfm

Progressivism and the Wisconsin Idea (Wisconsin Historical Society)
http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp-036/?action=more_essay

Wisconsin Protesters Invoke the Legacy of 'Fighting Bob' - WSJ.com
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704692904576167010911141164.html

Hiram Johnson (California)
Charles Evans Hughes (New York)
Woodrow Wilson (New Jersey).



Progressive political reforms at the state level:

  • Initiative. Voters (10%) can propose new laws.

  • Referendum. People's veto. Voters (10%) can reject a law.

  • Recall. People's impeachment. Voters (25%) can remove an officeholder.

  • Direct primary. Voters nominate general election candidates of own party

  • Direct election of U.S. Senators. 17th Amendment (1913) replaced the former method: selection by state legislatures.




Progressive education

Key name: John Dewey

John Dewey obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1020.html

Curriculum changes
Not rote memorization
Not outdated subjects
Real–life problems.
Personal development, not merely subject matter



Progressive lawyers
  • Argued that law should be flexible enough to reflect needs of society.
  • Conservative judges (using laissez–faire arguments) opposed
  • [We saw this split in the 2000 election court cases]




Social Gospel

The Social Gospel and the Progressive Era (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/twenty/tkeyinfo/socgospel.htm

Walter Rauschenbusch (God in America)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/walter-rauschenbusch.html



TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST FACTORY FIRE (1911)

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines
http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi

Triangle Fire pulls together themes of progressivism, immigration, and industrialization.

Triangle Fire (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March-April-08/On-this-Day--NYC-Garment-Factory-Fire-Kills-146-.html

Triangle (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/triangle/trianglefire.html
1. Doug Linder's essay
2. Newspaper Accounts
3. The Victims (note the sad descriptions)

Triangle (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/triangle-nyt/
1. Introduction
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/introduction/triangle-intro/
2. Frances Perkins
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/bonus-video/triangle-downey/
3. The Price of Fashion (Photo Gallery)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/triangle/
4. What is a Shirtwaist?
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/triangle-shirtwaist/
5. New York Times coverage of the fire
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/triangle-nyt/

NYT Learning Network
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/03/25/100-years-later-examining-the-impact-of-the-triangle-shirtwaist-factory-fire/



Women's Suffrage

Reforming Their World: Women in the Progressive Era (National Women's History Museum)
http://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/progressiveera/home.html

Picketing for Suffrage (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug28.html

Votes for Women (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/naw/nawshome.html

19th Amendment (Woman's Suffrage) (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/nineteenth.html

Women's Suffrage in the Progressive Era (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/progress/

Women's Suffrage (History Now entire issue)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/03_2006/index.php

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html

Susan B. Anthony Votes (On this Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Susan-B-Anthony-Votes.html

Susan B. Anthony Trial (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/anthony/sbahome.html

British Suffragette Trampled by King's Horse (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Suffragette-Trampled-by-King-s-Horse.html



Prohibition

Prohibition (Chronicling America LOC)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/prohibition.html

Temperance and Prohibition (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct28.html

Prohibition (Ken Burns)
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/prohibition/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-prohibition.html

Prohibition (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%209_WWI%20and%20the%201920s/Prohibition%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Carrie Nation (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/carrienation.html

Carrie Amelia Moore Nation (1846–1911) (Encyclopedia of Arkansas)
http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=2514#

Today in History: December 27 Temperance, Cary Nation, 1900
Temperance, Carrie Nation (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html

Carrie A. Nation (Kansas Historical Society)
http://www.kshs.org/p/online-exhibits-carry-a-nation-introduction/10588

Carrie Nation's Hammer (Kansas Historical Society)
http://www.kshs.org/p/cool-things-carry-nation-s-hammer/10156

Prohibition: A Case Study of Progressive Reform (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/progress/

Prohibition
http://www.life.com/gallery/42092/prohibition-when-booze-ruled

http://www.life.com/gallery/37542/prohibition-how-dry-we-aint#index/0

http://www.bbc.com/travel/blog/20110707-travelwise-speakeasies-moonshine-and-gangsters



THEODORE ROOSEVELT (1900-1909)

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines
http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi

Theodore Roosevelt (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt

New Nationalism

Motto of the Theodore Roosevelt presidency

  • TR believed government should direct national affairs
  • Government should coordinate and regulate big business
  • Government should not destroy big business.
  • Government should act as an umpire.
  • Roosevelt was a Republican, party of big business.

He was thus in an awkward position.

Theodore Roosevelt, "The New Nationalism," address, 1910
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text10/text10read.htm
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=501
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Croly

Obama comparison to TR speech (Washington Post)
http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/obama-invokes-teddy-roosevelt-in-speech-attacking-gop-policies/2011/12/06/gIQAEf3yaO_story.html

Regulation of trusts

Major issue in the Roosevelt presidency

  • Industrialization had led to a concentration of great power.
  • Large–scale business combinations were then called "trusts";

Today we would call them conglomerates or multinationals.
  • By 1904, for example, trusts controlled much of American business:

6 large financial groups dominated the railroad industry;
Rockefeller's Standard Oil owned 85% of the oil business.
  • No one really clear on how to deal with trusts:

Let trusts alone since big business is an inevitable part of progress
Distinguish between good and bad trusts
Regulate good trusts (if so, who should be the regulators)
Break up bad trusts into smaller companies.
Theodore Roosevelt sought to regulate the abuses of the worst trusts—the railroads, oil companies, and the meatpacking monopolies.
We still do not have a solution.
We vary between regulation and deregulation



ELECTION OF 1912

  • TR disagreed with Taft and the "Old Guard" Republicans,
  • TR left the Republican party to set up a third party

Progressive (Bull Moose) party.
  • Republican vote split between Taft and TR
  • Woodrow Wilson slipped in as the Democratic president

Progressive Party Platform of 1912
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=607

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines
http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi

Political Cartoons Illustrating Progressivism and the Election of 1912 (National Archives: Teaching With Documents)
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/election-cartoons/

Bull Moose Party (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun22.html

Election of 1912 (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/elect1912.html

Election of 1912 (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson/essays/biography/3

Election of 1912 Resource Guide (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/elections/election1912.html

William Howard Taft

William Howard Taft (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/taft
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/2
Campaigns and Elections
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/3
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/4
Foreign Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/5

President William Howard Taft obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0915.html

William Howard Taft (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep15.html

Election of 1912

Theodore Roosevelt (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/tr-politics/

Today in History: June 22 Bull Moose Party (Library of Congress)
Read the section entitled "Bull Moose Born"
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun22.html

Election of 1912 (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson/essays/biography/3



WOODROW WILSON (1913–1921).

Woodrow Wilson (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/wilson/
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/presidents-wilson/

Woodrow Wilson (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson/essays/biography/2
The Campaign and Election of 1916
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson/essays/biography/3
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson/essays/biography/4
Foreign Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson/essays/biography/5