THE 1850S

Learning Objectives:

Explain how acquisition of new territories turned slavery into a major constitutional standoff between 1848-1861.

Debate. As a citizen of a slave state: arguments for/against leaving the Union. As a northern politician: what response to take to the threat of secession, to separation itself, and to the creation of the Confederacy.



Put these in below where appropriate

Use this Library of Congress exhibition for this entire module
African American Odyssey: Abolition, Anti-Slavery Movements, and the Rise of the Sectional Controversy [2 parts]
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart3.html
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart3b.html

How best to make use of this EDSITEment lesson plan:
The Growing Crisis of Sectionalism in Antebellum America: A House Dividing
http://edsitement.neh.gov/curriculum-unit/growing-crisis-sectionalism-antebellum-america-house-dividing#sect-thelessons

The Long History of Political Idiocy
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/04/opinion/the-long-history-of-political-idiocy.html

Shifting Political Landscape
Three great maps: Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Kansas-Nebraska Act
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/lincolns-political-landscape/

Missouri Compromise (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=518&nm=Missouri-Compromise

Missouri Compromise interactive
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson1/sectionalism.swf

Do more with "The Great Triumvirate"

Stephen Douglas (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr23.html

Henry Clay (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun29.html

John C. Calhoun (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar18.html



Crucial interplay of several factors

Slavery's existence and territorial expansion
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI230.jpg

Should new states be slave or free?
"If slavery was the sore spot in the body politic, territorial disputes were salt rubbed into the wound."


Frames of reference of North and South toward each other:

Northerners: feared an evil Southern Slave Power wanting to take over U.S.
Southerners: felt that northerners were all abolitionists--wanting to oppress the South

A North–South division was deepening
Slavery in the territories colored every other national issue
The first sectional battle of the decade involved California
California's request to enter Union as free state caused political conflict
Compromise of 1850 became a temporary armistice in the slavery issue


Compromise of 1850

The Compromise of 1850 for Dummies - YouTube

Major provisions of the Compromise of 1850:

Compromise of 1850 (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar07.html

Compromise of 1850 (Sound Smart)
http://youtu.be/j_Bra5yBh6M

Struggles over Slavery: The Compromise of 1850
https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/page_11.html

a. California entered the Union as a free state

California becomes the 31st state in record time (History.com This Day in History | 9/9/1850)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/california-becomes-the-31st-state-in-record-time

b. Popular sovereignty allowed in Utah & New Mexico Territories
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI267.jpg

Popular Sovereignty (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/us/30b.asp

Popular Sovereignty (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/kansas-nebraska-act-1854-popular-sovereignty-and-political-polarization-over-slavery

c. Trading and auction of slaves abolished in Washington, D.C.

Slavery itself was still permitted

d. Fugitive Slave Act

Stronger than past ones
Citizens must help capture and return runaway slaves
Suspected runaways denied trial by jury

Results of the Fugitive Slave Act
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/lincolns-jacobs/

Anthony Burns
http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Burns_Anthony_The_Trial_of_1854
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2915.html

African American Odyssey: Abolition, Anti-Slavery Movements, and the Rise of the Sectional Controversy (Part 2)
Fugitive Slave Act
https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart3b.html

Fugitive Slave Mentality (New York Times)
http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/27/fugitive-slave-mentality/?hp

Daniel Webster Endorses Compromise of 1850 (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/Daniel-Webster-Endorses-Compromise-of-1850-in-3-Hour-Speech.html

Compromise of 1850 (Primary Documents in American History)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Compromise1850.html

Compromise of 1850 (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=492&nm=Compromise-of-1850

Fugitive Slave Law (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1483

The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html

Professor Eric Foner discusses the Fugitive Slave Act (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4i3094.html

Prior Compromise on slavery issue: Missouri Compromise
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI181.jpg

Interactive Map The Missouri Compromise, 1820-1821
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson1/


Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852)

Uncle Tom's Cabin (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun05.html

Harriet Beecher Stowe's portrait of slave suffering made southerners mad

Video: [this is good; use it]
Who is Harriet Beecher Stowe?
http://youtu.be/ijFy4RjYGbQ

Harriet Beecher Stowe (God in America)
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/harriet-beecher-stowe.html

Slave narratives and Uncle Tom's Cabin
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2958.html

The Underground Railroad
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2944.html

Harriet Beecher Stowe obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0614.html

Harriet Beecher Stowe
https://www.learner.org/series/amerpass/unit07/authors-10.html

Harriet Beecher Stowe (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=360

Harriet Beecher Stowe (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/s/harriet-beecher-stowe.html

Her book a reaction to Fugitive Slave Act (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1405&nm=Uncle-Toms-Cabin

Influence of Uncle Tom's Cabin (History Now)
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/06_2008/historian2.php


Website Spotlight: Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture (University of Virginia)

Church & Camp Meeting Hymns
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/christn/chsohp.html

Uncle Tom's Cabin
Movies
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/onstage/films/fihp.html

Songs
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/songs/sohp.html

Hymns for Infant Minds
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/christn/chhymnshp.html

Hymns in Uncle Tom's Cabin website
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/christn/chsohp.html
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/christn/chhymnshp.html

Minstrel Playbills
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/minstrel/mibillshp.html

Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture (University of Virginia)
http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/sitemap.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-uncle-toms-cabin.html




Southern defense of slavery:

George Fitzhugh

Southern slaves better off than northern workers
Northern workers were "wage" slaves
Worked harder than Southern slaves
Were laid off if they got sick or too old

George Fitzhugh (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h3141.html

George Fitzhugh (Documenting the American South)
http://docsouth.unc.edu/southlit/fitzhughcan/summary.html

Excerpts from Fitzhugh's Slaves without Masters (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/lincolns-fitzhugh/


Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)

Provisions
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI269.jpg

The Kansas-Nebraska Act Explained: US History Review Keith Hughes
http://youtu.be/Phir7DPWTrM

Kansas-Nebraska Act
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Kansas-Nebraska_Act

Interactive Map The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson3/
Kansas-Nebraska Act interactive
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson3/lesson.swf

Kansas-Nebraska Act (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1476&nm=Kansas-Nebraska-Act

Kansas-Nebraska Act (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/kansas-nebraska-act-1854-popular-sovereignty-and-political-polarization-over-slavery

Lesson 3: The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854: Popular Sovereignty and the Political Polarization
over Slavery | EDSITEment
https://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/kansas-nebraska-act-1854-popular-sovereignty-and-
political-polarization-over-slavery#sect-background

Parts of this essay on Westward Expansion (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4narr4.html



Bleeding Kansas

http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI274.jpg

Bleeding Kansas (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html

Bleeding Kansas (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=484&nm=Bleeding-Kansas

Bleeding Kansas
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html

Bleeding Kansas (Sound Smart)
http://youtu.be/TqZJc7B8xsc

Pottowatomie massacre John Brown
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/brown/peopleevents/pande07.html


Republican party (1854)

New party—not connected to the earlier Jeffersonian Republican party
A purely sectional third party based in the North
Dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories

The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Rise of the Republican Party
[find a good source for this]

Nativism
American Party
Know Nothings

Know-Nothing Party
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Know-Nothing_Party


Sumner–Brooks incident (1856)

The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner (US Senate)
http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/The_Caning_of_Senator_Charles_Sumner.htm

Canefight (US History.org)
http://www.ushistory.org/us/31e.asp

Charles Sumner (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/grant-sumner/

Sen. Charles Sumner (Mass.) an abolitionist
His antislavery remarks an insult to Rep. Preston Brooks (S.C.)
Brooks beat Sumner with a cane—in Senate chamber

South seemed to condone violence to have its way
South sent Brooks more canes
Northerners shocked at this southern assault on free speech


Dred Scott decision (1857)

Dred Scott decision by the United States Supreme Court (1857) (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/06/march-6-1857-supreme-court-issues-dred-scott-decision/#more-103815

Dred Scott decision (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0306.html#article

Supreme Court attempted to decide issue of slavery in the territories
Five of the nine Supreme Court justices were southerners

The case ruled as follows:
  • Blacks could not be U.S. citizens
  • Congress could not prohibit slavery in a territory
  • This implied a repeal of the Missouri Compromise
  • South delighted; North outraged

Compare to Supreme Court involvement in 2000 presidential election

See also:

Dred Scott case (Sound Smart)
http://youtu.be/J0OW18pIo8c

Dred Scott (D'Army Bailey)
http://youtu.be/5SnNuFykpZg

Supreme Court Rules Against Dred Scott (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/March/Supreme-Court-Rules-Against-Dred-Scott.html

Dred Scott's fight for freedom (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html
Portrait of Dred Scott
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h1532.html
Dred Scott case: the Supreme Court decision
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2933.html



Panic of 1857 (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug24.html


Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Begin (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--The-Lincoln-Douglas-Debates-Begin.html

Lincoln-Douglass Debates
http://www.history.com/topics/lincoln-douglas-debates

Map of debate locations
http://www.nps.gov/liho/historyculture/debates.htm
Text of Debates: from Teaching American History.org
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?subcategory=142
Re-enactments from C-SPAN
http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/60905-1

Lincoln-Douglas
https://www.c-span.org/video/?59824-1/lincolndouglas-galesburg-debate

See also:

Stephen Douglas bio sketch (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=110

Stephen Douglas (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr23.html

Stephen Douglas obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/1861/06/04/news/death-of-stephen-a-douglas.html?pagewanted=all


John Brown at Harpers Ferry (1859)

Harper's Ferry (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct16.html

John Brown had slain proslavery settlers in Bleeding Kansas
Using both whites & blacks, John Brown attacked federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry
Brown hoped to arm slaves and trigger a slave rebellion
Brown failed: captured, tried, and executed
Northern abolitionists saw him as a Jesus figure
South bothered by this adulation; thought all northerners endorsed him

See also:

John Brown Bio Sketch (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Brown_John_1800-1859

"He Knew How to Die": John Brown on the Gallows, December 2, 1859
Article from History News Network: http://hnn.us/articles/120730.html

John Brown (Africans in America)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1550.html
The raid on Harpers Ferry
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2940.html
John Brown's black raiders
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2941.html
"Harpers Ferry" headline
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h1538.html
John Brown's address to the court
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2943.html

John Brown and the Underground Railroad (National Geographic)
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/17/g912/undergroundrail.html

John Brown: America's First Terrorist? (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2011/spring/brown.html

John Brown's Holy War (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/brown/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-john-brown-ae.html

John Brown's Holy War
https://youtu.be/Lstf4Hb8rPc

Selected Images Relating to the the Trial of John Brown
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/johnbrown/brownimages.html

John Brown Trial (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/johnbrown/brownhome.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-john-brown-trial.html


Election of 1860

Abraham Lincoln Elected President (Finding Dulcinea, On This Day)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Abraham-Lincoln-Elected-President.html

United States presidential election, 1860
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI281.jpg

Lincoln got no southern electoral votes but still won the election.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1860

Lincoln got no southern electoral votes (split between Douglas, Breckenridge, and Bell) but still won the election.
He was only on the ballot in Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri

Lincoln's analysis
"You in the south think slavery is right and ought to be expanded. We think it is wrong and ought to be restricted."


Precedents to the notion of secession

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Nullification Controversy

Nullification Crisis (Today in History, LOC)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan13.html

Nullification Proclamation
http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Nullification.html



Secession

Interactive Map: America on the Eve of the Civil War
http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/civilwar/lesson1/

Map of secession:
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI290.jpg

Secession of South Carolina (December 20, 1860)

The secession of South Carolina led other southern states to secede

Distinguish the two waves of secession

a) Deep South: Miss., Fla., Ala., Ga., La., Tx.

b) Upper South: Ark., Tn., N.C., Va.

Several slave states remained committed to the North: Mo., Ky., Md., Del.


Confederate States of America

Confederacy was a separate country
Problems similar to those of the Articles of Confederation


Jefferson Davis chosen as President

Jefferson Davis Elected (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/nov06.html

Jefferson Davis bio sketch (Encyclopedia of Virginia)
http://encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Jefferson_1808-1889

Capital of the Confederacy was initially in Montgomery, Alabama
Capital for remainder of war in Richmond, Virginia
Each side tried to take the enemy's capital city


Fort Sumter (South Carolina)

Lincoln decided to resupply the federal fort in Charleston harbor
Confederates fired on the fort and thereby began the Civil War