1920s MODULE

Hit Songs From the Roaring 1920's
http://youtu.be/HeOQjyuPCms

Top 20 Greatest Songs 1920-1929
http://youtu.be/07f0TPfNLnk



CONSERVATIVES BATTLE CHANGING TIMES

Overview

Dilemma for many: How does one anchor oneself in a world of rampant materialism and social change?

1. Many people felt threatened by change.
2. Some reacted defensively by looking for scapegoats.
3. An increase in nativism,
4. Fear of radicalism
5. Strengthened religious fundamentalism

"New" morality

1. The 1920s saw an acceleration of the tempo of American life.

Major website: Roaring Twenties
http://www.1920-30.com/

Roaring Twenties (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/jazz/time/time_roaring.htm

Roaring Twenties (Herbert Hoover Presidential Library exhibit)
http://hoover.archives.gov/exhibits/Hooverstory/gallery03/index.html

Roaring Twenties photo gallery
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/crash/

Jazz Age

Jazz (Ken Burns)
http://www.pbs.org/jazz/index.htm

The New Woman [this is great. develop much more from it.] (Ohio State University)
http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/clash/NewWoman/newwomen-page1.htm

"Flapper" look (Ohio State Univesity)
http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/clash/NewWoman/Subnarratives/the%20flapper.htm

Debating Bobbed Hair (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5117/
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5116


Crime/Prohibition of Alcohol

Temperance and Prohibition (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct28.html

The slow death of prohibition (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-17291978

Prohibition: Photo Gallery (PBS, Ken Burns)
http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/prohibition/photos/

Alcohol, Temperance, and Prohibition (Brown University)
http://dl.lib.brown.edu/temperance/

Prohibition (Ohio State University)
http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/clash/Prohibition/prohibition-index.htm

Al Capone (Chicago Historical Society)
http://www.chicagohs.org/history/capone.html

Al Capone obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0117.html

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Al Capone is Convicted of Income Tax Evasion
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Al-Capone-Is-Convicted-of-Income-Tax-Evasion.html

Google Images: Al Capone
http://bit.ly/xtjDUX

Speakeasy (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/jazz/exchange/exchange_speakeasies.htm
Google Image: Speakeasy
http://bit.ly/AebVBa


Ku Klux Klan

Ku Klux Klan [3 screens] (Ohio State University)
http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/clash/Imm_KKK/KKK%20pages/KKK-page1.htm

1. Result of increase in nativism.
2. Revived (1915) to insure "native, white, Protestant supremacy."
3. Drew its membership from villages and small towns untouched by immigration, industrialization, and illiberal thought.
4. Unlike its predecessor: which was mostly against blacks, New Klan devoted to 100% Americanism
5. New Klan was anti–Catholic, anti–Semitic, anti–foreigner.

6. Peak publicity: 30,000 down Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington, D.C.
Google Images: http://bit.ly/ywtk3T

8 Moments that changed America
First one is KKK parade in DC
British Pathe video database
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DkWkimPhBr0&feature=youtu.be

7. Not just in the South. Klan controlled much of the state of Indiana.
8. Klan declined by 1930s.
9. Today's Klan is third wave.

Immigration Restriction and the KKK (Ohio State University)
http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/clash/Imm_KKK/anti-immigrationKKK-page1.htm


Sacco and Vanzetti (1921)

Google Images: Sacco and Vanzetti
http://bit.ly/AgrjnH

1. Two Italian immigrants were accused of murder in a payroll robbery
2. Both were anarchists (want to destroy all government)
3. It is not clear they were really guilty, but both executed
4. Fear of radicalism: antiforeign, antianarchist sentiment

See also:

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Italian-Born Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti Executed
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Aug/Italian-Born-Anarchists-Sacco-and-Vanzetti-Executed.html

Sacco and Vanzetti Executed (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0823.html#article

Aug. 23, 1927 | Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian Anarchists, Are Executed in Boston (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/aug-23-1927-sacco-and-vanzetti-executed-in-boston/

Sacco-Vanzetti Trial (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/SaccoV/SaccoV.htm
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-sacco-vanzetti-trial.html

Sunset Hall's Red Twilight (Los Angeles Times)
http://articles.latimes.com/2005/mar/09/local/me-sunset9


Scopes trial (1925)

Evolution theory: Scopes trial [this is good]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/08/2/l_082_01.html

Monkey Trial (July 1925)
https://youtu.be/_1uL6o9mAiE

1. Held in Dayton, Tennessee

2. Scopes, a high school Biology teacher, had apparently taught evolution, a violation of Tennessee law.

Google Images: John Scopes
http://bit.ly/zwYLIL

3. Clarence Darrow, noted trial lawyer and non-religious, defended Scopes.
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/d/clarence-darrow.html

Clarence Darrow obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0418.html

Clarence Darrow
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Clarence_S._Darrow

Google Images: Clarence Darrow
http://bit.ly/xHLeQT

4. William Jennings Bryan, an evangelical, argued against evolution.

Google Images: William Jennings Bryan
http://bit.ly/xLipqf

5. Evolution undermines Biblical account of creation

6. The issues at stake:

Faith v. reason
Science v. creationism
Rural v. urban values.

Scopes Trial (Ohio State University)
http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/clash/Scopes/scopes-page1.htm

Scopes Trial (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/scopes/scopes.htm
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-scopes-trial.html

Monkey Trial (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/monkeytrial/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-monkey-trial.html

Fundamentalism and the Social Gospel
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/monkeytrial/peopleevents/e_gospel.html

Check out these sections of the website:
1. Courthouse tour
2. Monkey music
3. Cartoons (in this music section)
4. More about evolution
5. People and events:
a. Bios of Scopes, Darrow, and Bryan
b. The Drugstore in America

See also:

Scopes Indicted for Teaching Evolution (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0525.html#article

May 25, 1925 | A Tennessee Teacher, John T. Scopes, Is Indicted for Evolution Lessons (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/25/may-25-1925-tennessee-teacher-is-indicted-for-evolution-lessons/

Tennessee Educator Scopes Indicted for Teaching Evolution (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Tennessee-Educator-Scopes-Indicted-for-Teaching-Evolution.html

Scopes Trial (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may05.html

Scopes Trial Ends (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0721.html#article

The Scopes Trial (Divining America, National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/twenty/tkeyinfo/tscopes.htm



SISTER AIMEE SEMPLE MCPHERSON (1920s)

The mysterious disappearance of a celebrity preacher (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30148022

Aimee Semple McPherson (Google Images)
http://bit.ly/z42xuM

Aimee Semple McPherson (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/s/aimee-semple-mcpherson.html

Aimee Semple McPherson (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/sister/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-sister-aimee.html

See also:
http://images.google.com/images?gbv=2&hl=en&sa=1&q=aimee+semple+mcpherson&aq=0&oq=aimee+sem&aqi=g2&start=0

Sister Aimee's Castle for Sale
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/04/21/sister-aimees-15m-evangel_n_545000.html#s82978&title=undefined

From the America in the 1930s website:
Aimee Semple McPherson
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/robertson/asm/front.html
Aimee's Life
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/robertson/asm/background.html
Aimee's Religion
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/robertson/asm/message.html
Aimee as Actress
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/robertson/asm/actress.html
Aimee and the Media
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/robertson/asm/media.html
Aimee as Advertiser
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/robertson/asm/advertiser.html



THE AGE OF PLAY

Overview

1. People had more leisure time
2. Spectator sports and movies became big business

Sports heroes

1. Sports provided the unpredictability and drama that people craved.

2. Sport hero example: Babe Ruth

Babe Ruth obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0206.html

Baseball: Babe" Ruth—60 home runs in 1927

Babe Ruth Makes Major League Debut (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Babe-Ruth-Makes-Major-League-Debut.html

Babe Ruth: Constructing a Legend (University of Virginia)
http://xroads.virginia.edu/%7EUG02/yeung/Baberuth/home.html
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG02/yeung/Baberuth/home.html

Movies

1. In 1922, 40 million viewers per week; in 1930, 100 million per week.
2. Previously, movies had been silent—with subtitles.
3. Movie star examples:

Charlie Chaplin obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0416.html

Mary Pickford
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/pickford/index.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-mary-pickford.html

Pickford and Fairbanks marry (History.com)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fairbanks-and-pickford-marry

Pickford and Fairbanks mobbed by crowds (History.com This Day in History | 6/21/1920)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/pickford-and-fairbanks-mobbed-by-crowds



CHARLES A. LINDBERGH

Charles Lindbergh obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0204.html

Charles Lindbergh (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/l/charles-lindbergh.html

1. First solo transatlantic flight: New York to Paris (1927)

Charles Lindbergh Lands in Paris (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0521.html#article

May 21, 1927 | Charles Lindbergh Flies Solo Across the Atlantic (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/21/may-21-1927-charles-lindbergh-flies-solo-across-the-atlantic/

2. Combination of radio and talking movies (used for newsreels) gave him a world–wide attention that would previously have been impossible.

3. Later kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh baby
http://www.time.com/time/archive/collections/0,21428,c_lindbergh_kidnapping,00.shtml

Hauptmann Guilty, Sentenced to Death (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0213.html#article

Charles Lindbergh (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/lindbergh/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-charles-lindbergh.html

Special Features
Check out this interactive map of his flight: click on the map and follow the flight. He was all alone in the air for 30 hours.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/lindbergh/maps/index.html

See also:

Charles Lindbergh (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun11.html

Fallen Hero (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/lindbergh/sfeature/fallen.html




BUSINESS DID WELL IN THE 1920S

1. Presidents.

All three were Republicans: Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover.

President Warren G. Harding obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1102.html

President Calvin Coolidge obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0704.html

Calvin Coolidge Passes - 1933 | Today in History | 5 Jan
http://youtu.be/huAmXAQDBvk

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: President Coolidge Delivers First Presidential Address Broadcast on Radio
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/December/President-Coolidge-Delivers-First-State-of-the-Union-Broadcast-on-Radio.html

Alfred Smith obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1230.html

President Herbert Hoover obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0810.html

Herbert Hoover
Miller Center (University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/hoover
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-herbert-hoover.html

All three were pro–business ("The business of America is business").

2. Supreme Court.

Protected business and private property as it had in the Gilded Age.
Sheltered business from government regulation
Hindered organized labor from striking.

3. Congress. Responsive to corporate lobbying.

4. Welfare capitalism.

Corporations countered the appeal of unions by offering pensions, profit–sharing, picnics, and company-sponsored sports teams.

5. Consumerism

[We will see a replay of this consumerism when we look later at the 1950s.]

Consumer society.

Number of consumers increased by advertising (increased sophistication plus increased expenditures), credit, and higher wages

6. Automobile

Ford Model T

a. The car altered American life as much as the railroad had 75 years earlier.
b. Car registrations went from 8 to 23 million in the 1920s.
c. Car prices more affordable: mass production and competition
d. Automobile industry fostered growth of other industries

  • Items to make cars: steel, glass, rubber, textiles.
  • Roads: "good roads" movement.
  • Motels and diners
  • Oil drilling
  • Gas stations.





STOCK MARKET CRASH (1929)

Black Tuesday, Stock Market Crash Ushers in Great Depression (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day---Black-Tuesday--Stock-Market-Crash-Ushers-in-Great-Depression.html

Photo Gallery
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/crash/photoGallery/

Crash of 1929 (American Experience)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/crash/
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-crash-of-1929.html

Crash of 1929
https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/crash/

The Crash of 1929 & The Great Depression (PBS) 1of6
http://youtu.be/ccNilnpvbJg

(A) Business context

1. Increasing flow of consumer goods: autos, radios, and household appliances

2. Installment credit increased sales

3. Optimism in the air
Unlimited prosperity would never end
"Blue skies keep smiling on me"

Irving Kaufman - Blue Skies (1927)
http://youtu.be/V7cPcEa4e8I

4. But the consumer–goods revolution contained seeds of its own collapse.

  • Factories produced more than country could consume.
  • Workers had insufficient purchasing power.
  • Farmers were particularly suffering.

5. Mild recession in 1927

  • Business should have heeded warning
  • Should have raised wages
  • Should have lowered prices.
  • Government should have tightened installment buying.

(B) Investment issues

1. Stocks could be bought on margin:

$100 down could buy stock worth $1,000.

2. Stocks rose more on speculation than on underlying company value.

3. Corporations focused on profits, dividends, and expansion

4. Not enough money went to the workers—who were also consumers.

5. Stock market crash in October 1929 burst the bubble.

29 October 1929 Stock Prices Collapse (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1029.html#article

(C) After the Stock Market crash

1. Beginning of the depression.

2. Between 1929 and 1932, industrial production declined by almost 45%
Decline of production led to plant closings and unemployment.

3. Unemployment rose quickly:

  • 1930—5 million (15% unemployment)
  • 1931—9 million (25%)
  • 1932—12 million (40%)

4. Bank failures rose steadily.

5. Protectionism

Smoot–Hawley tariff raised U.S. import duties to an all–time high.

Protectionism: The Battle of Smoot-Hawley (Economist)
http://www.economist.com/node/12798595

Ben Stein's take on Smoot-Hawley (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/10/business/10every.html

Difficult for other countries to sell their products in U.S.
Difficult for them to earn dollars to buy American products.
Other countries raised their tariffs in retaliation.

6. Depression became world–wide.