Friday Songs [today's the day we're finally through]

In class today: new material


Bill Clinton
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Clinton bio video

Clinton Years (FRONTLINE)

Election of 1992

Summary of 1992 presidential election (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

1. Republican George H.W. Bush (Bush #41). Incumbent President
Seemed to lack the "vision thing."
Faulted for concentrating on foreign policy.

2. Democrat Bill Clinton. Arkansas governor. "New democrat." More toward center.
Democrats countered: "it's the economy, stupid."

3. Ross Perot. Texas billionaire led a third–party bid.
Google Images of Ross Perot

4. Clinton won electoral college (with only 43% of popular vote)

1992 Campaign commercials website (Living Room Candidate)

Somalia ("Black Hawk Down") 1993

Ambush in Mogadishu (FRONTLINE)

Interviews with Rangers on the Black Hawk Down mission

Critical analysis of Task Force Ranger (National Security Archive)

1994 Congressional elections

Campaign and election of 1994 (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Republicans won both houses of Congress for the first time since 1954.

Newt Gingrich became the outspoken/controversial House Speaker.

Republicans offered a "Contract with America": a list of reforms to be passed during the first One Hundred Days.

Government Shutdown

Congressional Republicans shut down government over balanced budget

They were seen by many as ideologically inflexible.

Presidential Election of 1996

Summary of 1996 presidential election (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

President Clinton seen as reasonable and moderate
Protector of certain federal programs that Congress attacked.
Gained support of women, who benefited from such programs.

1996 Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Impeachment attempted over the Monica Lewinsky affair

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: President Clinton Admits to Affair With Monica Lewinsky

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Senate Opens Hearings on the Impeachment of President Clinton

Impeachment summary (Washington Post)

Impeachment summary (BBC News)

Clinton Impeachment (Famous Trials)

Bill Clinton legacy

"Breathtakingly bright but capable of doing really dumb things."


In class today: new material


Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Biographical video

World War Two heroism

Parachute jump on his 83rd birthday

Presidential election of 1988

In Reagan's footsteps.
Accused of the 'wimp factor"
Peace abroad and a stable domestic economy

Summaries of the election campaign

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Bush Presidency

Bush presidency:"First, do no harm"
Bush against government action to solve economic & social problems.
Carried his approach too far and defended it too insensitively.
Many voters want to limit government in the abstract
Most want to keep safety net of government transfer payments

Bush's political shifts
Bush accused of being the Velcro president.
Bush a political chameleon.

"Read my lips: no new taxes."
Assertion made during the 1988 presidential campaign

Broke his promise to get Congress to help balance the budget

Fall of the Berlin Wall (October 1989)

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: The Berlin Wall Comes Down

Did a prayer meeting really bring down the Berlin Wall and end the Cold War?

09 Nov 1989: Berliners celebrate the fall of the Wall (BBC On This Day)

Individuals attempting to flee

Photo Exhibition of Berlin Wall

Berlin Wall (BBC News Timeline)

Map: Breakup of the Soviet Union, 1991

Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, 1989 (Historian of the State Department)

End of Cold War (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

German Unification (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Gorbachev Resigns (New York Times)

Photos: 20 Years Since the Fall of the Soviet Union (The Atlantic magazine)

Tiananmen Square Massacre (June 1989)

The Tank Man | FRONTLINE | PBS

Chronology: The Memory Of Tiananmen | FRONTLINE | PBS

Invasion of Panama (December 1989)

U.S. Invasion of Panama (New York Times)

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: US Forces Invade Panama

Invasion of Panama to capture Manuel Noriega (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) (1991)

Successful effort to push Iraq out of Kuwait.
Decision not to invade rest of Iraq or go after Saddam Hussein
Subsequent opinions on whether U.S. made correct choices

Desert Storm Air War Begins--to drive Iraq out of Kuwait (New York Times)

Desert Storm Ends (New York Times)

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Iraq Invades Kuwait Leading to Persian Gulf War

Persian Gulf War (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

My Website Spotlight blog post

Desert Storm “The War Never Really Ended” — Part I
Desert Storm “The War Never Really Ended” — Part II


Weapons and Technology

U.S. female pilot captured by the Iraqis

1992 Presidential election loss to Bill Clinton

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Election of 1992 (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Summary of the 1992 election campaign (American Experience)


In class today: new material

Miller Center (University of Virginia)

The Reagan Years (CNN In-Depth Special)

Election of 1980

Reagan accused President Carter of letting America be kicked around in world affairs.
Reagan's bold conservatism scared many voters
Reagan elected largely as a reaction against Carter.
Reagan's theme of "Stand Up, America" resonated with the electorate.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Assassination attempt (March 1981)

Reagan's courageous response to assassination attempt (during first 100 days) increased his political power.

John Hinckly, Jr., Shoots President Reagan and James Brady

Reagan's administrative agenda

1. Cut taxes
2. Cut government red tape
3. Cut government spending on domestic programs
4. Increase defense spending
5. Stand up to communism
Reagan pictured Soviet Union as "evil empire." [Axis of Evil??]
Believed intense military buildup needed to confront Soviets.
6. Negotiate with the Soviets
"Tear Down This [Berlin] Wall" speech

Republican party coalition

Made up of ideologically diverse constituencies:

1. Economic conservatives who had always voted Republican
2. Cultural conservatives
Fundamentalist and evangelical Christians
Advocated family values
Opposed abortion and homosexuality

3. "Reagan Democrats"
Blue–collar workers who supported family values

4. White voters in South (no longer the Solid Democratic South)
5. Young Americans (18–30) activated during Reagan years
6. Suburban voters (anti-taxes and anti-government).


Supply–side economic policies.
Cut federal spending on domestic programs
Cut taxes for the wealthy and for corporations
Free up investment capital and encourage new job creation
Investment income to offset loss of tax revenue caused by tax cuts.
Money freed up by tax cuts would "trickle down" to less wealthy
Did not work.
We got tremendous economic deficits.

Foreign policy events during the Reagan Administration

1. Beirut barracks bombing (1983)

1983 Beirut Bomb Still Reverberates Today (Finding Dulcinea)

2. Invasion of Grenada (American Experience)

3. Reagan Doctrine
U.S. would openly support all anticommunist fighters.

Presidential Election (1984)

President Reagan easily re-elected.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Iran–Contra scandal

Iran Contra Affair
Scroll to the section entitled "Iran-Contra Affair"

Two sides to the issue: Contras in Nicaragua and US arms sales to Iran (American Experience)

Reagan Endorses CIA Support of Nicaraguan Contras

U.S supported those fighting against (contra) the communists in Nicaragua.

After Vietnam and Watergate, Congress anxious to oversee foreign policy

Congress ordered Reagan not to continue support of Contras

Iran-Contra Scandal Breaks

Role of Oliver North.
Sold arms to Iran (illegal) and our enemy.
Used profits to send to the Contras to keep fighting Communists


Friday Songs on Thursday [1 more week and we'll be through]

In class today: new material

Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Video biography

Election of 1976

Carter took advantage of the reaction against Watergate to defeat Gerald Ford

Campaign Commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Camp David Agreements (1978)

Camp David Peace Treaty 1979

Peace Talks at Camp David (American Experience)

Camp David (Presidential retreat in Maryland)

Iran Hostage Crisis (1979)

CIA-assisted coup overthrows government of Iran ( This Day in History | 8/19/1953)

U.S. permitted deposed Shah to come to the U.S. for cancer treatment.
Iranian Muslim fundamentalists took members of U.S. embassy hostage

Ayatollah Khomeini Returns From Exile

Iran Hostage Crisis

Iran Hostage Crisis Begins (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

On this day in history, 24 April 1980, the Iranian Hostage Rescue Mission ended in disaster

Hostages released on Reagan's inauguration (January 20, 1981)

Human Rights

Basis of Carter's foreign policy
He was accused of a double standard:
Critical of Soviet Union, Argentina, and Chile
Willing to tolerate U.S. allies (South Korea, the Shah's Iran, Philippines).

Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979-1988)

Carter Doctrine (1979)

U.S. would defend the Persian Gulf militarily from any Soviet invasion: Afghanistan

U.S. boycott of 1980 Olympic Games

Olympic Boycott, 1980 (Historian of the State Department)

Election of 1980

Carter lost to Ronald Reagan.

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Assessment of Carter Presidency

Everything—domestically as well as internationally—seemed to go against him. He is a fantastic ex–president.

Jimmy Carter: Post-Presidency

Nobel Peace Prize winner

Habitat for Humanity


In class today: new material

Nixon's "Southern Strategy"

Main issue: Urged Republicans to go slow on civil rights issues

Republicans stood for law and order.

Equated Democrats with permissiveness, crime, drugs, pornography, the hippie lifestyle, student radicalism, black militancy, feminism, homosexuality, and dissolution of the family.


The Washington Post Investigates

The Government Acts

Nixon Resigns

Vice President Agnew Resigned

Nixon's Vice President Spiro Agnew had to resign because of income tax evasion and corruption.

Vice President Spiro Agnew Resigns

Gerald Ford became Vice President

Spiro Agnew was replaced as Nixon's Vice President by Gerald Ford.

Gerald Ford Replaces Agnew (New York Times)

President Nixon resigned on 9 August 1974 (before he could be impeached because of Watergate)

Richard Nixon Resigns

Post–Watergate restrictions on executive power

Congressional reactions to "imperial Presidency

It is interesting to see how our government balances itself over time.

1. War Powers Act—President must consult with Congress before sending American troops into foreign wars.

2. Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act—prohibited the impounding of federal appropriations.

3. Freedom of Information Act—to aid citizens who were the victims of dirty–tricks campaigns and by giving people greater access to government documents.


Gerald Ford
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Offered pro football contract after All-American at U. of Michigan.

Went to Yale Law School instead.

Not dumb and klutzy as media often portrayed him:
President trips and falls

Served in House of Representatives (1949-1973); leader of minority party.

He served out remainder of Nixon's term. Defeated by Carter in 1976.

Ford Pardoned Richard Nixon (Sept 1974)

President Ford Pardons Richard Nixon

1976 Presidential election

Ford was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the 1976 presidential election (New York Times)

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Election of 1976

Carter took advantage of the reaction against Watergate to defeat Gerald Ford

Campaign Commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Camp David Agreements (1978)

Camp David Peace Treaty 1979 [great front page picture] (New York Times)

Peace Talks at Camp David (American Experience)

Camp David (Presidential retreat in Maryland)


In class today: new material

President Richard Nixon
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Richard Nixon Library (Yorba Linda)

Nixon as Eisenhower's Vice President

Richard Nixon Delivers “Checkers Speech”

Video: Checkers speech

24 Jul 1959: Khrushchev and Nixon have war of words (BBC On This Day)

Presidential Election of 1960

Remember: Nixon lost to Kennedy

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

Presidential Election of 1968

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)

1. Democratic Convention (Chicago).

Video: 1968 convention

Nominated: Johnson's VP Hubert Humphrey.
Chicago police clashed with 5.000 anti-war protestors.
Police banged heads.

2. Republican Convention (Miami Beach).

Nixon won nomination over Nelson Rockefeller (liberal wing) and Ronald Reagan (conservative wing).

Nixon stood for stability and order:
Against war protestors
Against counterculture

3. Results

a. Nixon won (43.4% popular; 301 electoral)

Law and order candidate.
Supported by so-called "silent majority"—those not protesting

b. He defeated

Democrat Hubert Humphrey (LBJ's Vice President) (42.7% popular; 191 electoral)

George Wallace, segregationist Alabama governor: third–party (13.5% popular; 46 electoral)

Nixon's Foreign policy

Detente. Relaxation of tensions between the superpowers.

"Grand strategy." Nixon and Kissinger.
Henry Kissinger: National security adviser; then Secretary of State

Originally, People's Republic of China (PRC) seen as a tool of Soviet Union
Nixon decided to play them off against each other

Nixon's Visit to People's Republic of China (PRC) (1972)

A surprise:
Nixon was such a long-time Communist–hater
U.S. had no diplomatic relations with PRC then

Ping-Pong Diplomacy

Nixon Leaves on Diplomatic Trip to China (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

More on the ping pong diplomacy

a. Zhuang Zedong made the initial opening to an American player

b. Table tennis video

Election of 1972

Nixon easily reelected over George McGovern.
Democrats, however, retained control of Congress.
He did not need to do a "Watergate."

Campaign commercials (Living Room Candidate)


In class today: new material

TET Offensive (January 1968)

Tet Offensive by the enemy

Tet is the Chinese Lunar New Year holiday

This event was really important in retrospect

Enemy coordinated attacks all over South Vietnam

U.S. was victorious militarily

In U.S., public relations fallout bad

Americans became convinced that war was not winnable.

Viet Cong Invade American Embassy

Divisions at Home in U.S.

a. Pro-war—by hard hats; silent majority

b. Anti-war protests:

Vietnam War Protests 1969 (New York Times)

Counterculture and the New Left both opposed the Vietnam War

Used teach–ins, antiwar marches, and demonstrations.

Some burned draft cards

Others fled the draft by moving to Canada.

"Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?"

c. Kent State University

U.S. raid into Cambodia (1970) triggered campus protests at Kent State and Jackson State.

Kent State University: 4 students killed; National Guard unit fired into a crowd of student protesters.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Kent State Students Shot by Ohio National Guard

Richard Nixon: Vietnamization of the war

His anti-Communist credentials

As a Republican, he had not “lost” China

He began the withdrawal of U.S. troops

South Vietnamese should carry the load.

Similar to our attempts both in Iraq and Afghanistan: "if they stand up, we will stand down"

Fall of South Vietnam (April 1975)

Google Images: Helicopters Leaving Saigon

Escape from Saigon

Fall of Saigon

The Fall of Saigon--April 30, 1975

Saigon Falls to Vietcong Ending Vietnam War (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Legacy of the Vietnam war

58,000 U.S. dead

Financial cost to U.S.: $200 billion.

America's most unpopular war.

Involvement of six U.S. presidents: Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford.


In class today: new material

President Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) and the Americanization of the War

Competition with his Great Society

Tonkin Gulf Incident and Resolution

Response to North Vietnamese attack on American destroyer.
U.S. not entirely clean in this incident.

Tonkin Gulf Congressional Resolution
Gave LBJ authority to use unlimited military force in North Vietnam.
Johnson interpreted it as equivalent to declaration of war.

Map showing where the Tonkin Gulf is located:

George Ball's dissent against continued U.S. involvement in Vietnam

He wanted us to bail out of Vietnam early on; in retrospect, he was probably right.

Operation Rolling Thunder: U.S. air campaign over North Vietnam

More U.S. bombs on Vietnam than U.S. dropped in all of WWII
North Vietnamese did not give up.
Hid in shelters; rebuilt roads and bridges
Their perseverance frustrated and awed American decision makers.
U.S. prisoners of war: John McCain among them

Return With Honor (American Experience)
Gallery of Mike McGrath's drawings

Escalation: U.S. commits regular combat units to Vietnam

Johnson's decision for major increase of U.S. effort in Vietnam

Johnson sent 50,000 U.S. ground troops in July 1965.
Successive escalations of U.S. troop levels.
Maximum level of 536,000 in 1968.

We told the South Vietnamese: watch how well we could complete the job.
They watched.
We did not complete the job.

Attrition strategy

American aim was to kill more enemy than could be sent from the North.

Search and destroy tactics
Body count: the indication of success.
Attrition did not succeed

Sanctuary: Enemy could use Laos and Cambodia as a sanctuary
Hard to defeat an enemy that has this kind of advantage.
Compare to Taliban using Pakistan as a sanctuary.

Ho Chi Minh trail: Google Images

U.S. military in Vietnam

Many different wars depending on branch of service and location within South Vietnam

Vietnam tour of duty: 12 months for Army

Could be stationed in a U.S. unit or on an advisory team

Morale Problems: largely due to the draft

1. Fragging

2. Drug use

3. Post–traumatic stress. Other wars: shell shock, battle fatigue.


In class today: reaction to homework and videos

Vietnam War photos (Sacramento Bee)

The Century: America's Time, 1960-1964 Poisoned Dreams

The Century, America's Time, 1965-1970 Unpinned

In class today: new material

Vietnam became one of the many sites where the Cold War and the Third World intersected.

Key map:

Context for U.S. decision-making

Containment policy

American leaders thought of Vietnam as an Asian Berlin, a place to draw the line against communism and to implement the containment doctrine.

China 1949
McCarthy in US (1950-1954)
Korean War (1950-1953)

French Indochina

Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos) colonized in 1880s.
Vietnamese resisted French colonial regime as much as possible
Vietnamese tradition of historical resistance to invaders: China.

Ho Chi Minh:

Leader of Vietnamese Communist Party
Major leader of Vietnamese resistance to the Japanese
Vietminh declared independence from France in 1945.
Ho quoted from U.S. Declaration of Independence.

General Giap:

Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, Who Ousted U.S. From Vietnam, Is Dead

Vietminh war against the French

U.S. had a choice:

a) Support Ho Chi Minh's bid for independence
b) Support French return to Indochina

We supported the French return.
Context: containment of communism
We paid 80% of the costs of French war against Vietminh

Dienbienphu (May 1954)

French fall to Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu ( This Day in History | 5/7/1954)

French withdrawal from Indochina

Geneva peace conference (July 1954)

Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel.
Ho's forces gained control of North Vietnam.
Election to unify the country was scheduled for 1956.
America, figuring Ho Chi Minh would win, did not permit the election.

U.S. replaced France in Vietnam



Ground combat took place within South Vietnam

U.S. never invaded North Vietnam

U.S. pursued an air war against North Vietnam

Enemy side:

North Vietnam and those living in South Vietnam (called Viet Cong) who will fight against the United States

Our side:

United States and those South Vietnamese friendly to U.S.

Our man in Vietnam: Ngo Dinh Diem

Our initial handpicked leader in South Vietnam
No real alternative leader in South Vietnam to Ho Chi Minh in the North
U.S. backed Ngo Dinh Diem

He consolidated power over internal rivals (we wish the leaders of Iraq and Afghanistan could do the same):
Diem was a Catholic (in a mostly Buddhist country)
Bachelor (role of his family, especially brother and his sister-in-law)

His brother: Ngo Dinh Nhu
His sister-in-law: Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu

Diem's oppressive policies and persecution of Buddhists made him unpopular
Vietnamese monk burning himself to death

CIA backed an overthrow of Diem (who was murdered)

The Ugly American Telegram

Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem
JFK himself was assassinated three weeks later.

Kennedy's escalation of the U.S. war effort

North Vietnam and Viet Cong increased attempts to win in South
South Vietnam on the verge of losing
JFK had sent 16,000 American advisors.
Big historical question: what would Kennedy have done had he lived?

After Diem, revolving-door governments in South Vietnam
Comparisons to Iraq and Afghanistan

Why did we let Diem be overthrown?
Was there any better alternative?
Was the country itself able to operate as a country?
Could and would the South Vietnamese leaders actually lead their own people?
At what point could the U.S. have gotten out of Vietnam?


Friday Songs [3 more weeks and we'll be through]

In class today: "Jail, no bail"

My thanks to Austin Razor and Trevor Pine for asking a question about this civil rights policy.

Here are two good links to help understand it.

Friendship Nine

Rock Hill SC, "Jail-No-Bail" Sit-ins (Feb-Mar) [scroll down a bit on the web page]

In class today: new material

Birmingham continued

3. Sheriff "Bull" Connor

Bull Connor
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

4. JFK TV speech.

He was afraid of losing votes of white southern Democrats. He finally spoke out: "Civil rights is a moral issue."

Medgar Evers murdered

Evers was the Mississippi head of NAACP.

Medgar Evers
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

March on Washington (28 August 1963)

Eyes on the Prize: March on Washington
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

Martin Luther King and the race riot that never was

An overlooked dream, now remembered [How the Washington Post missed the story]

MLK "I Have a Dream Speech"

One of the great speeches in U.S. history.

Delivered as part of the program during a March on Washington (60,000 whites and 190,00 blacks).

Martin Luther King Jr. Delivers “I Have a Dream” Speech (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing (13 September 1963)

Bomb exploded during Sunday School, killing four teenage black girls.

The Sunday school lesson for that morning was "A Love that Forgives."

Four Girls Killed in Birmingham Church Bombing (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

John F. Kennedy assassinated (22 November 1963)

Lyndon B. Johnson became President.


Freedom Summer

Local black leaders aided by white students from elite colleges .

Whites saw this activity as "invasion" by outside agitators.

Eyes on the Prize: Freedom Summer
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

One Volunteer's Freedom Summer

Voter registration

No real power for blacks until they could vote. But risked their lives if they went through with the process.

Alabama Voter Registration form [See if you can fill this out!! I can't.]

Murder in Mississippi (21 June 1964)

Two white and one black civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi.

Three Civil Rights Workers in Mississippi Go Missing (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

Civil Rights Act (1 July 1964)

Johnson signs Civil Rights Act ( This Day in History | 7/2/1964)

MLK won the Nobel Peace Prize . (14 October 1964)

MLK Wins Nobel Peace Prize 1964 (New York Times)


Selma to Montgomery, Alabama march

"Bloody Sunday".

Eyes on the Prize: Selma to Montgomery
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

Selma-to-Montgomery March Begins (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

LBJ speech

Asks Joint Session of Congress for sweeping civil rights legislation.

Ends speech with "we shall overcome."

His southern friends appalled at his sellout.

Watts Riots

Watts Riots 1965 (New York Times)


Black power

Militant black leaders gained prominence in SNCC, questioned Martin Luther King's philosophy of nonviolence, and forced white members to leave the organization.

Black Power

Black Panther Party

Founded in California. Major figures: Eldridge Cleaver, Huey Newton, and Bobby Seale. Advocated violent confrontation with whites.

Political platform


Tet Offensive in Vietnam (February)

Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (April: in Memphis)

Assassination of MLK
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy (June: in Los Angeles)

Senator Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

Black Power Salute at Mexico City Olympics

U.S. Athletes Give Black Power Salute on Olympic Podium (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

50 stunning Olympic moments: Tommie Smith and John Carlos salute (Guardian)

Hispanic School Protests in Los Angeles

East LA Walkouts

Sal Castro and the 1968 East LA Walkouts


In class today: new material



MLK and his wife spent a month in India studying Gandhi's non–violence.

MLK explanation of his philosophy of non-violence

King's Trip to India
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)



Eyes on the Prize: Nonviolent Protests
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

Greensboro Four: Civil Rights Sit-in

Greensboro Sit-Ins: Launch of a Civil Rights Movement (Greensboro Sit-in Museum)

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC--pronounced "snick")

Established to coordinate sit–ins across the south.

John Lewis (currently a member of the United States House of Representatives)
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

Diane Nash

MLK jailed (October)

During the 1960 presidential election campaign, concern expressed by both JFK and Robert Kennedy for the arrest and prison sentence of Martin Luther King, Jr., earned Kennedy the black vote.


Freedom Rides

A group of black and white persons set out by bus from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans to test the "whites only" facilities of southern interstate bus terminals.

Freedom Riders (American Experience) [Rides, People, Issues]

Trace the map of the rides

Freedom Ride Protests Provoke Violent Backlash Across American South (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

Eyes on the Prize: Freedom Rides
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

Letter from a Freedom Rider's Father

Freedom Rider Jim Zwerg


University of Mississippi Desegregated

James Meredith desegregated the University of Mississippi.

James Meredith Graduates From Ole Miss (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)


Project "C" [Confrontation] in Birmingham

Birmingham, Alabama (called "Bombingham" by civil rights workers, due to so many unsolved bombings).

Eyes on the Prize: Birmingham
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

1. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail"

Written by MLK while in jail. Response to an ad from white pastors telling him that he was stirring up too much trouble.

Letter from Birmingham Jail (Encyclopedia of Alabama)

Text of letter

2. Birmingham Children's march.
Police dogs and fire hoses. TV coverage shocked America.

Childrens' Crusade
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

3. Sheriff "Bull" Connor

Bull Connor
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)

4. JFK TV speech.

He was afraid of losing votes of white southern Democrats. He finally spoke out: "Civil rights is a moral issue."

Medgar Evers murdered

Evers was the Mississippi head of NAACP.

Medgar Evers
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)


In class today: Civil Rights (3 class sessions will be devoted to this module)

Main websites we will employ in this module:

1. Eyes on the Prize
Try to work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

2. Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University) Online Encyclopedia

The following extensive chronology will help us tie together the events of the civil rights movement:

Follow with me by using Google Images on your laptop for each person and event.

Jim Crow laws (Segregation)

Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (PBS)
A Century of Segregation [Let's click through the timeline and open a few of the notes]

Plessy versus Ferguson (1896) (Supreme Court decision)

Separate but equal is ok.

Plessy versus Ferguson (Today in History, Library of Congress)


Post World War II. Returning black veterans unwilling to accept second–class status back home.

Racial desegregation of the armed forces (1948) by executive order of President Truman.


Brown v. Board of Education (Supreme Court decision)

Overturned the decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
"Separate facilities are inherently unequal" and therefore unconstitutional.

Argued by Thurgood Marshall on behalf of the NAACP.

Supreme Court Ends School Segregation (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)


Emmett Till's Murder (28 August 1955)

Murder in Mississippi of a young black teenager from Chicago for having insulted a white women.

Eyes on the Prize: Emmett Till
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

Who was Emmett Till? (BBC News)


Montgomery, Alabama, Bus Boycott (Rosa Parks)

Rosa Parks arrested on 1 December 1955

Montgomery Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)
[check out what all is on the page, especially the "related items" on the right side]

Eyes on the Prize: Montgomery Bus Boycott
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Citizen Martin Luther King (American Experience)


Southern Manifesto

Document signed by 100 Southern members of Congress: they would not obey the Brown versus Board of Education decision.

White Citizens' Councils

Brought economic power to bear.

White Citizens' Councils
Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute (Stanford University)


Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Grouping of African-American pastors.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Encyclopedia of Alabama)

Little Rock Central High School

Little Rock, Arkansas. Central High School desegregated. Arkansas Governor Faubus. Nine black students. President Eisenhower sent 101st Airborne.

Arkansas National Guard Bars “Little Rock Nine” From School (On This Day: Finding Dulcinea)

Eyes on the Prize: Little Rock High School
Work through each tab: "Introduction"; "Context"; "Press"; "Music"; "Video"; and "Gallery"




In class today: new material

1960 Presidential Election

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Nixon and Kennedy Hold First Ever Presidential Debate

John F. Kennedy (Democrat) defeated Richard M. Nixon (Republican)

1960 Election campaign commercials

Peace Corps

Peace Corps (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum)

Great image collage about Peace Corps (Washington Post)

Berlin Wall (August 1961)

Soviets built a wall to keep people from fleeing East Berlin.

Berliners Awake to a Divided City (BBC On This Day)

The Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall - Photo Essays (TIME)
The first 5 pictures are the most relevant for us.,29307,1631993_1383208,00.html

The Berlin Wall Through Time - Interactive Feature (New York Times) [comparison photos]

President Kennedy's Speech at the Berlin Wall (26 June 1963)

On a visit to Berlin, to show support to the city, Kennedy declared [in German] "I am a Berliner."

Compare with how we are reacting today to the crisis in the Ukraine/Crimea.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day [26 June 1963]: President Kennedy Declares “Ich bin ein Berliner”

26 Jun 1963: Kennedy: 'Ich bin ein Berliner' speech (BBC On This Day)

Cuba and Castro

1. Fidel Castro ousted American–backed dictator Fulgencio Batista (1959)

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Batista Flees Cuba and Castro Takes Power

Fidel Castro (American Experience)

2. Castro's Cuba became an ally of the Soviet Union.

3. America freaked. President Eisenhower (Ike) broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Eisenhower Places Embargo on Exports to Cuba

4. Ike ordered CIA to use Cuban exiles to raid Cuba in an attempt to overthrow Castro.

Bay of Pigs invasion (April 1961)

1. Kennedy approved the Eisenhower-initiated plan to topple Castro.
2. The 1,500 man invasion force was unsuccessful.
3. No uprising against Castro occurred.
4. Kennedy took all the blame. His poll ratings went up! Kennedy in his first Hundred Days.

Bay of Pigs (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum)

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Bay of Pigs Invasion Embarrasses US

Cuban missile crisis (October 1962)

The closest the world has come to having a nuclear war.

1. Soviet's secretly installed offensive missiles in Cuba. Our U-2 flights discovered them.

The Cuban Missile Crisis photographs (National Security Archive, George Washington University)

2. Kennedy (JFK) laid out a range of options to deal with the threat: bomb airfields, invade Cuba, etc.

3. JFK chose a naval blockade (quarantine) of Cuba.

4. Much negotiation between both sides took place behind the scenes.

4. Soviets ships eventually turned back before they got to U.S blockade.

Cuban Missile Crisis (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum)

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Cuban Missile Crisis Begins

50 Years Ago: The Cuban Missile Crisis (Alan Taylor/The Atlantic) [26 photos]

Cuban Missile Crisis
Interactive exhibit from the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
World on the Brink: Thirteen Days in October 1962
Go to
1. Click on "Begin The Thirteen Days"
2. Click your way through each of the thirteen days.
3. Read what is on each screen. You can click on each visual to enlarge it.

Kennedy Assassination

On This Day: Kennedy assassinated


In class today: new material

Korean War (1950-1953)

Start of the Korean War video

MacArthur dismissed and Korean armistice video

Battle of the Chosin Reservoir video (5 minutes)

The Korean War: An Overview (BBC)

Let's spend a few minutes with this map of the Korean War

Great Korean War maps in this one!

Here is a summary of the specific events during the war:

1. North Korea attacked across 38th parallel into South Korea (25 June 1950)

25 Jun 1950: UN condemns North Korean invasion (BBC On This Day)

2. President Truman, determined to "contain" communism, committed U.S. forces to battle.

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: General Douglas MacArthur Named Commander of UN Forces

Historic Headlines | June 27, 1950: Truman Orders U.S. Forces to Fight in Korean War (New York Times)
[See how this article adds to the Finding Dulcinea approach.]

3. Pusan perimeter: North Koreans advanced all the way to southern tip of South Korea.

4. Inchon invasion. Douglas MacArthur reversed initial tide of the war.

U.S. forces pushed to the Yalu River (North Korea's border with PRC)

8. Chinese troops entered the Korean War.

9. U.S. embarrassed militarily, particularly at the Chosin Reservoir

10. MacArthur now looked like a chump.

11. Civilian control of the military became a hot issue.

12. MacArthur: wanted to expand the war to the Chinese mainland; use nuclear weapons

13. Truman: wanted to keep conflict limited; not risk Soviet entry and a possible World War Three

14. President Truman fired General MacArthur

15. War's results. U.S. casualties: 34,000 dead.

16. Sometimes called the "Forgotten War": frustrating; no clear victory.

17. Issues today: U.S. troops in South Korea; North Korea threat

President Dwight D. Eisenhower

American Experience: The Presidents series

Dwight D. Eisenhower (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Sputnik (1957)

Soviets launched a satellite that scared America and put them (the Soviets) ahead (temporarily) in the space race.

04 Oct 1957: Sputnik satellite blasts into space (BBC On This Day))

U–2 incident (1 May 1960)

American U–2 spy plane carrying high–powered cameras crashed 1,200 miles inside the Soviet Union.

U-2 flight path:

After denying presence of such a spy plane, President Eisenhower (Ike) accepted the blame.

American CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers put on trial in the Soviet Union.
(He was later exchanged for a Soviet spy.)

17 May 1960: East-West summit in tatters after U-2 spy plane incident (BBC On This Day)

President John F. Kennedy

I. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum

II. John F. Kennedy
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

III. Kennedy photos
[Check out #26 with his brothers Robert and Ted]


In class today: new material

Berlin blockade and airlift (1948–49)

Great video on airlift and formation of NATO

1. Soviets blocked land access to Berlin.
2. U.S. airlifted food and fuel for 2 million West Berliners lasting ten months.
3. Flights of 1,000 planes a day (every 3 minutes) for ten months.
4. Soviets finally called off blockade.

Soviet Union Ends Berlin Blockade

Berlin Airlift (American Experience): The Candy Bomber (Gail Halvorsen)

Berlin Airlift: Static Map

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)

1. Established to defend Europe against a Soviet invasion.
2. U.S. foreign policy change: not since French–American alliance (1778)
3. Members pledged to treat an attack against one as an attack on all.
4. Dwight Eisenhower named initial NATO commander.
5. Four U.S. divisions stationed in Europe to evidence American support.
6. Soviets later formed Warsaw Pact in response.


Anti–communist hysteria
Named for Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin)


#6 Red Scare and HUAC

#7 Alger Hiss case and the Rosenbergs

#8 McCarthyism

09 Feb 1950: McCarthy launches anti-Red crusade (BBC On This Day)


Here are some of the key names and major events associated with McCarthyism:

1. J.Edgar Hoover (head of the FBI): fear of internal subversion by Communist spies became intertwined with fear of external attack by the Soviet Union.

2. Spy revelations gave people cause to be alarmed

3. People began pointing accusing fingers at each other. Red-baiting.

4. "Hollywood Ten" (screenwriters and directors) jailed for contempt of Congress.

They refused to provide names of alleged Communists.
Others were blacklisted—even if only accused.
Those who did provide names (Elia Kazan) are controversial to this day

“Hollywood Ten” Blacklisted by Movie Studios (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

5. Schoolteachers had to take loyalty oaths and were fired if they refused.

6. Downfall of McCarthy

a. President Eisenhower: reluctance to confront McCarthy.

b. Televised hearings: Army–McCarthy.

Army-McCarthy Hearings First Televised

c. US Senate condemns McCarthy (BBC On This Day)

Reconstruction of Japan

Role of U.S. in controlling postwar Japan (Douglas MacArthur)

To help contain communism in Asia, we eventually built up Japan.

Japan turned into a formidable economic competitor.

People's Republic of China (PRC) (1949)

1. Chinese Civil War (1945-1949)

War between the forces of Mao Tse-Tung's Commuists and our World War II ally, Chang Kai-Shek.

2. Mao Tse-Tung's Communists won. Establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949).

Let's look at this summary together.

3. Chang Kai-Shek and his supporters were forced to leave mainland China and move to the island of Taiwan (formerly called Formosa).

4. The Communist victory had a major influence on American politics.

Republicans criticized Democrats for the "loss" of China to the Communists.

A defeat for containment.


China 1949 (Historian of the State Department)

Establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949).


Main focus is the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (USSR).

Hot war==actual shooting
Cold war==hostility but either no actual shooting or war through surrogates


Containment of Soviets became the cornerstone of American foreign policy.

Great video on containment: Churchill "Iron Curtain" speech and Kennan

George F. Kennan

1. Kennan's "Long telegram" 1946

a. American diplomat in Moscow.
b. Soviet fanaticism made even a temporary understanding impossible.
c. His report played into a growing belief among American officials that only toughness would work with the Soviets.

The United States needs a new Long Telegram

2. Kennan's "Mr. X" article.

a. The article, titled the Sources of Soviet Conduct and based on the "long telegram," was published in the prestigious Foreign Affairs magazine.
b. Author (Kennan) advocated a policy of firm containment of the Soviets.
c. "Confront the Soviets with unalterable counterforce at every point where they show signs of encroaching on the interests of a peaceful and stable world."

Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech (1946)

Churchill Delivers Iron Curtain Speech (Finding Dulcinea: On This Day)

Churchill Iron Curtain Speech Assails Soviet Policy
1. Warned that a Soviet "iron curtain" had cut off Eastern European countries from the West.
2. Called for an Anglo–American partnership to resist the communist menace.

Map: After World War II. Iron Curtain

President Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman
Miller Center (University of Virginia)

Truman Doctrine (1947)

Great video on Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan

President Truman Establishes Truman Doctrine

Truman doctrine: "U.S. policy to support free peoples who are resisting attempted takeover by (a) armed minorities or (b) outside pressure."

1. British had no money to continue to help Greece and Turkey.

2. British claimed that Communists threatened both countries.

3. Congress approved $400 million economic aid to Greece & Turkey.

Marshall Plan (1948)

Marshall Plan (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

1. War damage and dislocation in Europe invited communist influence:

a. Food was scarce; workers were demoralized; winter of 1947 was the worst in 50 years
b. Communist voting strength was growing in France and Italy

2. U.S. offered economic aid to all European countries (including Soviets)

3. Soviets declined: fearing aid might defeat their control of Eastern Europe

Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance ( This Day in History | 7/2/1947)

4. U.S. gave $17 billion in aid over four years.

5. That aid helped rebuild Europe. It was also good for American business.


In class today: video (45 minutes)

America's Time: Stormy Weather, 1929-1936

Open the same document you used for our last video. As you watch today's video, record your reactions and questions.


Stock Market Crash (1929)

Business context

1. Increasing flow of consumer goods: autos, radios, and household appliances

2. Installment credit increased sales

3. Optimism in the air
Unlimited prosperity would never end
"Blue skies keep smiling on me"

4. But the consumer–goods revolution contained seeds of its own collapse.

  • Factories produced more than country could consume.
  • Workers had insufficient purchasing power.
  • Farmers were particularly suffering.

5. Stock market crash in October 1929 burst the bubble.

Black Tuesday, Stock Market Crash Ushers in Great Depression (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

Beginning of the depression.

1. Between 1929 and 1932, industrial production declined by almost 45%
Decline of production led to plant closings and unemployment.

2. Unemployment rose quickly:
  • 1930—5 million (15% unemployment)
  • 1931—9 million (25%)
  • 1932—12 million (40%)

3. Bank failures rose steadily.

4. Protectionism

Smoot–Hawley tariff raised U.S. import duties to an all–time high.
Difficult for other countries to sell their products in U.S.
Difficult for them to earn dollars to buy American products.
Other countries raised their tariffs in retaliation.

Ben Stein's take on Smoot-Hawley (New York Times)

Ben Stein take on Smoot-Hawley in Ferris Bueller's Day Off (YouTube)

5. Depression dominated American life for 10 years (1929–1939).

a. People postponed marriage; married couples postponed having children.
b. Malnutrition and deteriorating diets made people susceptible to disease.
c. Out–of–work fathers felt ashamed of their diminished roles.

1932 Presidential Election

Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) defeated Herbert Hoove

President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) (1933-1945)

Paralyzed nation strengthened by physically–handicapped President

Google Images: Franklin Roosevelt

Paralyzed nation strengthened by physically–handicapped President

Google Images: Franklin Roosevelt and polio

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt

Details on her life.

Google Images: Eleanor Roosevelt

Great advocate of social justice; admired by African-Americans.

Marion Anderson concert at the Lincoln Memorial, 1939


First 100 Days

Congress was in session for one hundred days before it adjourned.
During this period, FDR went fifteen for fifteen in major legislation.
Subsequent presidents are measured by this impossible standard.

Saving the Banks

Context: prior bank failures
FDR issued a decree closing all banks in America
This approach called a "banking holiday"

Emergency Banking Relief Act.

Provided for government supervision and assistance to banks
Strong ones would be reopened with federal support
Weak ones would be closed
Deposit insurance ($5,000) would be available

Banking Crisis (University of Virginia)

Fireside chats

FDR made great use of radio to reach public.

First Fireside Chat: The Banking Crisis

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

Farming in the 1930s

Three million people left farms in the 1930s.
Agricultural Adjustment Act was designed to help farm problems:

Low prices paid for crops
Low income of farmers
Difficulty of paying mortgages
Rise in farm foreclosures

The act provided for the following:
Government paid subsidies to farmers who
a) Restricted crop acreage: wheat, cotton, corn, rice, or tobacco
b) Reduced number of livestock, particularly pigs.

Dust Bowl

Drought and poor farming techniques led to dust storms.
Many from Oklahoma (Okies) and Arkansas (Arkies) fled to California.

Dust Bowl (Finding Dulcinea)

Use "Dust Bowl 1930" as search term in Google Images.

American Experience: Dust Bowl
Surviving the Dust Bowl
Then go to Photo Gallery.

Grapes of Wrath

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

Job corps for young men, aged 18–25.
Supervised by U.S. army.
Workers paid $30 per month, of which $25 had to be sent to family.
Pumped $2 billion into economy (equivalent to $200 billion today).
Work planned by National Park Service:
Tree planting (North Dakota to Texas), flood control, road construction.

American Experience: Civilian Conservation Corps
Go to Photo Gallery. Click through the photos there.

America in the 1930s (UVA). This is terrific.

1. Timeline—by year. Check out how incredible this is!!

2. Depression Slang
Deal particularly with these two parts:
a. Click on "Shoot Some Soda Jerk Slang" and work through that section.
b. Click on "Don't Be Dead Between the Ears, Check Out Some Jivin' Slang" and work through that section.

Opposition to the New Deal

a) Conservative critics. Republicans did not like government control of the economy.

b) Liberal critics:

1) Father Charles Coughlin.

Catholic priest from Detroit
Weekly radio sermons (30 million audience)
Criticized the New Deal
Proposed a National Union for Social Justice to counter the New Deal.
Anti-Semite: depression caused by international Jewish bankers.
Expressed support for Hitler's approach to running Germany.

Reverend Charles E. Coughlin

2) Dr. Francis E. Townsend

Proposed an Old Age Revolving Pensions plan
Every person over age 60 would get a $200 per month pension.
His plan would cost 50% of national income to help 7% of population.

3) Huey Long.

Former Governor of and Democratic Senator from Louisiana.
Proposed a Share Our Wealth Society
Tax rich people heavily
Furnish each family an annual income of $2,500
Assassinated in 1935

Every Man a King (American Rhetoric Speech Bank)

Social Security Act

FICA deduction today.
Designed to prevent more radical alternatives (Townsend and Long)
Workers required to pay into it
Answer to critics of "relief"
Worker's payment matched by employer

Social Security Act (Finding Dulcinea)

Frances Perkins

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

WPA (Today in History, Library of Congress)

Emphasized under-consumption.
Massive public works programs for the jobless
Home relief (the dole) versus work relief.

Employed 3 million men as manual laborers: roads, hospitals, bridges.
Employed educated persons: Federal Art, Writers', Theater Projects
Criticized by conservatives as make-work

Presidential Election of 1936

FDR won a second term easily

FDR attempt at "Court Packing" (Supreme Court)

Court Packing (Finding Dulcinea)

Court declared AAA and NIRA unconstitutional on 5-4 votes.
FDR wanted to appoint pro–New Deal justices
Proposed six new ones (one for every member over age 70).
Congress (both parties) opposed the plan
Felt he was overreaching and looking like a dictator.

Issue became moot: a swing justice changed his voting pattern.

The so-called "switch in time that saved nine"
Owen Roberts (Wikipedia)

Presidential Election of 1940,_1940

War had started in Europe on 1 September 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland.

FDR won historic third term.

New Deal assessed

New Deal failed in its fundamental purpose: to put people back to work and end the depression.

Depression only ended due to World War II.

But New Deal gave Americans back their psychological will to overcome.

In the past, federal government had served as an economic regulator.
During New Deal, it became an economic guarantor and stimulator as well.

Congressional Republicans are currently trying to limit the size of government, much of which began with the New Deal.


World War Two: the material is arranged by year


Japan became a major threat to U.S. goals in Asia:

Standard Map: Pacific Theater

(1) Japan's "New Order" in Asia

Wanted a sphere of influence in Asia
Similar to United States in Latin America
U.S. unwilling to permit such Japanese influence.
United States had major interests at stake in Asia:
Philippines and various Pacific islands
Religious missions
Trade and investments
Open Door in China.

(2) Japanese seized Manchuria (1931)

American response: Stimson Doctrine of nonrecognition
Mere moral lecture
U.S. had neither the means nor will to use military force.


Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany (1/30)

Franklin Roosevelt became President of the United States (3/4)

U.S. recognized Soviet Union. To increase trade. To halt Japanese expansion.


U.S. Neutrality Acts. Neutrality Acts an expression of isolationist sentiment.

Congress sought to protect the nation by outlawing the contacts that had compromised U.S. neutrality during World War I.


Expansion in Europe by Germany, 1930s

German expansion in Europe
On this web page, scroll down to Discussion Goal #3

Germany reoccupied the Rhineland (3/7)

1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin (August)
Jesse Owens (American Experience)

America's Time - 1936-1941: Over The Edge
Open the same document you used for our last video. As you watch today's video, record your reactions and questions.

Civil war in Spain. (1936-1939)

Spanish Civil War (Today in History, Library of Congress)


Democratically-elected (left-wing) Spanish government: supported by Soviet Union and international mercenaries (Abraham Lincoln brigade from America)

Challenger: General Francisco Franco (right-wing) supported by Germany and Italy (fascists).

Franco eventually won.

Britain, France, and U.S. looked the other way.


Beginning of World War II in Asia.

Japanese invasion of mainland China (7 July 1937)

China then was a U.S. ally.

Chiang Kai-shek (Wikipedia)

Madame Chiang Kai-Shek


Expansion in Europe by Germany, 1930s

1. German invasion and annexation of Austria (12 March 1938)

2. Munich agreement (Chamberlain/Hitler) (15 September 1938). Czech Sudetenland to Germany.

3. Appeasement issue


1. Germany occupied remainder of Czechoslovakia (March)

2. German-Russian Non-Aggression Pact (8/23). The odd couple: fascists and communists. Agreed not to attack each other.

3. German invasion of Poland (1 September 1939).
Beginning of World War II in Europe

Nazi Germany Invades Poland, Starting World War II (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)

4. U.S. declared neutrality (5 September 1939). U.S. still trying to stay out of war

Legislating Neutrality, 1934-1939 (EDSITEment)


1. German blitzkrieg (lightning warfare) [today we call it "shock and awe"]

Blitzkrieg: Germany's Lightning War (BBC)

2. Germans invade Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium

3. Dunkirk: British and French evacuated from beach (6/4)

Dunkirk evacuation

Dunkirk (BBC)

4. France conquered (6/5-6/25)

14 June 1940 German troops enter Paris (BBC On This Day)

[Keep in mind:]

Hitler's conquests and attacks in Europe made French, Dutch, and British colonies in Asia vulnerable to Japanese attack.

Japan had been at war in China since 1937.

Japan will not attack Pearl Harbor until December 1941.

[Return to chronology]

Blitz and Battle of Britain: Britain attacked by air (June-December 1940). "Blitz." Prelude to expected German invasion.

7 September 1940 London Blitzed by German Bombers (BBC On This Day)

Why this was important:

US needs to help Britain hang on against possible Nazi invasion.

US is still neutral (or at least not involved in any fighting) at this point.

World War II lineup leaders:

A. The Allies

United States: Franklin D.Roosevelt
Great Britain: Winston Churchill
Soviet Union: Josef Stalin
France: Charles DeGaulle
China: Chang Kai–Shek

B. The other side:

Germany: Adolf Hitler
Italy: Benito Mussolini
Japan: General Hideki Tojo; Emperor Hirohito


Lend–Lease Act

U.S. became the "arsenal of democracy" by lending and leasing American military goods to those fighting against the Axis powers.

American unemployment dropped as our industries geared up to produce war material.

Germany invaded Soviet Union (June 22)

Major mistake.

22 Jun 1941: Hitler invades the Soviet Union (BBC News On This Day)

World War II movies + Band of Brothers

Let's remember to refer back to these two maps:



Japan attacked Pearl Harbor (December 7)

The Growth of U.S.-Japanese Hostility, 1915-1932 (EDSITEment)

The Road to Pearl Harbor (EDSITEment)

Japanese initial victories:

Philippines, Malaya, Thailand, Hong Kong.

Remember: the war between China and Japan going on simultaneously.


Doolittle raid on Tokyo (4/18)

Animated Map

Great video

Battle of Midway

U.S. wins. Turning point in Pacific war

7 Jun 1942 Japanese beaten in Battle of Midway (BBC On This Day)



Turning point of the war in Europe.

2 Feb 1943 Germans surrender at Stalingrad (BBC On This Day)

Soviets can now go on the offensive.

Teheran Conference (1943)

Dispute b/n Britain & U.S: when/where Europe invaded.

Soviets demanded a second front.

Soviets bore brunt of land war until mid–1944.

Decision was finally made on a cross-channel invasion against Europe mainland

Eisenhower was named to be Supreme Commander of Allied Forces

1 Dec 1943 Allies united after Tehran conference (BBC On This Day)


D-Day==Normandy invasion==Operation Overlord==6 June 1944

Biggest invasion armada in world history (5,000 ships, 150,000 men).

Animated Map: The D-Day Landings

Read the description for each of the four maps: The Atlantic Wall, Concentration of Forces, The Landings, Securing the Beachheads

Fascinating tidbit: U.S. Paratrooper Joseph Beyrle fought for both U.S. and Soviets.

Battle of the Bulge.

Overview: Battle of the Bulge

17 Dec 1944 Germany attacks in Ardennes (BBC On This Day)

Photo Gallery: Battle of the Bulge


Yalta Conference (February)

Yalta Conference (BBC On This Day)

Soviets would control most of Eastern Europe.
Germany would be divided.
Soviets would fight Japan three months after German surrender

Iwo Jima (February-March)

23 Feb 1945: US flag raised over Iwo Jima (BBC On This Day)

Okinawa (April)

Attacks by 3,000 kamikaze planes on U.S. fleet.

Remembering Japan's kamikaze pilots

21 Jun 1945: US troops take Okinawa (BBC On This Day)

Victory in Europe

FDR died (12 April 1945)

Hitler killed himself (30 April 1945)

Germany surrendered (7 May)

Victory against Japan

Factors involved in the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan:

1. Fear that the Soviet Union would soon enter the war against Japan
2. Concern that a land war in Japan would result in massive American casualties


1. First atomic bomb: Hiroshima (6 August 1945)

6 Aug 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima (BBC On This Day)

2. Soviets entered war in Pacific with 1.5 million troops (8 August 1945)

3. Second atomic bomb: Nagasaki (9 August 1945)

9 August 1945 U.S. drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki (BBC On This Day)

Fascinating tidbit: Japanese survivor of both atomic bombs

4. Japanese surrendered (2 September 1945)
Emperor allowed to keep his throne
Allied Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur would rule Japan.

American and the Holocaust (American Experience)
My Website Spotlight blog post

Death Toll of World War II

World–wide: 55 million
United States: 405,000
Soviet Union: 21 million (one–ninth of Soviet population).

Postwar position of the U.S.

We suffered little damage to our own land.
We emerged as the world leader