A note about my approach to our material

I don't want you to think I'm just reading to you when we go over an article.
I want you to practice an important skill: close reading.
I pick short, tightly-written articles.
It is tempting for all of us to merely skim them.
But the meat of our course is in these articles.
So rather than me lecturing or doing power points, I am developing the material through the close reading of the articles.
A great advantage for you is to be able to reread the article to review for our exams.






Timeline: Gilded Age
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/timeline.pdf






William Graham Sumner Social Darwinism

Emergence videos

Immigrants in America video series
Nativism
American Protective Association

Biographies

Jane Addams
Denis Kearney
Ellis Island
Angel Island
Boss Tweed
George Washington Plunkett
Walter Rauschenbusch
Billy Sunday
Dwight Moody
William McKinley
Theodore Roosevelt
William Jennings Bryan
John Pershing

Horatio Alger
John D. Rockefeller
Andrew Carnegie
J.P. Morgan
Thomas Edison
Henry Ford
Frederick W. Taylor

Terence Powderly
Samuel Gompers

Panic of 1873
Railroad Strike of 1877
Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
Haymarket Riot (1886)
Anarchists
Homestead Strike (1892)
Henry Frick
Panic of 1893
Columbian Exposition (1893)
Coxey's Army (1893)
Pullman Strike (1894)
George Pullman
Eugene Debs

Election of 1896
Bloody Shirt
Reconciliation after Civil War
Lost Cause
Connection to monuments discussion these days Mark Hanna

Great White Fleet




VIDEOS

Unit 2: Gilded Age and Progressive Era
List all of them with URL
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLDyAuMyhVKYfxYE05KMPcmzXngLsZtiAU

Music from the Gilded Age
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLzxddX3RlZftGjx_dGmunxpMt-1hMxYk6

Social Gospel
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/twenty/tkeyinfo/socgospel.htm

Walter Rauschenbusch
http://www.pbs.org/godinamerica/people/walter-rauschenbusch.html

Rauschenbusch
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text9/rauschenbusch.pdf

Links: Foreign Missionary movement
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nlinksfmmovement.htm

Billy Sunday
http://www2.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/sunday/sunday01.html

Dwight Moody
http://www.washingtonubf.org/Resources/Leaders/DwightMoody.html

Gilded Age toolbox NHC
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/index.htm

"You will love history" playlists






Political Machines/Political Bosses

Urban growth strained city government.
Political machines and their bosses filled in the cracks for immigrants
Solving problems of everyday life:
Son arrested
Husband needed a job
Family needed coal for furnace
Traded such favors for votes

Political bosses made money on:
Public contracts (trash collection, for example)
Utility or streetcar franchises
Distribution of city jobs

See also:

The Sage of Tammany Hall (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/28/nyregion/thecity/28plun.html?pagewanted=all

George Washington Plunkitt of Tammany Hall (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text7/plunkitt.pdf

Boss Tweed Escapes from Prison (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/December/Boss-Tweed-Escapes-From-Prison.html






Social workers: Settlement Houses

Jane Addams obituary
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0906.html

Key name: Jane Addams

Hull House in Chicago (1889).

Located in center–city, immigrant neighborhoods.
Staffers: young; middle–class; college–educated; white women.

Emphasis placed on:.
English language classes
Courses in cooking, sewing, and household skills
Infant welfare clinics
Bathhouses

Jane Addams | National Women's History Museum
http://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/biographies/jane-addams

Jane Addams & The Hull House
http://youtu.be/11QWd-1thPQ

Hull House
Urban Experience In Chicago: Historical Narrative Contents
http://hullhouse.uic.edu/hull/urbanexp/main.cgi?file=new/historical_narrative_contents.ptt






IMMIGRATION

Roman Catholics and Immigration in Nineteenth-Century America (National Humanities Center)
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/nromcath.htm

Antwerp to Ellis Island: Journey of a Lifetime
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/28/arts/design/antwerp-to-ellis-island-journey-of-a-lifetime.html

Lewis W. Hine, photographs of immigrants, Ellis Island
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text4/hine.pdf

Immigration
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/immigration.html

Learning Objectives:

What were the similarities and differences between the immigrants of the period 1880-1920 and previous immigrants?

How did immigrants adjust to and reshape their adopted homeland?

What push (why they left their native country)/pull (why they came to America) factors might have influenced the migration of different immigrant groups: German, Italian, Polish, Jewish, etc.

What influence did the immigrant cultures have on America? What influence did America have on them?




Angel Island
http://www.kqed.org/w/pacificlink/history/angelisland/

IMMIGRATION: CHINESE IN CALIFORNIA

Chinese Immigration and the Chinese Exclusion Acts
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/chinese-immigration

Chinese Exclusion Act (Harvard University)
http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/exclusion.html

Immigration Act of 1924 (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/immigration-act

1. Chinese Immigration to the United States (Library of Congress American Memory Timeline)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/

Each of the documents are contained on the above page

Mark Twain's Observations About Chinese Immigrants in California
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/twain.html

A Memorial from Representative Chinamen in America to President U.S. Grant
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/briggs.html

Mary Cone Describes the Chinaman in California
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/mcone.html

David Phillips Discusses the "Chinese Question"
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/phillips.html

Hinton Rowan Helper on Chinese Immigration
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/helper.html

"Enactments So Utterly Un-American"
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/cummings.html

Edward Holton's Observations About Denis Kearney, a Leading Advocate of Chinese Exclusion
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/holton.html

William C. Pond's Ministry Among Chinese Immigrants in San Francisco
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/chinimms/pond.html

2. A Chinese Immigrant Makes his Home in Turn-of-the-Century America
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/41/

A Chinese Immigrant Makes his Home in Turn-of-the-Century America
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/41/

Don’t think Trump will ever pass a Muslim Exclusion Act? Just ask Sen. James G. Blaine.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/12/08/the-gop-front-runner-wants-to-ban-a-whole-group-of-people-this-isnt-the-first-time-thats-happened/

Donald Trump meet Wong Kim Ark, the Chinese American cook who is the father of ‘birthright citizenship’
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/08/31/donald-trump-meet-wong-kim-ark-the-chinese-american-cook-who-is-the-father-of-birthright-citizenship/

Chinese Immigration
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/chinese.html

Angel Island: Chinese immigration
http://www.kqed.org/w/pacificlink/history/angelisland/china.html

The Chinese Laundryman: A Study in Social Isolation
http://www.amazon.com/The-Chinese-Laundryman-Isolation-Chinatown/dp/0814778747

Confucius [Kong-foo-tsze]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucius

Wu-Ting Fang
http://www.thechinastory.org/ritp/wu-ting-fang-%E4%BC%8D%E5%BB%B7%E8%8A%B3/




JAPANESE IMMIGRATION

Japanese immigration
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/japanese.html

Angel Island: Japanese immigration
http://www.kqed.org/w/pacificlink/history/angelisland/japan.html





German Immigration to the United States
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/german.html

Read these subtopic links at the bottom of the page:
Introduction | The Call of Tolerance | Building a New Nation | A New Surge of Growth | Filling the Nation's Breadbasket | Urban Germans | Building Institutions, Shaping Tastes | Shadows of War

Whatever happened to German America? [we will go over this in class]
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/23/opinion/whatever-happened-to-german-america.html?_r=0





Italian Immigration to the United States
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/italian.html

Click through the subtopic links at the bottom of the page:

Introduction | Early Arrivals | The Great Arrival | L’Isola dell Lagrime | A City of Villages | Tenements and Toil | Working Across the Country | Under Attack | A Century in the Spotlight





Irish Immigration to the United States
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/irish.html

Read these subtopic links at the bottom of the page:
Colonial Immigration | Irish-Catholic Immigration to America | Adaptation and Assimilation | Joining the Workforce | Religious Conflict and Discrimination | Racial Tensions | Irish Identity, Influence and Opportunity





Push factors:

Wars
Unemployment
Food shortages
Anti–Semitism (Poland and Russia).
German Jews versus Polish/Russian Jews

Pull factors:

America as a land of opportunity
Patterns of settlement and adaptation.
Role of chain migration.
Role of return migration.

The "new" immigration.

Change in origin:
Scotch-Irish and German earlier
Irish during famine time (1848)

Irish and German Immigration [from our online textbook]
http://www.ushistory.org/us/25f.asp
This connects to the Nativism articles we read for today

The new immigrants (1880-1920)
Catholic and Jewish
http://www.ushistory.org/us/38c.asp

U.S. has always had immigration: Asylum of liberty.

Source of immigration changed.
Prior immigrants: northern and western Europe and the British Isles.
New immigrants: eastern and southern Europe.

Characteristics of newer immigrants (1890-1900)

Generally poor
Often illiterate
Jewish or Catholic
Catholicism became largest American religion
Had very different customs.
Most settled in eastern cities
Few settled in South.

Great material from Mapping History website: Immigration and Population
Introduction
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-00.html
Population Maps
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-01.html
Foreign-Born Population
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-02.html
Graph of Immigration
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-03.html
Summary
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US27-04.html

Immigrant cultures

Role of ethnic enclaves: preserve culture

Ethnic associations
Newspapers
Schools (tied to religion: parochial and rabbinical)
Churches
Restaurants
Stores

How to strike a balance between assimilation and ethnic identity
Melting pot or salad bowl as appropriate metaphor?

Generational divide

First generation: not speak English
Second generation: not speak native tongue
Third generation: aware of heritage





Nativism response

Distrust of foreigners by "natives" a consistent theme in U.S. history.

New immigrants were particularly seen as utterly alien
Threaten "American" values based on their language, religion, and culture.

1896: McKinley and the American Protective Association
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/apa.html






GROWTH OF BIG BUSINESS

U.S. had extensive natural resources

  • Coal, iron, timber, petroleum, and waterpower.

U.S. had abundant labor

  • Ex–farm families
  • Immigrants.

U.S. became the largest free trade market in the world.

  • Role of the railroad in knitting the country together.
  • A nationwide transportation network.

Investors liked the profit outlook.

Government at all levels helped business:

  • Money
  • Land
  • Stability
  • Upheld private property
  • Laissez–faire approach.

Accelerated technological innovation: new inventions




U.S. had capable business leadership

  • Called captains of industry by their admirers
  • Called robber barons by their critic




Horatio Alger rags-to-riches
Horatio Alger
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/people/text3/alger.pdf


John D. Rockefeller (oil)

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines

John D. Rockefeller obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0708.html

John D. Rockefeller (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/r/john-d-rockefeller.html

First Oil Well in U.S. Strikes Oil (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--First-Oil-Well-in-U-S--Strikes-Oil.html

Standard Oil Ordered to Dissolve (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Standard-Oil-Ordered-to-Dissolve.html


Andrew Carnegie (steel)

Andrew Carnegie, The Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/progress/text7/carnegie.pdf

Andrew Carnegie obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1125.html

The Gospel According to Andrew: Carnegie’s Hymn to Wealth (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5767

Carnegie Libraries (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar12.html

Carnegie Libraries (Teaching with Historic Places)
http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/50carnegie.htm


J[ohn] P[ierpont] Morgan (investment banking)

J.P. Morgan
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._P._Morgan

Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in early 20th-Century America (Teaching with Historic Places)
http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/105brucemore/105brucemore.htm


Thomas Edison (DC—direct current)

Thomas Edison obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0211.html

Electrical industry.

Importance of electricity to American industrial growth
Changes in American life style.

Thomas Edison (Library of Congress)
http://www.americaslibrary.gov/aa/edison/aa_edison_subj.html

Thomas Edison Develops Incandescent Light-Bulb (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Oct/Thomas-Edison-Develops-Incandescent-Light-Bulb.html

Thomas Edison Announces Invention of Phonograph (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/science/On-This-Day--Thomas-Edison-Announces-Invention-of-Phonograph.html


Henry Ford. Mass production of the automobile.

Henry Ford obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0730.html

Henry Ford (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul30.html

Assembly–line methods (1913)
Model T cars cheap and readily available.

Video about ModelT

The First Model-T Ford Is Produced (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--The-First-Model-T-Ford-Is-Produced.html

Horseless Carriages and Ford's Model T (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/horseless.html


Frederick W. Taylor

Frederick Taylor (NY Times obituary)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0320.html

Guru: Frederick W. Taylor (Economist)
http://www.economist.com/node/13051591

Frederick Winslow Taylor
Viewpoint: Are Amazon's feedback tactics unusual?
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-33988479

Emphasis on efficient production using
Scientific management methods
Time studies.



LABOR

Let's check out these recent articles about Apple.

What comparisons to America during the Gilded Age.

Apple Accused of Ignoring 'Human Cost' of Manufacturing (PC World)
http://www.pcworld.com/article/248840/apple_accused_of_ignoring_human_cost_of_manufacturing.html

Apple’s iPad and the Human Costs for Workers in China (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/business/ieconomy-apples-ipad-and-the-human-costs-for-workers-in-china.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

"8-Hour Work Day" (Today in History, Library of Congress)
This article sets the stage for our discussion of the labor movement.
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug20.html


Changing status of labor
  • Industrialization changed the nature of work
  • Power of employers increased
  • Worker independence and self-respect declined
  • Industrial workers were employees rather than crafts persons
  • Robot-like tasks made them feel like machines.
  • Emphasis on quantity over quality dehumanized the workplace
  • Workers resisted these trends
  • Worker resistance only led employers to tighten restrictions

Iron law of wages
  • Employees paid according to conditions of supply and demand.
  • Employers would set wages as low as possible

At a level where some persons would accept the work

Rise of Industrial America, 1876-1900 (Library of Congress: American Memory Timeline)
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/

Work in the Late 19th Century
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/work/
http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/riseind/city/

Companies hired women and children to further cut costs
  • Prevailing free–market views stifled protective legislation for workers
  • Employers denied responsibility for employees' well–being.
  • Repetitive work decreased concentration and caused industrial accidents.

Child Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1569&nm=Child-Labor

Child Labor in America, 1908-1912 (History Place)
http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/childlabor/index.html

No workers' comp at the time.
If you got hurt, tough luck.
  • Is beating down the worker a prerequisite for industrialization? Should we care how Thailand runs its factories today?
  • Courts reinforced iron law of wages

Denied workers the right to bargain collectively
Wages a private negotiation b/n employee & employer.

Important Supreme Court cases on the issue of management/labor

(1) Holden v. Hardy (1896)—ok to limit hours of miners, a dangerous job

(2) Lochner v. New York (1905)—cannot limit bakers' hours, not a dangerous job

(3) Muller v. Oregon (1908)—10-hour limit ok for women; protect their fragility.



THE UNION MOVEMENT

Turning Our Backs on Unions (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/05/opinion/nocera-turning-our-backs-on-unions.html?src=me&ref=general


Out of frustration, some workers began to participate in unions
Unionization efforts took various directions.

A. Knights of Labor

Terence V. Powderly (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=307

Terence V. Powderly Distances the Knights of Labor from the Haymarket Martyrs (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/96/

Knights of Labor was broadly based: Accepted all workers

Knights of Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=910&nm=Knights-of-Labor

Skilled
Unskilled
Women
African–Americans
  • Opposed the idea of strikes.
  • Envisioned a cooperative society

Laborers would own the companies

2. American Federation of Labor (AFL)

Key name: Samuel Gompers

Samuel Gompers (AFL-CIO)
http://www.aflcio.org/About/Our-History/Key-People-in-Labor-History/Samuel-Gompers-1850-1924

Samuel Gompers (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=158&nm=Samuel-Gompers

American Federation of Labor was a craft (skill) union.

American Federation of Labor (Ohio History online)
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=835&nm=American-Federation-of-Labor

Did not accept unskilled workers
Pressed for concrete goals:

Higher wages
Shorter hours
Right to collective bargaining.

Willing to work within the capitalist system.



PANIC OF 1873

Panic of 1873 (On This Day, New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/1011.html

Panic of 1873 (Teaching History.org)
http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/beyond-the-textbook/24579

New York and the Panic of 1873 (New York Times)
http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/14/learning-lessons-from-the-panic-of-1873/?hp




RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877

Role of railroads in America
Develop more data for this topic

Railroad Strike of 1877
http://explorepahistory.com/hmarker.php?markerId=1-A-1C1

Great Upheaval
http://www.ushistory.org/us/37a.asp





HAYMARKET RIOT (1886)

Riot protested police brutality against labor demonstrators.
Police killed by a bomb thrown by supposed anarchists (want no govt)
Revived middle–class fears of unions.

The Dramas of Haymarket (Chicago Historical Society)
http://www.chicagohistory.org/dramas/overview/over.htm

Chicago Anarchists on Trial: Evidence from the Haymarket Affair, 1886-1887 (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ichihtml/hayhome.html

Anarchists (Chronicling America)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/anarchy.html

Today in History: December 30 Altgeld, Anarchists
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html

Haymarket Affair (Chronicling America)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/haymarket.html

Haymarket (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/haymarket/haymarket.html

Haymarket Affair (1886)
[Note to myself: Causes and Effects of Emigration from Germany (1870s-1880s)]
http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=1739




HOMESTEAD STRIKE (1892)

Steelworkers strike against Carnegie Steel Company.
Henry Frick hired Pinkerton guards to protect the plant.
Workers battled the guards.
National guard called out.

1. Background articles

The Homestead and Pullman Strikes
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/strikes.html

Homestead Strike (AFL-CIO)
http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/history/history/homestead_strike.cfm





PANIC OF 1893

Panic of 1893
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Panic_of_1893

Economic Depression of 1893
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/depression.html



Columbian Exposition in Chicago [1893]



Coxey's Army march on Washington (1894)



PULLMAN STRIKE (1894)

The Homestead and Pullman Strikes
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/strikes.html

Pullman Strike (Chicago Historical Society)
http://www.chicagohs.org/history/pullman.html

George Pullman (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/p/george-pullman.html

Pullman Porters (Chronicling America LOC)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/pullman.html

Eugene Debs and Pullman Strike (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/d/eugene-debs.html

Origins of Labor Day and Pullman Strike
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/business/july-dec01/labor_day_9-2.html

Broken Spirits: Letters on the Pullman Strike
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5363/

  • Against exploitative policies of Pullman Palace Car Company.
  • Government intervened on the side of management

To ensure mail deliveries (supposedly)
President Cleveland sent troops to put down the strike.

Eugene Debs and Pullman Strike
http://www.aflcio.org/aboutus/history/history/debs.cfm





GILDED AGE POLITICS

Political Songs (2 screens)
http://www.parlorsongs.com/issues/2002-11/thismonth/feature.php
http://www.parlorsongs.com/issues/2002-11/thismonth/featureb.php

Party Politics
  • Politics was the most popular form of local recreation,

More popular than baseball, vaudeville, or circuses.
  • Political torchlight parades, picnics, and speeches were exciting.
  • Close political party balance.
  • [Commentators compared the 2000 election results to that during the Gilded Age.
  • Neither political party gained clear control for any sizable time.
  • Presidential elections were close
  • Swing states (New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois) made the difference.
  • Political party choice dependent on religion and ethnicity.

Republican party

  • Party of evangelical Protestants.
  • Believed government could be an agent of moral reform
  • World must be purged of evil
  • Legislation necessary to protect people from sin.
  • Opposed parochial schools.
  • Supported prohibition of liquor.

Republicans and the Bible
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/goldbible.html

Democratic party

Party of immigrant Catholics and Jews.
Opposed interference by government in

Matters of personal liberty
Use of leisure time
Celebration of Sunday.
  • Supported parochial schools
  • Opposed prohibition of liquor



ELECTION OF 1896


  • Major realigning election in U.S. history
  • Winner: William McKinley—a Republican

McKinley conducted a traditional "front porch" campaign
McKinley supported the gold standard.
Republican platform emphasized
  • Federal government support of the economy
  • The virtues of the urban–industrial society
  • Progress and prosperity: a full dinner pail
  • Loser: William Jennings Bryan—a Democrat

Bryan broke with tradition; traveled across the country
Bryan supported free silver
Bryan argued for an older America
  • Farms as important as factories,
  • Rural and religious life outweighed sinfulness of the city
  • Common people, not corporations, still ruled.
  • Election of 1896 realigned national politics.

Old split: North versus South

The "Bloody Shirt"
Vote as you shot

New split:

East versus West
City versus farm



VASSAR WEBSITE

Election of 1896


1896 Presidential Campaign (Vassar)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/1896home.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-1896-vassar.html

To get some context, read the portion regarding the Election of 1896 from this biographical material about William McKinley.
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley/essays/biography/3

Try to understand the 1896 material on its own terms, but--to a brief extent--consider the current 2012 Presidential campaign dynamics as a comparison.

William McKinley
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/mckinley.html

The Republicans, Mark Hanna, and Labor
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/hanna.html

William Jennings Bryan
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryan.html

William Jennings Bryan (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar19.html

1896 Election (New York Times, On This Day)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0709.html

Election of 1896:

Political Parties in the 1896 Presidential election campaign:
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/parties.html

The Republican Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/republicans.html

The Democratic Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/democrats.html

The Populist Party (main page)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/populists.html

Bryan and the Bible
Bryan, Religion, and the Silver Question
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryanreligion.html

McKinley Supporters and the Bible
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/goldbible.html

Racial Prejudice
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/prejudice.html

Plessy versus Ferguson
(Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may18.html

Antisemitism
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/antisemitism.html

Women suffrage
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/suffrage.html

Women in the Campaign
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/women.html

Bicycles
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bicycle.html


The Currency Issue
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/currency.html

Check out these sites; both gold and silver fluctuate in price:
http://money.cnn.com/data/commodities/
http://www.monex.com/liveprices

Gold Standard

March 14, 1900 | U.S. Officially Adopts Gold Standard - NYTimes.com
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/march-14-1900-u-s-officially-adopts-gold-standard/

In Rise of Gold Bugs, History Repeats Itself - NYTimes.com
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/03/business/in-rise-of-gold-bugs-history-repeats-itself.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1331722960-zicLewt1yGtRvOCUXlOWag&pagewanted=all

Back to a Gold Standard? - Room for Debate - NYTimes.com
http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2010/11/09/back-to-a-gold-standard

FDR takes United States off gold standard — History.com This Day in History — 6/5/1933
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-takes-united-states-off-gold-standard



Farmers and Laborers
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/labor.html

Uncle Sam
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/unclesam.html
Here is a more complete explanation of the origin of the term "Uncle Sam":
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~cap/sam/sam.htm

Temperance
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/prohibition.html

Civil War and Slavery
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/civilwar.html

Lynchings and Jim Crow in the South
Plessy versus Ferguson (1896)

Sectional Interests
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/sections.html

US Foreign Relations
Spain and Cuba; Turkey and Armenia
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/foreignrelations.html

Hamidian Massacres
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamidian_massacres

Socialism
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/socialism.html

Can Bernie Sanders keep socialism alive? [read both pages]
http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/09/bernie-sanders-socialism-eugene-v-debs-213093
http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/09/bernie-sanders-socialism-eugene-v-debs-213093?o=1

Political interpretation of the Wonderful Wizard of Oz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_interpretations_of_The_Wonderful_Wizard_of_Oz

Tariffs
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/tariff.html

McKinley Tariff
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1468



WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN

Remember to use Google Images for persons, events, newspaper headlines

William McKinley (Miller Center) [Read both of these links]
http://millercenter.org/president/biography/mckinley-life-before-the-presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/biography/mckinley-campaigns-and-elections

1896 Election (New York Times, On This Day)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0709.html

Bryan's Cross of Gold speech
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/crossofgold.html

Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5354/
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=163

William Jennings Bryan (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar19.html

Bryan (Vassar)
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/bryan.html



WILLIAM McKINLEY

William Mckinley (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley

William McKinley obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0129.html

William McKinley (Foreign Affairs issues)
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley/essays/biography/5

McKinley Administration (Chronicling America, Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/McKinley.html

McKinley Assassination
http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/mckinley.htm
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0914.html

September 6, 1901| President McKinley Assassinated - NYTimes.com
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/06/september-6-1901-president-mckinley-assassinated/

On This Day: President McKinley Fatally Shot by Anarchist
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--President-McKinley-Fatally-Shot-By-Anarchist.html






Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/2
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/4
Foreign Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/5

New Nationalism

Motto of the Theodore Roosevelt presidency

  • TR believed government should direct national affairs
  • Government should coordinate and regulate big business
  • Government should not destroy big business.
  • Government should act as an umpire.
  • Roosevelt was a Republican, party of big business.

He was thus in an awkward position.

Theodore Roosevelt, "The New Nationalism," address, 1910
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/power/text10/text10read.htm
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=501
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Croly

Obama comparison to TR speech (Washington Post)
http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/obama-invokes-teddy-roosevelt-in-speech-attacking-gop-policies/2011/12/06/gIQAEf3yaO_story.html

Regulation of trusts

Trusts and monopolies
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/trusts.html

Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
GET MORE FOR THIS TOPIC

Major issue in the Roosevelt presidency

  • Industrialization had led to a concentration of great power.
  • Large–scale business combinations were then called "trusts";

Today we would call them conglomerates or multinationals.
  • By 1904, for example, trusts controlled much of American business:

6 large financial groups dominated the railroad industry;
Rockefeller's Standard Oil owned 85% of the oil business.
  • No one really clear on how to deal with trusts:

Let trusts alone since big business is an inevitable part of progress
Distinguish between good and bad trusts
Regulate good trusts (if so, who should be the regulators)
Break up bad trusts into smaller companies.
Theodore Roosevelt sought to regulate the abuses of the worst trusts—the railroads, oil companies, and the meatpacking monopolies.
We still do not have a solution.
We vary between regulation and deregulation




President William Howard Taft (1909-1913)

Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/2
Campaigns and Elections
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/3
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/4
Foreign Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/taft/essays/biography/5

Dollar Diplomacy
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/dollar-diplo






EYES ABROAD MODULE

Learning Objectives:

What is imperialism?
Describe American foreign policy in the 1890s.
Why did the U.S. intervene in Cuba and the Philippines?
Did the U.S. have the right to issue the Open Door policy?
Was the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine necessary?
What were some of the leading arguments in favor of overseas expansion?
Did the anti-imperialists' argument that the United States could maintain a strong foreign trade without subjugating foreign people offer a viable option?






Worldwide scramble for empire

1. 1890 census declared the frontier "closed."

2. College professor Frederick Jackson Turner: Frontier thesis (The West)
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/turner.htm

See also:
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl2.html
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text1/turner.pdf

3. Many looked to overseas expansion.

4. Great powers measured their greatness by the colonies they acquired
a. Britain, Germany, and France divided up Africa
b. Looked to do the same in Asia

5. America will eventually get in on the act.

Let's take a look at several maps.

World Colonial Empires, 1900
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI445.jpg

American Empire, 1900
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI444.jpg

6. Alfred Thayer Mahan
President of the Naval War College

Alfred Thayer Mahan obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0927.html
.
Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power upon History (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/mahan

In this important book, Mahan's argument ran as follows:

He argued that national greatness and prosperity depended on naval power.
Mahan urged the Navy to shift from wood construction to steel
Overproduction: More produced than domestic market could absorb.
Overseas markets needed to dispose of surplus
Overseas markets implied distant ports
Reaching distant ports required large merchant marine
Merchant marine needed protection of powerful navy
Ships needed coaling stations and repair yards
Coaling stations implied secure stops: colonies
Canal across Panama needed to link East coast with Pacific Ocean



Alaska (1867)

1. Secretary of State William H. Seward foresaw a large American empire.
2. U.S purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. [Sarah Palin can see Russia!]
3. Steward criticized: Seward's Folly, Seward's Ice-Box

See also:

Alaska Purchase (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/alaska-purchase

Seward's Folly (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar30.html

Alaska Purchase (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--The-United-States-Purchases-Alaska.html



Dreams of Empire

1. The Question of an American Empire (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/question-american-empire#sect-background

2. Albert Beveridge, The March of the Flag (Internet History Sourcebook)
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1898beveridge.asp

1. U.S. Foreign Relations
http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/foreignrelations.html
Read the portions: "To Annex Hawaii" and "Turkey and Armenia"

2. Work through this great material from Mapping History website:
Toward Empire: Overseas Expansion
Introduction
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US30-00.html
The United States in the Pacific: Introduction
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US30-02.html
The United States in the Pacific: 1850-1911
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US30-03.html



Hawaii

Hawaii: Footholds in the Pacific (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/hawaii.html

Annexation of Hawaii (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/hawaii

Jan. 17, 1893 | Hawaiian Monarchy Overthrown by America-Backed Businessmen (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/17/jan-17-1893-hawaiian-monarchy-overthrown-by-america-backed-businessmen/


Cook discovers Hawaii (History.com This Day in History | 1/18/1778)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/cook-discovers-hawaii


1. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived.
2. Their offspring became powerful sugar planters in Hawaii.
3. By 1875, a treaty between the U.S. and Hawaii tightened the links between the two:
a. Allowed Hawaiian sugar to enter the U.S. free of customs duties;
b. Required Hawaiian monarchy to make no territorial or economic concessions to other countries.
4. In 1890 McKinley Tariff ended special status given to Hawaiian sugar.
5. By this time, Caucasian Americans owned three–quarters of the islands' wealth, though they represented a mere 2.1 percent of the population.
6. In 1891, a strongly nationalistic Queen Liliuokalani ascended to the throne and tried to restore greater power to Hawaiian natives.
7. In 1893, Americans overthrew Queen Liliuokalani, set up a provisional government, and asked to become an American state—so that their sugar would be classified as domestic and would avoid tariffs.

Queen Liliuokalani Deposed from Throne 1893 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0117.html#article

8. Annexation took place in 1898 during the Spanish–American War.

See also:

The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hawaii-petition/

Protesting the Annexation of Hawaii (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=1219
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=54



Nelly Bly (1889)

Nellie Bly (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan25.html

Nellie Bly obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0505.html

Nellie Bly (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/Nellie-Bly-Starts-Her-Around-the-World-Journey.html

Nellie Bly (New York Times Learning Network)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/14/nov-14-1889-nellie-bly-begins-trip-around-the-world/

See also:

Globe Trotting (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan25.html


Spanish-American War (1898)

Spanish-American War (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/spanish-american-war

The World of 1898: Spanish-American War (Library of Congress)
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/index.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2012/06/website-spotlight-world-of-1898-spanish.html

Hip Hughes History
Brain Wrinkling the Spanish American War - YouTube

William McKinley (Foreign Affairs issues)
http://millercenter.org/president/mckinley/essays/biography/5

Crucible of Empire website
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/

Note to myself [DEL]:
Complete Crucible of Empire video on YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YacDfVlDPY8&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Crucible of Empire: The Spanish American War
http://youtu.be/8g8NpQsmxj4

Go to Site Map to get Timeline entries
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_timeline.html

Motives for war:

[Underlying versus immediate] [How does this compare to today?]

U.S. had sizable economic interests in Cuba and a lobbying group of 100,000 Cubans who lived in the U.S.

1. Humanitarians. Believed Spain too cruel in fighting rebels.

2. Hawks (jingoes). Believed America should chastise Spain

3. "Yellow journalism." Circulation war: Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/headlines.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/15/weekinreview/the-world-remember-yellow-journalism.html

Yellow Journalism
http://www.smplanet.com/teaching/imperialism/#SAW1-1

Yellow Journalism:
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_journalism.html

a. Read the material on this introductory page. [Same URL for the four sections]
b. Read the biographies of William Randolph Hearst and Richard Harding Davis
c. Click on Headline Gallery and read the items there.
d. Click on Cartoon Gallery and view the items there.

Yellow Journalism (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/yellow-journalism

Remember Yellow Journalism [written in 1998 on 100th anniversary of the war]
http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/15/weekinreview/the-world-remember-yellow-journalism.html

Bio: William Randolph Hearst
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/bio_hearst.html

bio: Richard Harding Davis
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/bio_davis.html

[note to me: use Yellow Journalism Headline Gallery and Cartoon Gallery in class next Tuesday
Headline Gallery
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/headlines.html
Cartoon Gallery
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/cartoons.html]

4. De Lome letter—Spanish Ambassador to U.S. criticized McKinley
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl9.html

5. Sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine.
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/remember.html

Blown up in Havana harbor. Probably an internal explosion.
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl10.html

Battleship Maine (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb15.html

Letter from the Captain of the USS Maine (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=215#2011

Sailors, Soldiers, and Marines in the Spanish-American War (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/spanish-american-war-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/spanish-american-war-2.html



Timeline

1. 1868-1878: Ten Years' War in Cuba
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl1.html
2. 1895: Cuban War for Independence
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl3.html
3. February, 1896: Reconcentration Policy
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl4.html
4. March 4, 1897: President McKinley Inaugurated
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl6.html
5. April 16, 1897: T. Roosevelt Appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl7.html
6. December, 1897: McKinley Asks Congress for Aid to Cuba
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl8.html
7. February 9, 1898: Dupuy de Lôme Letter Scandal
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl9.html
8. February 16 1898: Battleship U.S.S. Maine Explodes
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl10.html
9. March 17, 1898: Senator Proctor Exposes Spain's Brutality in Cuba
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl11.html
10. April 25, 1898: Congress Declares War
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl12.html
11. May 1, 1898: Commodore Dewey's Victory in the Philippines
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl13.html
12. May 15, 1898: Theodore Roosevelt resigns as Assistant Secretary of the Navy
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl14.html
13. June 22, 1898: U.S. troops land in Cuba
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl15.html
14. July 1, 1898: Victory in San Juan Heights
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl16.html
15. January 1899: Senate Debate over Ratification of the Treaty of Paris
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl17.html
16. February 6, 1899: Treaty of Paris ratified
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl18.html
17. March 4, 1901: McKinley inaugurated for 2nd term; Roosevelt becomes Vice-President
September, 1901: President McKinley assassinated
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl20.html

[note to me: I used the Site Map to get Timeline]



The War Itself

Teller Amendment.
U.S. had no intention of taking possession of Cuba.

U.S. Declares War on Spain (1898) (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html

1. Short and glorious—"a splendid little war."

A Splendid Little War (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/splendid.html

Spanish-American war—essay by David Trask
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/trask.html

A Spanish view of the Spanish-American War
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/ojeda.html

Cuba in 1898
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/hernandez.html

2. Major battles:

Excellent map:
http://spanishamericanwar.info/Cubamap3.gif

a. Manila. George Dewey defeated Spanish fleet in Manila.
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/newspaper.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/peopleevents/pande1.html

George Dewey (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/dec26.html

b. San Juan Hill. Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders.
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl16.html

3. U.S. defeated Spain.

4. Beginning of a U.S. empire.

Treaty of Paris (1898)

1. Guam: to the U.S.

2. Puerto Rico: to the U.S.

Puerto Rico invaded (History.com This Day in History |7/25/1898)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/puerto-rico-invaded

3. Cuba: granted independence by Spain

4. Platt Amendment permited U.S. intervention in Cuba's internal affairs

Platt Amendment (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1866-1898/yellow-journalism

5. Philippines: U.S. paid $20 million to Spain.

See also:

Spanish-American War Ends (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Aug/Spanish-American-War-Ends.html

Nurses in the Spanish-American War (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/fall/band-of-angels-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2002/fall/band-of-angels-2.html


Philippines:
The proposed treaty sparked an important debate:
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl17.html

Website of Jim Zwick on anti-imperialism documents
http://www.antiimperialist.com/about

1. Those in favor of acquiring Philippines: imperialist case. Advocated an empire.

Advocates of empire appealed to motives of
Patriotism
Manifest destiny
Commerce.

2. Those against acquiring Philippines: anti–imperialist case.

Many felt imperialism counter to U.S. principles.
Other felt U.S. could expand markets without ruling other countries.
Labor unions felt they would be undercut by importation of low–wage contract workers.

The Birth of an American Empire: The Matter of the Philippines
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/birth-american-empire-lesson-3-matter-philippines#sect-background

A Gift from the Gods (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/gift.html

Senate Debate over Ratification of the Treaty of Paris (January 1899)
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl17.html

"Aguinaldo's Case Against the United States.
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text9/filipino.pdf

Albert Beveridge, "March of the Flag," Address to a state Republican Party meeting
http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text5/beveridge.pdf

Anti-Imperialism in the United States
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/filmmore/reference/interview/lafeber_antiimperialism.html

William McKinley documents on Imperialism
Read only the “Benevolent Assimilation” Proclamation and Home Market Club portions
http://www.schlagergroup.com/mdal_sample.php




Philippine–American war (1898–1902)

Philippine-American War (Historian of the State Department)
http://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/War

Images from the Philippine-United States War
http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/USA/twenty/filipino.html

1. Emiliano Aguinaldo's army had helped U.S. against the Spanish.

2. Aguinaldo expected to be president of an independent Philippines.

3. U.S. decided not to permit him to be President.

4. Aguinaldo led a guerrilla war against the occupying U.S. military.

5. War foreshadowed tactics and atrocities of Vietnam.

6. Aguinaldo finally captured. The revolt ended.
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl19.html

b. Maps

Southeast Asia
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map_of_southeast_asia.htm

Philippines
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/philippines-political-map.htm

Philippine-American War (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/war

American soldiers in the Philippines write home about the war
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/58/

"Civilizing" the Filipinos
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/1900/filmmore/reference/interview/lafeber_civilizingfilipino.html

Revolt in the Philippines
http://www.pbs.org/crucible/tl5.html

U.S. subsequent role in the Philippines (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/19/world/bush-cites-philippines-as-model-in-rebuilding-iraq.html

A Gift from the Gods (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/gift.html

The Matter of the Philippines (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/birth-american-empire-lesson-3-matter-philippines#sect-background

Q&A: 'Honor in the Dust' Author on U.S.-Philippine History (TIME)
http://battleland.blogs.time.com/2012/02/16/the-u-s-and-the-philippines-a-century-ago-dashed-dreams-of-empire/

U.S. Counterinsurgency in Iraq: Lessons from the Philippine War
http://www.newamericancentury.org/defense-20031103.htm




Open Door in China

Open Door Notes (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/hay-and-china

As a trading nation, the U.S. opposed barriers to international commerce and demanded equal access to markets.
Secretary of State John Hay
  • 1st Open Door Note (1899): all nations guarantee free trade in China.
  • Boxer Rebellion (1900). U.S. and others rescue foreigners in Peking.
  • 2nd Open Door Note (1900): all nations protect China's territorial integrity

Imperialism and the Open Door (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/lesson-4-imperialism-and-open-door#sect-background

Maps: Spheres of Influence

a. Colonial Powers Carve up China
Get a good map

b. Spheres of Influence and Treaty Ports
Get a good map



Boxer Rebellion (1900)

Boxer Rebellion (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/lesson-4-imperialism-and-open-door#sect-background

Boxer Rebellion (Sound Smart video)
http://youtu.be/AcwbMmUWHGw

Video: Boxer Rebellion
China's Boxer Rebellion - YouTube

Boxer Rebellion, Spheres of Influence, Fists of Righteous Harmony (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/fists.html

On This Day: June 9, 1900 Boxer's Rebellion (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0609.html

U.S. Marines in the Boxer Rebellion (National Archives magazine)
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1999/winter/boxer-rebellion-1.html

Foreign Troops in the Forbidden City 1900 (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/todays-doc/index.html?dod-date=1128#2010

Future President Hoover caught in Boxer Rebellion (History.com This Day in History | 6/1/1900)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/future-president-hoover-caught-in-boxer-rebellion

The Eagle and the Dragon: Boxer Rebellion (Herbert Hoover Presidential Library exhibition)
http://hoover.archives.gov/exhibits/China/Political%20Evolution/1900/index.html

Protestant missions in China
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protestant_missions_in_China_1807%E2%80%931953

"There is hard sledding ahead for the missionaries."
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6647

Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity
http://www.bdcconline.net/en/

Chinese Revolution of 1911
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/chinese-rev


Assassination of President McKinley (1901)

McKinley assassination (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep06.html

September 6, 1901| President McKinley Assassinated (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/06/september-6-1901-president-mckinley-assassinated/

President McKinley Fatally Shot by Anarchist (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--President-McKinley-Fatally-Shot-By-Anarchist.html

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb03.html


Theodore Roosevelt (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/2
Domestic Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/4
Foreign Affairs
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/5

Roosevelt Corollary (1904)

Roosevelt Corollary (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/roosevelt-and-monroe-doctrine

U.S. Intervention in Latin America [read "Teddy's Legacy" and "End of an era"]
http://www.smplanet.com/teaching/imperialism/#intervention

1. What was the Monroe Doctrine
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1801-1829/monroe

2. What was the Roosevelt Corollary [to the Monroe Doctrine]

Speak softly but carry a big stick
President Roosevelt warned Latin American nations to keep their affairs in order or face American intervention.

3. U.S. would assume the role of an international police power, a 911 number—whether requested or not.

Theodore Roosevelt (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Reread the "Roosevelt Corollary" paragraph
http://millercenter.org/president/roosevelt/essays/biography/5

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (National Archives)
http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=56



Japanese rivalry with U.S.

Japanese-American Relations, 1900-1922 (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/japanese-relations

Beginnings of a Japanese empire

First Sino–Japanese War (1894-1895)
http://sinojapanesewar.com/

Japan beat China: gained Taiwan

Russo-Japanese war (1905)

Japan beat Russia: gained Korea
TR helped negotiate treaty. Won Nobel Peace Prize.

Japan became dominant power in Asia
Japan wanted to include China in its sphere of influence.
U.S. resisted.

Portsmouth Treaty and the Russo-Japanese War (Historian of the State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/portsmouth-treaty

Portsmouth Treaty
http://portsmouthpeacetreaty.org/process/index.html

Admiral Yamamoto: A Reluctant Enemy (New York Times)
Note his participation in the Battle of Tsushima
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/07/opinion/a-reluctant-enemy.html?pagewanted=all
http://portsmouthpeacetreaty.org/process/war/war5.html

Note (a) the American observers to the Japanese Imperial Army and (b) the war correspondents--including Richard Harding Davis-- in this listing:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_attach%C3%A9s_and_observers_in_the_Russo-Japanese_War

In connection with Douglas MacArthur's participation, see the following:
Japanese landing at Inchon
http://portsmouthpeacetreaty.org/process/war/index.html

See also:

Japan-in-America: Russo-Japanese War
http://www.indiana.edu/~jia1915/war.html

MIT Visualizing Cultures
http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/asia_rising/ar_essay01.html



U.S.–Japanese relations in America were touchy.
Anti–Japanese bias in California (school board segregation; Japanese prohibited from land purchase) made relations chilly.

San Francisco school segregation of Asian students (1906)

Segregation of Japanese students in S.F 1906 (Stanford History Education Group)
http://sheg.stanford.edu/upload/Lessons/Unit%208_Progressivism/Japanese%20Segregation%20in%20San%20Francisco%20Lesson%20Plan.pdf

Segregation of Japanese students in S.F 1906
On This Day, 10 November 1906 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/1110.html

Gentlemen's Agreement reduces Japanese immigration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentlemen's_Agreement_of_1907

San Francisco earthquake (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0418.html#article

S.F. Earthquake (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr18.html

April 18, 1906 | Earthquake Destroys Much of San Francisco (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/18/april-18-1906-earthquake-destroys-much-of-san-francisco/




Great White Fleet (1907)

U.S. navy made world tour to impress the Japanese.
Japanese increased their military budget as a result.

The Great White Fleet (Mapping US History)
http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/US/US30-04.html

Great White Fleet [read "Background and Purpose]
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_White_Fleet




Panama Canal (1904-1914)

Spanish–American War demonstrated need for a Panama Canal
Shift naval forces quickly from Atlantic to Pacific.
Panama originally a province of Columbia.
Columbia rejected proposed canal route treaty with the U.S. in 1903
Wanted more money
Treaty infringed on their sovereignty.
Almost immediately, Panama declared its independence from Columbia
With the help and approval of TR).
U.S. signed a treaty with Panama (1903).
Canal completed in 1914.

Building the Panama Canal
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1899-1913/panama-canal

Panama Canal Opens (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Panama-Canal-Opens-for-Business.html

Map of Panama
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/panama_relief.jpg

The Panama Canal (Small Planet)
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/joining.html



U.S. Troops invade Mexico (1914)

“Avoid the Use of the Word Intervention”: Wilson and Lansing on the U.S. Invasion of Mexico (History Matters)
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4947

Woodrow Wilson (Miller Center, University of Virginia)
Life Before the Presidency
http://millercenter.org/president/wilson/essays/biography/2
Foreign Affairs [read down through Moral Diplomacy]
http://millercenter.org/president/biography/wilson-foreign-affairs

General Pershing [stop reading when you get to WWI: "Named head of AEF"]
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0913.html

The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1997/fall/mexican-punitive-expedition-1.html
http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1997/winter/mexican-punitive-expedition-2.html