First, we will try to understand US-Latin American relations

Then we will deal with US-USSR (formerly Russia) relations

Cold War period overlays on an extensive historical background

Then we will work through our chronology from 1950-1990 of Cold War in Latin America

I'm going to forego the Spanish period and post-independence in each country

We will use Monroe Doctrine as link between Spanish phase and US interest/involvement

Monroe Doctrine

Monroe Doctrine (Adele's "Hello" Parody)

US-Mexican War

The Annexation of Texas, the Mexican-American War, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1845–1848

Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny

Territorial Expansion, Filibustering, and U.S. Interest in Central America and Cuba, 1849–1861

Blaine and Pan Americanism, 1880s/1890s

Spanish–American War (1898)

Spanish-American war

Motives for war:

[Underlying versus immediate] [How does this compare to today?]

U.S. had sizable economic interests in Cuba and a lobbying group of 100,000 Cubans who lived in the U.S.

1. Humanitarians. Believed Spain was too cruel in fighting rebels.

2. Hawks (jingoes). Believed America should chastise Spain.

3. "Yellow journalism." Circulation war: Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.

US Diplomacy and Yellow Journalism

4. De Lome letter—Spanish Ambassador to U.S. criticized McKinley

5. Sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine.
Blown up in Havana harbor. Probably an internal explosion.

The War Itself

Teller Amendment. U.S. had no intention of taking possession of Cuba.

1. Short and glorious—"a splendid little war."

2. Major battles:

a. Manila. George Dewey defeated Spanish fleet in Manila.

b. San Juan Hill. Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders.

3. U.S. defeated Spain.

4. Beginning of a U.S. empire.

Treaty of Paris (1898)

1. Guam: to the U.S.

2. Puerto Rico: to the U.S.

3. Cuba: granted independence by Spain

4. Platt Amendment permited U.S. intervention in Cuba's internal affairs

5. Philippines: U.S. paid $20 million to Spain.

Philippines: take it or not take it

The proposed treaty with Spain sparked an important debate in America: Should we acquire the Philippines?

1. Those in favor of acquiring Philippines: imperialist case. Advocated an empire.

Appealed to motives of
Manifest destiny

2. Those against acquiring Philippines: anti–imperialist case.

Many felt imperialism counter to U.S. principles.
Others felt U.S. could expand markets without ruling other countries.
Labor unions felt they would be undercut by importation of low–wage contract workers.

3. Result: we paid $20 million and acquired the Philippines as an American possession

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1904

Importance of Roosevelt Corollary
Background to multiple US interventions

Sphere of influence notion

Dollar Diplomacy, 1909–1913
Dollar Diplomacy

Building the Panama Canal, 1903–1914

Protect Panama Canal during WWI and WWII

Banana Wars/Small Wars Manual
Connection to the interventions
Major ones that affect our story: Nicaragua, Dominican Republic

The Great Depression and U.S. Foreign Policy

Good Neighbor policy under FDR
Based on non-intervention
Good Neighbor Policy, 1933

Interventions generally ended with beginning of Great Depression

What specific causation of Depression and Good Neighbor policy

Mexican Expropriation of Foreign Oil, 1938 [nationalization theme]
US did not react adversely

World War II
US pressure to support the Allies

Act of Chapultepec: pledge of collective security
Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance
Re: 1945 (February-March) Act of Chapultepec and 1947 Rio Treaty