Now we overlay Cold War between US and USSR over what is happening in Latin America anyway.
What is happening in each country
East-West dimension
North-South dimension

Video: The Cold War & the Domino Theory
http://youtu.be/1JNHyDOWdYw

Module: Cold War from US perspective
US-Soviet relations 1917 to end of Truman presidency
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/Cold+War+timeline

Two sessions on Cold War from US perspective
US-USSR relations from 1917
Use summary of HIST 152 class notes
CONTEXT IS SO IMPORTANT
Realize how paranoid/similar to terrorism today
1948 Czechoslovakia coup
East-West Cold War
CONTEXT IS SO IMPORTANT: what year, month, even what day
Vietnam ongoing for most of the period

Latin America perspective
Each country had its own issues
Area became a battleground of Cold War tension

Added battleground of North-South tensions
From imperialism, etc.
From interventions
Castro and Guevara

Truman Doctrine
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truman_Doctrine

Eisenhower Doctrine
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower_Doctrine

https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/eisenhower-doctrine

Kennedy Doctrine (specifically on Latin America)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kennedy_Doctrine

Johnson Doctrine (Dominican Republic)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson_Doctrine

1954 Doolittle Commission Report
Put back in
This is good, especially the line about 1948 Czech coup
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doolittle_Report,_1954

1948 Czechoslovak coup d'etat
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Czechoslovak_coup_d%27état




President is Commander-in-Chief
Can move troops
Congress is supposed to declare war
After Watergate in 1973, War Powers Act
After Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Congress tried to tighten up oversight
Some depended on numeric control of Congress
Had a Conservative coalition back then
Conservative Coalition in US Congress
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservative_coalition
Politics stops at water's edge

US Presidents and party control of Congress
The Balance Of Power Between Congress and The Presidency (1901-2017) -
http://wiredpen.com/resources/political-commentary-and-analysis/a-visual-guide-balance-of-
power-congress-presidency/



US-Soviet relations
Eisenhower
Kennedy

Cold War--America Side

Red Scares

Cold War lasted a long time

McCarthy era issues key to context

Three options: dictator, communists, middle roader.
Hard for us to get the perfect middle roader
Better the dictator than a left-winger
So pushing democracy and social reform could lead to lefties
Revolutions could lead to lefties
Though many of FDR's policies had resonated in Latin America
Better to have a dictator or military, even with human rights abuses

What we did (or could do) in each country depended on that country's political situation--and
that changed over time.

It mattered who was US president and party control of Congress

US-Latin-American relations during the Cold War
[Print this so I can read it]
http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~jidoming/images/jid_uslatin.PDF

+++Latin America's left: a 40-year timeline
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/mar/10/latin-america-left-40-year-timeline

Professor Stephen Rabe on U.S. Interventions in Cold War Latin America
https://youtu.be/ttoS5Z3XXOw

In from the Cold: Latin America's New Encounter with the Cold War
Gilbert Joseph and his edited volume
https://youtu.be/tETAqcPWyqw



Module: Cold War from Soviet perspective

Soviets not pushing their agenda so much
Castro (at intervals) pushing it a lot)
Che Guevara seemed a real threat to US

Cold War--Soviet side

Foreign relations of the Soviet Union
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_the_Soviet_Union

Wars of National Liberation
Wanted to bury us/how much in retrospect just trash talk
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_national_liberation

1948 Czechoslovak coup d'etat
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Czechoslovak_coup_d%27état

Détente and Arms Control, 1969–1979 - Milestones
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1969-1976/detente

Peaceful Coexistence

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peaceful_coexistence

Sphere of influence
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphere_of_influence

Cuba beachhead


Non-Alignment

Non-Aligned Movement
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-Aligned_Movement

Bandung Conference
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandung_Conference

Bandung Conference (Asian-African Conference), 1955 - Milestones: Office of the Historian
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/bandung-conf


World War One
Russia on the side of France and Britain

Bolshevik Revolution 1917
Soviets pull out of war

Recognition of the Soviet Union, 1933
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/ussr

Soviets are our ally in World War Two

Cold War begins after World War Two



First Red Scare (1917-1920)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Red_Scare

First Red Scare image database
http://www.baruch.cuny.edu/library/alumni/online_exhibits/digital/redscare/default.htm

J. Edgar Hoover
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Edgar_Hoover

McCarthyism (Second Red Scare)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/McCarthyism

McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History
http://americanhistory.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.001.0001/acrefore-
9780199329175-e-6

Red Scare
https://youtu.be/A4LpLqHNOTk

Joseph McCarthy
https://youtu.be/lO7rTOZJGFo

HUAC
https://youtu.be/qkHzURumycM

Hollywood Ten
https://youtu.be/n1cF1x6V16k

Subversion
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subversion

Truman Doctrine

Eisenhower Doctrine

Kennedy Doctrine

Reagan Doctrine

The Day Nixon Began His Comeback
1967 at Bohemian Grove
This is good on non-alignment and Nixon's us versus them
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/28/opinion/the-day-nixon-began-his-comeback.html

Bandung Conference--Milestones: Office of the Historian
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/bandung-conf




Sources Of The Cold War

Main focus is the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (USSR).

USSR=Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Here is a listing of which Republics the USSR included:
Russia by far the major part of the USSR.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-Soviet_states

Hot war==actual shooting
Cold war==hostility but either no actual shooting or war through surrogates

Containment

Containment of Soviets became the cornerstone of American foreign policy.

Video: Policy of Containment (1/10)
http://youtu.be/W9VOdsUOUa8

George F. Kennan

Kennan and Containment (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/kennan

1. Kennan's "Long telegram" 1946

a. American diplomat in Moscow.

b. Soviet fanaticism made even a temporary understanding impossible.

c. His report played into a growing belief among American officials that only toughness would work with the Soviets.

2. Kennan's "Mr. X" article.

a. The article, titled the Sources of Soviet Conduct and based on the "long telegram," was published in the prestigious Foreign Affairs magazine.

b. Author (Kennan) advocated a policy of firm containment of the Soviets.

c. "Confront the Soviets with unalterable counterforce at every point where they show signs of encroaching on the interests of a peaceful and stable world."

Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech (1946)

1. Warned that a Soviet "iron curtain" had cut off Eastern European countries from the West.

2. Called for an Anglo–American partnership to resist the communist menace.

Truman Doctrine (1947)

Video: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan (2/10)
http://youtu.be/Xyoviiavusk

The Truman Doctrine, 1947 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/truman-doctrine

1. British had no money to continue to help Greece and Turkey.

2. British claimed that Communists threatened both countries.

3. Congress approved $400 million economic aid to Greece & Turkey.

4. Truman doctrine: "U.S. policy to support free peoples who are resisting attempted takeover by (a) armed minorities or (b) outside pressure."

Marshall Plan (1948)

Marshall Plan, 1948 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/marshall-plan

1. War damage and dislocation in Europe invited communist influence:

a. Food was scarce; workers were demoralized; winter of 1947 was the worst in 50 years.

b. Communist voting strength was growing in France and Italy

2. U.S. offered economic aid to all European countries (including Soviets)

3. Soviets declined: fearing aid might defeat their control of Eastern Europe

4. U.S. gave $17 billion in aid over four years.

5. That aid helped rebuild Europe. It was also good for American business.

Israel Became a Separate Country

UN Votes to Partition Palestine (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/UN-Votes-to-Partition-Palestine.html

Creation of Israel, 1948 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/creation-israel

Berlin blockade and airlift (1948–49)

Video: Berlin Airlift and Formation of NATO (3/10)
http://youtu.be/cH-GVf9floo

The Berlin Airlift, 1948–1949 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/berlin-airlift

1. Soviets blocked land access to Berlin.

2. U.S. airlifted food and fuel for 2 million West Berliners.

3. Flights of 1,000 planes a day (every 3 minutes) for ten months.

4. Soviets finally called off blockade.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/nato

1. Established to defend Europe against a Soviet invasion.
2. U.S. foreign policy change: not since French–American alliance (1778)
3. Members pledged to treat an attack against one as an attack on all.
4. Dwight Eisenhower named initial NATO commander.
5. Four U.S. divisions stationed in Europe to evidence American support.
6. Soviets later formed Warsaw Pact in response.

McCarthyism:

Anti–communist hysteria

Named for Republican Senator from Wisconsin Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisconsin)

Video: McCarthyism (8/10)
http://youtu.be/HaRtRhyorsw

Here are some of the key names and major events associated with McCarthyism:

1. J.Edgar Hoover (head of the FBI): fear of internal subversion by Communist spies became intertwined with fear of external attack by the Soviet Union.

2. Spy revelations gave people cause to be alarmed

Video: Red Scare and House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) (6/10)
https://youtu.be/enHS3oicqKA

3. People began pointing accusing fingers at each other.

Red-baiting:
To harass or persecute (someone) on account of known or suspected communist sympathies.

4. "Hollywood Ten" (screenwriters and directors) jailed for contempt of Congress.

They refused to provide names of alleged Communists.

Others were blacklisted—even if only accused.

Those who did provide names (Elia Kazan) suffer to this day

5. Schoolteachers had to take loyalty oaths and were fired if they refused.

6. Alger Hiss case (1950)

Video: Alger Hiss Case and the Rosenbergs (7/10)
http://youtu.be/wNQvdpa0sc4

Hiss accused by Whittaker Chambers of being a Communist spy.

Role of House of Representatives Committee on Un–American Activities (Richard Nixon a member).

7. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

They were executed (1953) for having supposedly spied for the Soviet Union.

8. Downfall of McCarthy

a. Eisenhower's reluctance to confront McCarthy.

b. Televised hearings: Army–McCarthy.

Reconstruction of Japan

Occupation and Reconstruction of Japan, 1945–52 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/japan-reconstruction

Korean War and Japan’s Recovery (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/korean-war

Role of U.S. in controlling postwar Japan (Douglas MacArthur)

To help contain communism in Asia, we eventually built up Japan.

Japan turned into a formidable economic competitor.

People's Republic of China (PRC) (1949)

The Chinese Revolution of 1949 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/chinese-rev

Video: Mao's Communists take over China 1949
http://youtu.be/4OWXTGFxzU0

1. Chinese Civil War (1945-1949)
War between the forces of Mao Tse-Tung's Commuists and our World War II ally, Chang Kai-Shek.

2. Mao Tse-Tung's Communists won. Establishment of the People's Republic of China (1949).

3. Chang Kai-Shek and his supporters were forced to leave mainland China and move to the island of Taiwan (formerly called Formosa).

4. The Communist victory had a major influence on American politics.

Republicans criticized Democrats for the "loss" of China to the Communists.

A defeat for containment.

Korean War (1950-1953)

The Korean War, 1950–1953 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/korean-war-2

Video: Start of Korean War (4/10)
https://youtu.be/uFPwJUqtz7o

Video: MacArthur Dismissed and Korean Armistice (5/10)
http://youtu.be/rDhy7i7JIl4

Here is a summary of the specific events during the war:

1. North Korea attacked across 38th parallel into South Korea (25 June 1950)

2. President Truman, determined to "contain" communism, committed U.S. forces to battle.

General Douglas MacArthur Named Commander of UN Forces in Korea.

3. Pusan perimeter

a. North Koreans advanced all the way to southern tip of South Korea.
b. America feared an Asian "Dunkirk"

4. Inchon invasion.

Douglas MacArthur reversed initial tide of the war.

5. U.S. moved to 38th parallel, thereby recovering all of South Korea.

6. U.S. decided to take North Korea, too. Moved north of 38th parallel.

7. U.S. forces pushed to the Yalu River (North Korea's border with PRC)

8. Chinese troops entered the Korean War.

9. U.S. embarrassed militarily, particularly at the Chosin Reservoir

10. MacArthur now looked like a chump.

11. Civilian control of the military became a hot issue.

12. MacArthur: wanted to expand the war to the Chinese mainland; use nuclear weapons

13. Truman: wanted to keep conflict limited; not risk Soviet entry and a possible World War Three

14. President Truman fired General MacArthur

15. War's results. U.S. casualties: 34,000 dead.

16. Sometimes called the "Forgotten War": frustrating; no clear victory.

17. Issues today: U.S. troops in South Korea; North Korea threat to peace

Sputnik (1957)

Sputnik, 1957 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/sputnik

Soviets launched a satellite that scared America and put them ahead (temporarily) in the space race.

U–2 incident (1960)

Video: U-2 Incident (10/10)
http://youtu.be/BsQsXCzkDoc

U-2 Overflights and the Capture of Francis Gary Powers, 1960 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/u2-incident

U–2 spy plane carrying high–powered cameras crashed 1,200 miles inside the Soviet Union.

After denying presence of such a spy plane, President Eisenhower (Ike) accepted the blame.

1960 Presidential Election

Nixon and Kennedy Hold First Ever Presidential Debate
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-This-Day--Nixon-and-JFK-Appear-in-First-Televised-Presidential-Debate.html

Peace Corps

Video: Peace Corps
http://youtu.be/vvZFOeV9RWw

Alliance for Progress and Peace Corps, 1961–1969 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/alliance-for-progress

Berlin Wall (August 1961)

The Berlin Crisis, 1958–1961 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/berlin-crises

Soviets built a wall to keep people from fleeing East Berlin.

Video: Berlin Wall deconstructed (2:27)
http://youtu.be/-9VKVt4yuhI

President Kennedy's Speech at the Berlin Wall (June 1963)

President Kennedy Declares “Ich bin ein Berliner”
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--President-Kennedy-Declares--Ich-bin-ein-Berliner-.html

Cuba and Castro

1. Fidel Castro ousted American–backed dictator Fulgencio Batista (1959)

Castro takes power (1 January 1959)

Batista Flees Cuba and Castro Takes Power
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/On-this-Day--Batista-Flees-Cuba-and-Castro-Takes-Power.html

Video: Cuban Revolution 1959 Today in History 1 January (1:21)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P846Xcyau1Y&feature=youtu.be

2. Castro's Cuba became an ally of the Soviet Union.

3. America freaked. President Eisenhower (Ike) broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.

Eisenhower Places Embargo on Exports to Cuba
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Eisenhower-Places-Embargo-on-Exports-to-Cuba.html

4. Ike ordered CIA to use Cuban exiles to try to overthrow Castro.

Bay of Pigs invasion (April 1961)

The Bay of Pigs Invasion and its Aftermath, April 1961–October 1962 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/bay-of-pigs

Video: Cuba and the Bay of Pigs
http://youtu.be/8qXZp8bxpNY

1. Kennedy approved the Eisenhower-initiated plan to topple Castro.

2. The 1,500 man invasion force was unsuccessful.

3. No uprising against Castro occurred.

4. Kennedy took all the blame. His poll ratings went up! Kennedy in his first Hundred Days.

Cuban missile crisis (October 1962)

The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962 (US State Department)
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/cuban-missile-crisis

1. Soviet's secretly installed offensive missiles in Cuba.

2. Kennedy (JFK) learned from his mistakes earlier at Bay of Pigs. Laid out a range of options.

3. JFK chose a naval blockade (quarantine) of Cuba.

4. Soviets ships eventually turned back before they got to U.S blockade