A Summary of the PERFECT TENSES in SPANISH [haber] + past participle
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i80fxysKzIg&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Past Perfect, Pluperfect, Pluscuamperfecto in Spanish
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VpGDhJ8eNw&feature=youtube_gdata_player

FUTURE PERFECT: How to form / conjugate verbs in the futuro perfecto in Spanish
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=459J8Cy-9DU&feature=youtube_gdata_player

IR + a + infinitive SAYING WHAT YOU ARE GOING TO DO
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDRLy_ub8Ts&feature=youtube_gdata_player




Tenses

Hablo de mis experiencias de vida con el pretérito perfecto He vivido en alemania

ciertos individuos [están sembrando] confusión entre ustedes si alguien les [anda predicando] un evangelio distinto del que recibieron eso es precisamente lo que [he venido haciendo] con esmero.

Todo este tiempo [han venido pensando] que nos [estábamos justificando] ante ustedes? ¡Más bien, [hemos estado hablando] delante de Dios en Cristo!




Present Subjunctive

Expressing an idea abiut which you are indefinite/doubtful: quizás/acaso/tal vez

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Present Progressive

What is happening right now.

Gerund==ing
Hablando comiendo

Don't overuse this tense. Use it sparingly.

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Present Perfect

Saying what has been done.

Use ya and todavia no

Ya has abierto los regalos?
No, todavia no los he abierto
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Past Perfect

An action that preceded another in the past


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Conditional Perfect

Expressing something that would have taken place

Haber + Past participle

Use subject pronouns yo and el since habría is same for both
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Future tense to express probability

No verb for "to wonder"

I wonder where he is? Donde estará él?
He is probably at home. Estará en casa.

I wonder if there is fresh fruit in the market?
Habrá mucha fruta fresca?



REFLEXIVE

If the subject in a sentence performs an action on itself, then the verb is considered to be reflexive, and the pronoun used to receive the action is reflexive.

The singular reflexive pronouns are: me (myself), te (yourself), and se (yourself (formal), himself, herself).

The plural reflexive pronouns are: nos (ourselves), os (yourselves - informal Spain), and se (yourselves, themselves).

For example, consider the sentence, "Yo me baño," (I bathe myself, or I take a bath). The verb is reflexive, and "me" is the reflexive pronoun. Of course the verb bañar is not always used as a reflexive verb, but in this case it is.

There are some verbs that are always used reflexively, such as arrepentirse (to repent, or regret), and that is how they are found in the dictionary, with the reflexive pronoun "se" attached to the end.

Reflexive verbs and pronouns are often used in ways that are less straightforward.

"Me corté el dedo." (I cut my finger.) In this case, the object that receives the action is the finger, but also oneself.

"Roberto se cansa." (Robert is getting tired.) In this case, Robert tires himself by doing some activity or perhaps just going along through the day.

"Me alegro de estar aquí." (I am glad to be here.) In this case, the subject is gladdening himself due to being somewhere. The use of a reflexive verb to express a feeling is customary in Spanish.

"¿Porqué te vas?" (Why do you leave?) In this case, the reflexive form if the verb ir (to go), is irse (to leave, or go away.) One is causing himself to go away.

Of note, there are also a few situations when verbs are used reflexively even though the subject has no clear action upon itself, as, for example, in the sentence, "Se murió repentinamente." (He died suddenly.)

The reflexive pronoun is positioned before the verb when the verb is conjugated (as seen above), but is placed after (and connected to) the verb when the verb is in the infinitive or imperative (giving an order).

However, if the infinitive verb is preceded by a separate conjugated verb, then the reflexive pronoun can be positioned first.

All of the following sentences are correct:

Antes de vestirme, prendo la luz. (Before getting dressed, I turn on the light.)

¡Vistete! (Get dressed!)

Me puedo calmar. (I can calm down.)

Puedo calmarme. (I can calm down.)

Note: When properly positioned, reflexive pronouns always come before any indirect or direct object pronouns. This can be remembered with the acronym "RID." Reflexive pronouns come before indirect, which come before direct pronouns.



Reflexive Verbs

Common Spanish reflexive verbs

apresurarse - to hurry up
acercarse - to approach
acordarse de - to remember
acostarse - to go to bed
afeitarse - to shave
avergonzarse de - to be embarrassed
asustarse / espantarse - to be frightened
ahogarse - to drown, to choke
atreverse a - to dare
aburrirse - to bore (someone)
aprovecharse de - to take advantage of (an opportunity)
arrepentirse de - to regret, to be sorry, to repent
asegurarse de - to secure, to assure, to make sure
acostumbrarse a - to be in the habit, to get accustomed
burlarse de - to make fun of
bañarse / ducharse - to take a shower
comportarse / portarse - to behave
callarse - to be silent, to keep quiet
cepillarse - to brush
casarse con - to marry, to get married
cansarse (de) - to wear out, to get tired
concentrarse - to concentrate
chocarse - to crash
cuidarse - to look after oneself, take care of oneself
confundirse - to mistake
disfrazarse - to dress up, to disguise
despertarse - to wake up
divertirse - to enjoy oneself
dormirse - to fall asleep
derretirse - to melt
derretirse por - to fall madly in love
despedirse de - to say goodbye
detenerse - to stop
dedicarse - to devote oneself to
enojarse / enfadarse (con) - to get angry (with)
esforzarse - to exert oneself
encontrarse con - to meet
equivocarse - to be mistaken, be wrong, make a mistake
encargarse de - to be in charge (with/of), to take care
echarse - to pour (spill) on oneself
ejercitarse - to train, to practice
enamorarse de - to be in love with, to fall in love with
ganarse la vida - to make a living
hacerse/convertirse en - to become
irse / marcharse - to leave, to go away
imaginarse - to imagine, to suppose
lavarse - to wash oneself
levantarse - to get up
llamarse - to be name, to called
maquillarse / pintarse - to put on makeup
molestarse - to mad
negarse a - to refuse to
ocuparse de - to attend to, to be concerned with, to busy oneself with
peinarse - to comb one's hair
preocuparse por - to worry
ponerse - to put on (clothing), to wear
ponerse (triste, feliz.....) - to become
ponerse a + infinitive - to begin to
ponerse en marcha (en camino) - to start out, to set out
quejarse - to moan (pain), to complain
quedarse - to stay, to remain
quitarse - to take off (clothing)
reunirse - to join in / to meet up
reirse de - to laugh at
rendirse - to surrender
recostarse - to recline, to lie down, to lie back, to rest
sentirse - to feel (something inside of you, emotional feelings)




Time Expressions with "hacer"
http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/timehacer.htm

Notes:

The verb "hacer" can be used in a number of ways to indicate the length of time an action has been taking place. The first way uses the formula:

Hace + time + que + present tense form of the verb

Hace un año que estudio español.
I have been studying Spanish for one year.

Hace dos años que ellas estudian inglés.
They have been studying English for two years.

To make this type of expression negative, just add the word "no" before the verb, as in the following formula:

Hace + time + que + no + present tense form of the verb

Hace un año que no estudio español.
I haven't studied Spanish for a year.

Hace dos años que ellas no estudian inglés.
They haven't studied English for two years.

Another way to use the verb "hacer" to express how long something has been taking place is to use the following formula:

Present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time

Estudio español desde hace un año.
I have been studying Spanish for one year.

Ellas estudian inglés desde hace dos años.
They have been studying English for two years.

To make this type of expression negative, again simply add the word "no" before the verb, as in the following formula:

No + present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time

No estudio español desde hace un año.
I haven't studied Spanish for a year.

Ellas no estudian inglés desde hace dos años.
They haven't studied English for two years.

So, when it comes to using the verb "hacer" to express the length of time an action has been taking place, there are two ways to say the same thing:

Estudio español desde hace un año.
Hace un año que estudio español.
I have been studying Spanish for one year.
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Desde, Hace, Desde hace
http://www.learn-spanish-online.de/grammar/chapter12_prepositions/12_13_desde.htm

12.13 desde

desde is used to indicate a point of time or location.
In the meaning of time it can be translated with since.
desde in a timely sense = since
Desde el año 1970 trabaja en Francia.
= He has worked in France since 1970.
Desde que se enteró que le habían engañado no habló más con ellos.
= Since he had noticed that they had deceived him he didn't talk to them anymore

In the local sense, desde means from.
desde in a local sense = from

Desde mi ventana podía verla.
= I could see her from my window.
Viendo la cosa desde afuera parece una cosa de niños.
= Looking from the outside it seems something childish.
Desde Madrid cada cinco minutos salen trenes con destino a Alcalá.
= From Madrid trains leave to Alcalá every five minutes.
Desde la torre se ve la ciudad desde arriba.
= From the tower you can see the town below.

I. desde can be used figuratively = from

Aqui puedes aprender JavaScript desde cero.
= Here you can learn JavaScript from cero.
Desde la altura de sus principios morales todo el mundo le pareció vil y tonto.
= From the height of his principles the world seemed mean and stupid.

II. use of desde

Desde is used when the starting point of an action is exactly known and the event is still going on until the present time or some certain point of time (that is known as well). If the end of the event is not mentioned desde just means since. If the total period

is mentioned it is from ... to.
Vivo en Madrid desde el año pasado.
= I live Madrid since last year.
Desde 1980 no fumo más.
= Since 1980 I do not smoke anymore.
Estuve en Paris desde agosto hasta noviembre.
= I was in Paris from August until (to) November.

III. use of hace

hace is a preposition that doesn't have a counterpart in English. The English construction is: It has been a time that ... It means that the start of an action is known and the action doesn't go on anymore
hace = it has been ... that

Hace una semana me escribió una carta.
= It's been a week that he wrote this letter to me. (action is finished, doesn't go on anymore)
Hace un año me mudé a Berlin.
= It's been a year that I moved to Berlin. (the move is done, I live in London, end of story)

desde in a span of time (desde hace = for)

Vivo en Berlin desde hace diez años.
= I have been living in Berlin for ten years.
Desde hace tres semanas le estoy diciendo que tiene que ir al médico.
= I have been telling him for three weeks that he has to go to the doctor.
Desde hace una semana me escribe una carta cada día.
= He has been writing me a letter every day for the last week. (It is still going on)

hace is to be conjugated

Hace ya tres años que se murió su esposa.
= It has been already three years that his wife died.
hace is a verb that changes with tenses
Hacía ya tres años que se había muerto su esposa cuando se casó de nuevo.
= It had been already three years that his wife had died when he remarried.

IV. desde hace and hace... que

desde hace is used when a time span is expressed and the action is still ongoing. Such constructions can be also described with desde hace or hace .... que.

Vivo en Londres desde hace diez años.
alternatively:
Hace diez años que vivo en Londres.
= I have been living in London for 10 years.
alternatively:
= It's been 10 years that I live in London.

Desde hace tres semanas le estoy diciendo que tiene que ir al médico.
alternatively:
Hace tres semanas que le estoy diciendo que tiene que irse al medico.
= I have been telling him that he has to go to the doctor for three weeks.
alternatively:
= It's been three weeks that I have been telling him that he has to go to the doctor.

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http://www.elearnspanishlanguage.com/grammar/verb/hacer2.html

Hacer, which literally means "to do" or "to make," is found in a number of idiomatic expressions. One of this verb's most important uses has to do with expressing time.

Note that the word order is variable for many of these expressions.
Action that occurred a certain amount of time ago
hace + time + que + preterite or preterite + hace + time
Hace tres años que empecé a trabajar aquí. I started working here three years ago.
¿Cuánto tiempo hace que lo encontraste? How long ago did you find it?
La conocí hace dos semanas. I met her two weeks ago.

Past action continuing into the present (2 constructions)
1. hace + time + que + present tense or present + hace + time
Hace tres años que trabajo aquí. I've worked here for three years.
¿Cuánto tiempo hace que conoces a ella? How long have you known her?
La conozco hace dos semanas. I've known her for two weeks.
2. present tense + desde hace + time
Trabajo aquí desde hace tres años. I've worked here for three years.
¿Conoces a elle desde hace cuánto tiempo? How long have you known her?
La conozco desde hace dos semanas. I've known her for two weeks.

Past action interrupted by another action in the past (2 constructions)
1. hacía + time + que + imperfect or imperfect + hacía + que
Hacía tres años que trabajaba en México cuando mi padre murió. I had been working in Mexico for three years when my father died.
Hacía una semana que él leía el libro cuando lo perdió. He had been reading the book for a week when he lost it.
Tenía líos hacía mucho tiempo cuando decidí a mudarme. I had been having trouble for a long time when I decide to move.
2. imperfect + desde hacía + time
Trabajaba en México desde hacía tres años cuando mi padre murió. I had been working in Mexico for three years when my father died.
Él leía el libro desde hace una semana cuando lo perdió. He had been reading the book for a week when he lost it.
Tenía líos desde hace mucho tiempo cuando decidí a mudarme. I had been having trouble for a long time when I decide to move.

Note: When you want to say since a certain time/day/year, use desde + time.
Está en la casa desde las tres. He's been at home since 3 o'clock.
Busco mis llaves desde lunes. I've been looking for my keys since Monday.
La conozco desde junio. I've known her since June.
Trabajo aquí desde 1999. I've worked here since 1999.

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Translating 'Ago' in Spanish
Idiom Uses Form of Verb 'Hacer'
By Gerald Erichsen
http://spanish.about.com/od/idiomsandphrases/qt/hace_ago.htm

The usual way of saying in Spanish that something happened some period of time ago is to use the verb hace (a form of hacer, "to make") followed by the period of time.

The phrase using hace can come at the beginning of the sentence or following the verb. The main verb of the sentence is most commonly used in the preterite (simple past) tense, although other past tenses are possible.

Here are some examples of this usage of hace:

Hace cinco años nuestra escuela fue acreditada. (Five years ago, our school was accredited.)
Es algo que aprendí hace poco tiempo. (It is something I learned a short time ago.)
La historia de la ciudad comenzó hace mucho tiempo. (The story of the city began a long time ago.)
Hace tres años estaba preparado para salir de casa. (Three years ago, I was prepared to leave home.)
Hace muchos años un hombre anciano me dijo una historia que su madre le había dicho. (Many years ago, an old man told me a story that his mother had told him.)
Es el editor del programa, desde su primera emisión hace cuatro años. (He is the editor of the program, since its first broadcast four years ago.)
¿Por qué hace un momento me criticabas? (Why were you criticizing me a little while ago?)

An hace tiempo phrase is sometimes used following a preposition, as in these examples:

El dólar cae a niveles de hace cinco años. (The dollar is falling to levels of five years ago.)
Hasta hace un momento estudiaban. (They were studying until a moment ago.)

If the main verb in a sentence using an hace tiempo phrase is in the present tense, it means that the action began the stated time ago and is continuing:

Hace 20 años que negociamos con Brasil. (We have been trading with Brazil for 20 years.)
Hace dos años que tenemos este programa. (We have had this program for two years.)
Hace diez años que no voy a Guatemala. (It has been 10 years since I went to Guatemala.)