VIETNAM MODULE

Vietnam era songs:

SSgt Barry Sadler - The Ballad Of The Green Berets
http://youtu.be/iWjkeXKPQOI

Ballad of the Green Berets
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JbQ9zbLiUno&feature=youtube_gdata_player

10 songs that embody the Vietnam era
https://pjmedia.com/lifestyle/2014/11/26/10-songs-that-embody-the-vietnam-war-era/?singlepage=true

The Seekers - 1966 - 'Yesterday
http://youtu.be/u2d7RSu0Xo0

The Seekers - The Last Thing On My Mind
http://youtu.be/DtyHvjTJK1E

John Denver - Take Me Home, Country Roads
http://youtu.be/1vrEljMfXYo

John Denver - Sunshine On My Shoulders
http://youtu.be/diwuu_r6GJE

John Denver - Leaving On A Jet Plane
http://youtu.be/SneCkM0bJq0

John Denver - Rocky Mountain High
http://youtu.be/eOB4VdlkzO4

The Mamas & The Papas - Monday Monday
http://youtu.be/h81Ojd3d2rY




WONDERFUL WEDNESDAY, 5 APRIL

Secret Weapon in the Strive For 5 - APUSH T-Shirt
http://youtu.be/aD1m_pZhHjg

Cold War Vietnam (46:25)
Do over 2 periods
Stop and comment at various points
If it's dead and Vietnamese, it's VC
VC Victor Charlie from radio phonetic alphabet
Search and destroy missions
Trying to save Vietnam, we destroyed much of it in the process
Ho Chi Minh trail (29:47)

MLK objections to the war
https://youtu.be/6s0Z2mwTrXY
http://youtu.be/6s0Z2mwTrXY



Vietnam Photos:

The Powerful Vietnam War Photos That Made History | Here & Now
http://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2017/03/31/vietnam-war-photos-associated-press

Boston Globe
http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2010/05/vietnam_35_years_later.html

Girl from AP's Vietnam napalm photo finds peace with her role in history | Guardian.co.uk
http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2012/jun/02/girl-vietnam-napalm-photo-peace

Treatment for girl in Vietnam napalm attack phot0
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34633036




Where to put these??

Learning to come home from war: no one said "thank you" to Vietnam vets
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/apr/13/vietnam-veterans-not-thanked-for-military-service



A Retrospective on Counterinsurgency Operations (Central Intelligence Agency)
The Tay Ninh Provincial Reconnaissance Unit and Its Role in the Phoenix Program, 1969-70
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol51no2/a-retrospective-on-counterinsurgency-operations.html

Map: South Vietnam provinces, 1967
http://www.rivervet.com/mapprovinces.htm

Vietnam war reporter Malcolm Browne dies (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-19401031

Vietnam War AP Archive
http://www.aparchive.com/compilationscategory/19623/Vietnam%20War



Vietnam: a television history

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 10. Homefront USA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMN6M5CZo8o

Battlefield Vietnam - Documentary 12 parts
Send to Logan
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0679IGx8w0jpry6P-xHoqfoWrgbxUn03

Why CIA analysts were so doubtful about Vietnam
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/vietnam.html

“It Was Vital Not to Lose Vietnam by Force to Communism”:
Leslie Gelb Analyzes the Roots of U.S. Involvement in Vietnam
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6899

INR'S 1969 Vietnam Study in Context: A Retrospective Preface Thirty-five Years Later
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB121/hughes.htm

A Retrospective on Counterinsurgency Operations — Central Intelligence Agency
https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol51no2/a-retrospective-on-counterinsurgency-operations.html

Edwin A. Shuman III, Former Prisoner of War Who Defied Hanoi Hilton Guards, Dies at 82
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/25/us/edwin-a-shuman-iii-former-prisoner-of-war-who-defied-hanoi-hilton-guards-dies-at-82.html?hpw&rref=obituaries



Stanley Karnow obituaries
1. New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/28/arts/television/stanley-karnow-historian-and-journalist-dies-at-87.html?ref=obituaries&pagewanted=all

2. Washington Post
http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/stanley-karnow-journalist-and-vietnam-historian-dies/2013/01/27/53cefb74-1c50-11e1-967a-d7f5eed205d7_story.html

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 1: Roots of a War (1945-1953)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TqKi-SyRA7I
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_01.html

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 2: America's Mandarin (1954-1963)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5yd7tnJAEGE
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_02.html

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 3: LBJ Goes to War (1964-1965)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5TNwVIhcQk
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_03.html

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 4: America Takes Charge (1965-1967)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fD5Sek4snmw
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_04.html

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 5. America's Enemy (1954-1967)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7hPXw1YnUQQ
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_05.html

Episode 6: Tet

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 7. Vietnamizing the War (1969-1973)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AIdYdbpR8kA
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_07.html

Lon Nol ousts Prince Sihanouk — History.com This Day in History — 3/18/1970
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/lon-nol-ousts-prince-sihanouk

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 8. Cambodia and Laos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SSLMJoVJJR4
Read the transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_08.html

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 9. Peace Is at Hand (1968-1973)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cXIjMkE7Ikk
Read the transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_09.html

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 10. Homefront USA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMN6M5CZo8o
Read the transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_10.html

Vietnam: A Television History
Episode 11. The End of the Tunnel (1973-1975)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TxJBVklyIXs
Read the transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_11.html



New York Times 1967 series

Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/24/opinion/lyndon-johnsons-vietnam.html

Vietnam: The War That Killed Trust
First in a series
http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/07/opinion/sunday/vietnam-the-war-that-killed-trust.html?_r=0

As the Earth Shook, They Stood Firm -Vietnam article
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/17/opinion/as-the-earth-shook-they-stood-firm.html?_r=0

What I saw in Vietnam
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/15/opinion/what-i-saw-in-vietnam.html?_r=0

Pacification, through the barrel of a gun
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/10/opinion/pacification-through-the-barrel-of-a-gun.html?_r=0

Combat Nurses and Donut Dollies
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/31/opinion/combat-nurses-and-donut-dollies.html

The Smothers Brothers in 1967: Laughing at Hard Truths
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/03/opinion/the-smothers-brothers-laughing-at-hard-truths.html

The 30-years war in Vietnam
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/07/opinion/the-30-years-war-in-vietnam.html?_r=0

The road to Tet
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/27/opinion/the-road-to-tet.html

Who Called the Shots in Hanoi?
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/14/opinion/who-called-the-shots-in-hanoi.html

At Quang Nam, a Raid and a Reckoning
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/24/opinion/at-quang-nam-a-raid-and-a-reckoning.html

The Grunt's War
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/17/opinion/the-grunts-war.html?_r=0

How Playboy Explains Vietnam
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/28/opinion/how-playboy-explains-vietnam.html?_r=0

America’s Case of ‘Tonkin Gulfitis’
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/07/opinion/americas-case-of-tonkin-gulfitis.html?_r=0

Bernard Fall: The Man who knew the war
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/21/opinion/bernard-fall-the-man-who-knew-the-war.html?_r=0

Moving On in Vietnam, but Remembering Its Lessons
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/24/opinion/moving-on-in-vietnam-but-remembering-its-lessons.html

For America, life was cheap in Vietnam
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/10/opinion/for-america-life-was-cheap-in-vietnam.html?ref=global-home&_r=0

Bringing God along for the ride in Vietnam
http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/08/bringing-god-along-for-the-ride/?ref=global-home

Vietnam: Where saying 'I love you' is impossible
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-23501757

Pete Peterson: The ex-POW teaching Vietnam to swim (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-21770163



Maps for us to refer back to during our study of this module:

Static map:
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI650.jpg

Map: South Vietnam provinces, 1967
http://www.rivervet.com/mapprovinces.htm



My Own Path to Vietnam

How and why did I end up in Vietnam?

1. Army ROTC at Georgetown, commissioned as an Infantry Second Lieutenant.

2. Wrote term papers on insurgencies, prepared myself as much as possible for Vietnam.

3. One part of me thought I had to go to graduate school as my classmates were doing.

4. Army permitted deferments to pursue my Ph.D.

5. Began a Ph.D. program in Political Science at Pitt. Difficult to be in school when war on.

6. Finished M.A. but asked Army to call me in for my two years.

7. Stateside assignments:

Infantry Officer Basic Course at Fort Benning, Georgia
Troop duty in the Infantry Advanced Individual Training Brigade at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
Vietnamese language study at Fort Bliss, Texas
Advisor school at Fort Gordon, Georgia

8. Tour of duty in Vietnam as an advisor to the South Vietnamese army.

9. Returned from Vietnam to begin MBA program at Stanford Business School.



VIETNAM

Vietnam became one of the many sites where the Cold War and the Third World intersected.

Context for U.S. decision-making

Containment policy

American leaders thought of Vietnam as an Asian Berlin, a place to draw the line against communism and to implement the containment doctrine.

China 1949

McCarthy in US (1950-1954)

Korean War (1950-1953)



French Indochina

Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos) colonized in 1880s.
Vietnamese resisted French colonial regime as much as possible
Vietnamese tradition of historical resistance to invaders: China.



Ho Chi Minh:

Ho Chi Minh obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0519.html

Leader of Vietnamese Communist Party
Major leader of Vietnamese resistance to the Japanese
Vietminh declared independence from France in 1945.
Ho quoted from U.S. Declaration of Independence.

Ho Chi Minh and the OSS
http://www.historynet.com/ho-chi-minh-and-the-oss.htm

Leader of Vietnamese Communist Party
Major leader of Vietnamese resistance to the Japanese

Vietminh declared independence from France in 1945.
Ho quoted from U.S. Declaration of Independence.

Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Vietnam
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5139/

General Giap: main enemy general who opposed both the French and the US

Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, Who Ousted U.S. From Vietnam, Is Dead
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/05/world/asia/gen-vo-nguyen-giap-dies.html?ref=global-home&pagewanted=all

Henry A. Prunier, U.S. Soldier Who Trained Vietnamese Troops, Dies at 91
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/18/world/asia/henry-a-prunier-army-operative-who-helped-trained-vietnamese-troops-dies-at-91.html?hpw&_r=0

General Vo Nguyen Giap as Military Man and Poet (Cecil B. Currey)
http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Texts/Scholarly/Currey_Giap.html

Picture of General Giap



Vietminh war against the French

U.S. had a choice:
a) Support Ho Chi Minh's bid for independence
b) Support French return to Indochina

We supported the French return.
Context: containment of communism
We paid 80% of the costs of French war against Vietminh

Edwin Moise: Emergence of the Viet Minh
[Note: In first paragraph a clue to what happened to Free French in Vietnam]
http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/EdMoise/viet2.html

Edwin Moise: The First Indochina War
http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/EdMoise/viet3.html

Volume 1, Chapter 1 of the Pentagon Papers, "Background to the Crisis, 1940-50," pp. 1-52.
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon/pent1.html

Dienbienphu (May 1954)

French defeat
http://www.historynet.com/battle-of-dien-bien-phu.htm

French fall to Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu (History.com This Day in History | 5/7/1954)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/french-fall-to-viet-minh-at-dien-bien-phu

French Foreign Legion Parachute unit
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YSsetJU-tU&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bernard Fall)
http://www.historynet.com/battle-of-dien-bien-phu.htm

Battle Scenes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TJ1KJJuJ3M&feature=youtube_gdata_player

New Perspectives on Dien Bien Phu
http://www.hawaii.edu/cseas/pubs/explore/v1n2-art2.html

French withdrawal from Indochina

Geneva peace conference (July 1954)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/geneva-conference-begins

Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel.
Ho's forces gained control of North Vietnam.
Election to unify the country was scheduled for 1956.
America, figuring Ho Chi Minh would win, did not permit the election.

U.S. replaced France in Vietnam



AMERICA IN VIETNAM

Overview:

Ground combat took place within South Vietnam

U.S. never invaded North Vietnam

U.S. pursued an air war against North Vietnam



Enemy side:

North Vietnam and those living in South Vietnam (called Viet Cong) who will fight against the United States

The Vietnamese women who fought for their country
http://www.bbc.com/news/in-pictures-37986986

What We Don’t Know About Vietnam Can Still Hurt Us (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/12/opinion/sunday/what-we-dont-know-about-vietnam-can-still-hurt-us.html?ref=opinion&pagewanted=all

Our side:

United States and those South Vietnamese friendly to U.S.



Our man in Vietnam: Ngo Dinh Diem

Our initial handpicked leader in South Vietnam
No real alternative leader in South Vietnam to Ho Chi Minh in the North
U.S. backed Ngo Dinh Diem

Walter Kronkite interview with President Kennedy
http://youtu.be/UM3uaXp8DAk

Additional date on the following wiki page:
http://thelearningprofessor.wikispaces.com/HIST+484+Reactions

He consolidated power over internal rivals (we wish the leaders of Iraq and Afghanistan could do the same):
Diem was a Catholic (in a mostly Buddhist country)
Bachelor (role of his family, especially brother and his sister-in-law)

His brother: Ngo Dinh Nhu
His sister-in-law: Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu
Madame Nhu and her daughter visit the US
http://oldlifemagazines.com/the-1960s-1/1963/october-11-1963-life-magazine.html

Opposition to Diem in Vietnam
http://youtu.be/WIt7Heu2a6A

Diem's oppressive policies and persecution of Buddhists made him unpopular
Vietnamese monk burning himself to death
http://i104.photobucket.com/albums/m179/pinguy1982/thichquangducselfimmolade7.jpg

Edwin Moise: The Fall of Ngo Dinh Diem
http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/EdMoise/viet6.html

JFK and the Diem Coup
[Read the introductory sections--those prior to the Documents]
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB101/index.htm

Volume 2, Chapter 4, of the Pentagon Papers, "The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem, May-November, 1963," pp. 201-276.
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon2/pent6.htm
[use the summary section only]

CIA backed an overthrow of Diem (who was murdered)

The Ugly American Telegram
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/24/opinion/the-ugly-american-telegram.html?ref=global-home

Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem
JFK himself was assassinated three weeks later.



Kennedy's escalation of the U.S. war effort

North Vietnam and Viet Cong increased attempts to win in South
South Vietnam on the verge of losing
JFK had sent 16,000 American advisors.
Big historical question: what would Kennedy have done had he lived?

After Diem, revolving-door governments in South Vietnam
Comparisons to Iraq and Afghanistan

Why did we let Diem be overthrown?
Was there any better alternative?
Was the country itself able to operate as a country?
Could and would the South Vietnamese leaders actually lead their own people?
At what point could the U.S. have gotten out of Vietnam?



President Lyndon Johnson and the Americanization of the War

Tonkin Gulf Incident and Resolution

Response to North Vietnamese attack on American destroyer.
U.S. not entirely clean in this incident.

Tonkin Gulf Congressional Resolution
Gave LBJ authority to use unlimited military force in North Vietnam.
Johnson interpreted it as equivalent to declaration of war.

Lyndon B. Johnson
Miller Center (University of Virginia)
http://millercenter.org/president/lbjohnson

Gulf of Tonkin
http://youtu.be/vWAmAOctuxI

Gulf of Tonkin incident
http://youtu.be/vWAmAOctuxI

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (7 August 1964) (New York Times)
Look at what else is on front page: Goldwater for President, LBJ Anti-Poverty Bill
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0807.html#article

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: False Claims of Attack Lead Congress to Authorize Vietnam War
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--False-Claims-of-Attack-Lead-Congress-to-Authorize-Vietnam-War.html



George Ball's dissent against continued U.S. involvement in Vietnam

He wanted us to bail out of Vietnam early on; in retrospect, he was probably right.

Ball recommends compromise in Vietnam (History.com This Day in History | 7/1/1965)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/ball-recommends-compromise-in-vietnam



Operation Rolling Thunder: U.S. air campaign over North Vietnam

More U.S. bombs on Vietnam than U.S. dropped in all of WWII
North Vietnamese did not give up.
Hid in shelters; rebuilt roads and bridges
Their perseverance frustrated and awed American decision makers.
U.S. prisoners of war: John McCain among them

Battlefield Vietnam - Part 10: Rolling Thunder
http://youtu.be/OO41C0larvs
Various stops and starts in the air war

Hanoi Hilton Tap Code
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tap_code



Escalation

Johnson's decision for major increase of U.S. effort in Vietnam

President Lyndon B. Johnson obituary (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0827.html

Commanding General of U.S. Forces: William Westmoreland
Google Images: http://bit.ly/HeVHYZ

Danang March 1965
http://youtu.be/28bSoczRbxo

Dominican Republic April 1965

8 March 1965 US sends ground troops to Vietnam
LBJ decision to increase US forces in Vetnam
http://youtu.be/28bSoczRbxo

Johnson sent 50,000 more U.S. ground troops in July 1965.
Successive escalations of U.S. troop levels.
Maximum level of 536,000 in 1968.

Graph of US troops in Vietnam
Google search

We told the South Vietnamese: watch how well we could complete the job.
They watched.
We did not complete the job.

Ia Drang valley
"We were Soldiers" movie clip: "Broken Arrow"
http://youtu.be/ctnK7wdJmAo



WAR IN FOCUS:

Viewpoint: Counter-insurgency lessons from Vietnam (BBC News)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19634728

Vietnam Gear website:
http://www.vietnamgear.com/gallery.aspx

Work through ALL of these categories:

Soldiers & Marines
Special Forces
SOG
Navy SEALs
Australians
Korean Forces
Mobile Riverine Force
River Patrol Force
Coastal Surveillance Force
Aircraft
Vehicles
Dogs
Places
Visitors

On Patrol
http://www.history.com/shows/vietnam-in-hd/videos/on-patrol#on-patrol

The Use of Punji Traps
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jo7XBaG_-SE&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Ho Chi Minh trail: Google Images
http://bit.ly/GXZlFl

Ho Chi Minh Trail
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ho_Chi_Minh_trail

Ho Chi Minh Trail maps
http://www.austincc.edu/caddis/ImagesText%20copy/Vietnam/HoChiMinhTrailMap.jpg
http://media.maps.com/magellan/Images/USAH023-H.gif

1. Weapons of War: U.S. and enemy

2. The Language of War

3. Viet Cong Fighters

Inside the Viet Cong - Tactics, Weapons, Tunnels, Uniform
http://youtu.be/jfPx1jfoWjs

The Vietnam War (Pictures From The Other Side)
http://youtu.be/kpbHDFHHppk

Viet Cong tunnel system
http://youtu.be/RTHB0Oj7yYc

4. Punji Sticks
Google Images: http://bit.ly/HfUilV

Enemy Tunnels

Tunnels (BBC)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/720577.stm

Tunnels
http://away.com/vacations/travel-gd-vietnams-cu-chi-tunnels-photo-gallery-sidwcmdev_118953.html

Helicopter warfare
The Helicopter Road to Vietnam (Peter Brush)
http://www.library.vanderbilt.edu/central/Brush/Helicopters-Vietnam.htm

Battle Stations: Huey Helicopter
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MSvN2os2djM&feature=youtube_gdata_player



Attrition strategy

American aim was to kill more enemy than could be sent from the North.

Search and destroy tactics
Body count: the indication of success.
Attrition did not succeed

Sanctuary: Enemy could use Laos and Cambodia as a sanctuary
Hard to defeat an enemy that has this kind of advantage.
Compare to Taliban using Pakistan as a sanctuary.

Ho Chi Minh trail: Google Images
http://bit.ly/GXZlFl



U.S. military in Vietnam

Many different wars depending on branch of service and location within South Vietnam
Vietnam tour of duty: 12 months for Army
Could be stationed in a U.S. unit or on an advisory team

Enlisted Men in Vietnam

Women in Vietnam:

The women who served in Vietnam
http://www.bbc.com/news/in-pictures-36574698



Morale Problems: largely due to the draft

1. Fragging
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fragging-on-the-rise-in-us-units

2. Drug use

3. Atrocities: My Lai—not really a typical incident

My Lai Trial Begins - 1970 | Today in History | 17 Nov
https://youtu.be/Jn4YKzVsaFU

Larry Colburn, who helped stop My Lai massacre, dies at age 69
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/16/world/asia/larry-colburn-my-lai-massacre-dies.html?_r=0

4. Post–traumatic stress. Other wars: shell shock, battle fatigue.




"Hippies: "Counterculture" in the 1960s

Patty Hearst Trial (Famous Trials)
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hearst/hearsthome.html
My Website Spotlight blog post
http://thelearningprofessor.blogspot.com/2011/12/website-spotlight-patty-hearst-trial.html



Digression: A few comments on my own tour of duty in Vietnam:

1. One term paper I chose as an undergraduate at Georgetown.

Strategic Hamlet Program (Wikipedia)

Pham Ngoc Thao

2. Rach Kien in Long An Province
http://books.google.com/books?id=a1YEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA25&dq=rach+kien&as_pt=MAGAZINES&ei=YaCKS5PRG4y0kASRvoSqDQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=rach%20kien&f=false

3. Song Be in Phuoc Long Province
Enemy massacre of Montagnards at Dak Son
http://www.vnafmamn.com/VNWar_atrocities.html

Montagnard History and Culture
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XBQ1RxCphsQ&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Massacre at Dak Son
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qTbVRdkoRE&feature=youtube_gdata_player&oref=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3D5qTbVRdkoRE%26feature%3Dyoutube_gdata_player&has_verified=1

Massacre at Dak Son
http://youtu.be/5qTbVRdkoRE

4. Hamlet Evaluation Survey
How U.S. kept track of progress in "pacifying" the countryside.
Examples of my own experience in Phuoc Long province.

Ever Wonder Why Vietnamese Women's Teeth are Black?
http://youtu.be/jI76UubV_JU



TET OFFENSIVE (January 1968)

Episode 6. Tet 1968
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3oMu3MHsmxM
Transcript
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/series/pt_06.html

Tet offensive: lessons learned
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ssdK5hHe7s&feature=youtu.be

Walter Cronkite remembers the Tet offensive
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDNJL0mTHWI&feature=youtu.be

Declassified: The Tet Offensive
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ri2rpSH38p0&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Tet Offensive by the enemy
Tet is the Chinese Lunar New Year holiday

This event was really important in retrospect
Enemy coordinated attacks all over South Vietnam
U.S. was victorious militarily

Viet Cong Invade American Embassy
http://adst.org/2013/07/viet-cong-invade-american-embassy-the-1968-tet-offensive/

In U.S., public relations fallout bad
Americans became convinced that war was not winnable.

Battle of Khe Sanh
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Khe_Sanh
Battlefield Vietnam
http://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/khe/container.html
a. Stories of 4 participants
b. The Siege
c. Close-up (interactive maps)

Raymond Torres story
http://www.history.com/shows/vietnam-in-hd/videos/a-soldiers-story-khe-sanh#a-soldiers-story-khe-sanh

Personal Note: How the Tet offensive indirectly helped me get into Stanford Business School.



Pueblo incident (December 1968)

The U.S.S. Pueblo Incident (December 1968)
http://adst.org/2013/01/the-uss-pueblo-incident-assassins-in-seoul-a-spy-ship-captured/
Washington Post article about Pueblo
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/north-korea-unveiling-its-greatest-cold-war-prize-captured-us-navy-spy-ship-uss-pueblo/2013/07/25/0205232a-f590-11e2-81fa-8e83b3864c36_story.html



Divisions at Home in U.S.

Pro-war—by hard hats; silent majority

Anti-war protests:

Vietnam War Protests 1969 (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1115.html#article

Summer of Love (San Francisco, 1967)
https://youtu.be/DOIZG1F3DhY

Counterculture and the New Left both opposed the Vietnam War
Used teach–ins, antiwar marches, and demonstrations.
Some burned draft cards
Others fled the draft by moving to Canada.
"Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?"

How the draft worked (1 December 1969)
http://youtu.be/XhLbysRh8XY
http://ask.metafilter.com/214522/How-likely-were-you-to-be-drafted-during-the-Vietnam-war

John F. Kerry testified against the war
http://youtu.be/yixdveuf0GQ

June 20, 1967 | Muhammad Ali Convicted (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/june-20-1967-muhammad-ali-convicted/

Woodstock begins in upstate New York (History.com This Day in History | 8/15/1969)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/woodstock-begins-in-upstate-new-york

Reporting Vietnam: The press and the anti-war movement
http://youtu.be/AA0lBz6R0Z4

1967 Vietnam War protests in New York City and San Francisco
http://youtu.be/yMNX6zyAmGs

Country Joe's Anti-Vietnam War Song at Woodstock
http://youtu.be/-7Y0ekr-3So

Cold War - Make Love Not War The Sixties [E13/24]
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pFSfq6AMhWM&feature=youtu.be

Kent State University

U.S. raid into Cambodia (1970) triggered campus protests at Kent State and Jackson State.

Kent State University: 4 students killed; National Guard unit fired into a crowd of student protesters.

Google images of Kent State massacre
http://bit.ly/GVG5r7

On this day: Four killed in Kent State shooting
http://youtu.be/Lmd6CHah7Wg

Kent State
http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Kent_State_Shootings

The Picture from Kent State by Dirck Halstead - The Digital Journalist
http://digitaljournalist.org/issue0005/filo.htm

Finding Dulcinea: On This Day: Kent State Students Shot by Ohio National Guard
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Kent-State-Students-Shot-by-Ohio-National-Guard.html

May 4, 1970 | National Guard Opens Fire at Kent State (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/04/may-4-1970-national-guard-opens-fire-at-kent-state/

Kent State (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0504.html#article



Pentagon Papers (1971)

Supreme Court allows publication of Pentagon Papers
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/30/insider/1971-supreme-court-allows-publication-of-pentagon-papers.html?_r=0

New York Times Publishes Pentagon Papers - 1971 | Today in History | 13 June
https://youtu.be/WOVlsbY0nLs

About the Pentagon Papers
http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/facultypages/EdMoise/pentagon.html

Pentagon Papers:
On This Day, 11 May 1973: Pentagon Papers Case Dismissed by Judge
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/May-June-08/On-this-Day--Pentagon-Papers-Case-Dismissed-by-Judge.html

Pentagon Papers: Glossary of Terms [for future reference]
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pentagon/glossary.htm



Richard Nixon: Vietnamization of the war

His anti-Communist credentials
As a Republican, he had not “lost” China
He began the withdrawal of U.S. troops
South Vietnamese should carry the load.
Similar to our attempts both in Iraq and Afghanistan: "if they stand up, we will stand down"



Fall of South Vietnam (April 1975)

Google Images: Helicopters Leaving Saigon
http://bit.ly/H9huRr

Saigon Falls to Vietcong Ending Vietnam War (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/April/Saigon-Falls-to-Vietcong--Ending-Vietnam-War.html

The Fall of Saigon (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/30/on-this-day-in-history-the-fall-of-saigon/?partner=rss&emc=rss

Communists Take Over Saigon (New York Times)
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0430.html#article

April 30, 1975 | Saigon Falls (New York Times)
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/30/april-30-1975-saigon-falls/



Legacy of the Vietnam war

58,000 U.S. dead

LIFE magazine issue devoted to pictures of US casualties
Reporting Vietnam: 1 week's dead
http://youtu.be/3WK9VtHNb3Q

Financial cost to U.S.: $200 billion

America's longest war.

America's most unpopular war.

Involvement of six U.S. presidents: Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, and Ford.

Pete Peterson: Assignment Hanoi, US Ambassador to Vietnam & former POW
http://www.pbs.org/hanoi/