WWII--condensed




Items to consider for next time I teach this module:




Opposition to the New Deal

a) Conservative critics. Republicans did not like government control of the economy.

b) Liberal critics:

1) Father Charles Coughlin.
http://bit.ly/VJkzSH

Catholic priest from Detroit
Weekly radio sermons (30 million audience)
Criticized the New Deal
Proposed a National Union for Social Justice to counter the New Deal.
Anti-Semite: depression caused by international Jewish bankers.
Expressed support for Hitler's approach to running Germany.

2) Dr. Francis E. Townsend
http://bit.ly/1349pJX

Proposed an Old Age Revolving Pensions plan
Every person over age 60 would get a $200 per month pension.
His plan would cost 50% of national income to help 7% of population.

3) Huey Long.
http://bit.ly/Y9Dh21

Former Governor of and Democratic Senator from Louisiana.
Proposed a Share Our Wealth Society
Tax rich people heavily
Furnish each family an annual income of $2,500
Assassinated in 1935

Social Security Act

FICA deduction today.
Designed to prevent more radical alternatives (Townsend and Long)
Workers required to pay into it
Answer to critics of "relief"
Worker's payment matched by employer

Works Progress Administration (WPA)

WPA Projects
http://bit.ly/11UVNRY

WPA Posters
http://bit.ly/UHsLRB

Emphasized underconsumption.
Massive public works programs for the jobless
Home relief (the dole) versus work relief.

Employed 3 million men as manual laborers: roads, hospitals, bridges.
Employed educated persons: Federal Art, Writers', Theater Projects
Criticized by conservatives as make-work

Presidential Election of 1936

FDR won a second term easily

Supreme Court: FDR attempt at "Court Packing"

Court Packing (Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/Feb/On-This-Day--FDR-Suggests--Court-Packing--Plan.html

Court declared AAA and NIRA unconstitutional on 5-4 votes.
FDR wanted to appoint pro–New Deal justices
Proposed six new ones (one for every member over age 70).
Congress (both parties) opposed the plan
Felt he was overreaching and looking like a dictator.

Issue became moot: a swing justice changed his voting pattern.
The so-called "switch in time that saved nine"

Soon thereafter, several older justices retired.

Presidential Election of 1940

War had started in Europe on 1 September 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland.

FDR won historic third term.

New Deal assessed

New Deal failed in its fundamental purpose: to put people back to work and end the depression.

Depression only ended due to World War II.

But New Deal gave Americans back their psychological will to overcome.

In the past, federal government had served as an economic regulator.
During New Deal, it became an economic guarantor and stimulator as well.

Congressional Republicans are currently trying to limit the size of government, much of which began with the New Deal.



World War Two

1931

Japan became a major threat to U.S. goals in Asia:

Standard Map: Pacific Theater
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1483/1518969/DIVI578.jpg

(1) Japan's "New Order" in Asia

Wanted a sphere of influence in Asia
Similar to United States in Latin America
U.S. unwilling to permit such Japanese influence.
United States had major interests at stake in Asia:
Philippines and various Pacific islands
Religious missions
Trade and investments
Open Door in China.

(2) Japanese seized Manchuria (1931)

American response: Stimson Doctrine of nonrecognition
Mere moral lecture
U.S. had neither the means nor will to use military force.


1933

U.S. recognized Soviet Union. To increase trade. To halt Japanese expansion.
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/November/US-and-Soviet-Union-Establish-Diplomatic-Relations.html

Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany (1/30)
Franklin Roosevelt became President of the United States (3/4)

1934

Movietone Review of 1934
http://youtu.be/7iNCwsGkE1E

1935

AP Archive
Review Of The Year 1935 (1935)
http://youtu.be/sSJkEKrqDGQ

U.S. Neutrality Acts. Neutrality Acts an expression of isolationist sentiment.

Congress sought to protect the nation by outlawing the kinds of contacts that had compromised U.S. neutrality during World War I.

1936

Germany reoccupied the Rhineland (3/7)

Review Of The Year 1936 (1936)
http://youtu.be/NnAq27f9T0w
http://youtu.be/ZskuqbGK7ZM

universal | Universal Review 1936 | AP Archive
http://www.aparchive.com/compilationsclipreel/41868/19620/universal

Expansion in Europe by Germany, 1930s
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_mwh2005_0618377115_p460_f1.jpg

1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin (August)
Jesse Owens . American Experience . WGBH | PBS
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/owens/

Civil war in Spain. (1936-1939)

Spanish Civil War (History.com)
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/spanish-civil-war-breaks-out
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/spanish-civil-war-ends

Spanish Civil War (Today in History, Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul17.html

Democratic (left-wing) Spanish government supported by Soviet Union and international mercenaries.
Abraham Lincoln brigade from America.

General Franco (right-wing) supported by Germany and Italy (fascists).

Britain, France, and U.S. looked the other way.
U. S. arms embargo.
Franco eventually won.

Bombing of Guernica
BBC News - Picasso's Guernica in a car showroom
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-16927120

Civil War legacy divides Spain
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5192228.stm

1937

Beginning of World War II in Asia.

Marco Polo Bridge Incident (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Polo_Bridge_Incident

Japanese invasion of mainland China (7/7)
China then was a U.S. ally. Chang Kai–Shek, and Chinese communists under Mao Zedung, will both fight against the Japanese invaders.
Chiang Kai-shek (Wikipedia)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiang_Kai_Shek
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/features/profiles/c/madame-chiang-kai-shek.html

1937
Movietone Review of the Year
http://youtu.be/FmnJYgrRAY0

1938

Expansion in Europe by Germany, 1930s
http://images.classwell.com/mcd_xhtml_ebooks/2005_world_history/images/mcd_mwh2005_0618377115_p460_f1.jpg

1. German invasion and annexation of Austria (12 March 1938)

2. Munich agreement (Chamberlain/Hitler) (15 September 1938). Czech Sudetenland to Germany.

The Munich Agreement Signed - 1938
http://youtu.be/FuyMD8DoKfE

In defense of Neville Chamberlain, hindsight’s most battered punching bag
https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2015/07/20/in-defense-of-neville-chamberlain-hindsights-most-battered-punching-bag/

In Elizabeth II’s childhood Nazi salute, an unsettling reminder of how we misread Hitler
http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/07/20/in-elizabeth-iis-childhood-nazi-salute-an-unsettling-reminder-of-how-we-misread-hitler/?tid=hpModule_9d3add6c-8a79-11e2-98d9-3012c1cd8d1e

3. Appeasement issue

Appeasement (Ariana Grande "One Last Time" Parody)
http://youtu.be/l1Zymw3BpEU

1938
Movietone Review of the Year
http://youtu.be/mQ8QCIKQUgo

1939

1. Germany occupied remainder of Czechoslovakia (March)

2. German-Russian Non-Aggression Pact (8/23). The odd couple: fascists and communists. Agreed not to attack each other.

3. German invasion of Poland (1 September 1939). Beginning of World War II in Europe

Nazi Germany Invades Poland, Starting World War II (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-This-Day--Nazi-Germany-invades-Poland--starting-World-War-II.html

4. U.S. declared neutrality (5 September 1939). U.S. still trying to stay out of war

Legislating Neutrality, 1934-1939 (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/legislating-neutrality-1934-1939#sect-background

1939
Movietone Review of the Year
http://youtu.be/G85e2IU2Ky0

1940

Movietone News - 1940s
http://youtu.be/9XThejFE8tI

1940
Movietone Review of the Year
http://youtu.be/OgIRcNjtmqQ

1. German blitzkrieg (lightning warfare) [today we call it "shock and awe"]

Blitzkrieg: Germany's Lightning War (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/blitzkrieg_01.shtml

2. Germans invade Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium

3. Dunkirk: British and French evacuated from beach (6/4)

Dunkirk (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/ff2_dunkirk.shtml

Video: Dunkirk and Evacuation Scenes - 1940
http://youtu.be/ca1fxvenX0E

4. France conquered (6/5-6/25)

14 June 1940 German troops enter Paris (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/14/newsid_4485000/4485727.stm

Vichy France

Casablanca film review
http://www.filmsite.org/casa.html

Film clips from Casablanca:

Play it again, Sam
http://youtu.be/7vThuwa5RZU

Here's looking at you, kid
http://youtu.be/rEWaqUVac3M

La Marseillaise
http://youtu.be/KTsg9i6lvqU

Digression:

Hitler's conquests and attacks in Europe made French, Dutch, and British colonies in Asia vulnerable to Japanese attack.

Japan had been at war in China since 1937.

Japan will not attack Pearl Harbor until December 1941.

5. Blitz and Battle of Britain: Britain attacked by air (June-December 1940). "Blitz." Prelude to expected German invasion.

London's Biggest Blitz - 1941
http://youtu.be/DcnV-3KAcuk

When the UK was bombed nightly for eight months in a row
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-33314462

10 May 1940 Churchill takes helm as Germans advance (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/10/newsid_3497000/3497115.stm

7 September 1940 London Blitzed by German Bombers (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/7/newsid_3515000/3515708.stm

"Eagle Day" Attack Marks Beginning of the Battle of Britain (On This Day, Finding Dulcinea)
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Germany-Launches-the-Battle-of-Britain-.html

6. US needs to help Britain hang on against possible Nazi invasion.

Who is on which side during World War II?

A. One Team: The Good Guys

United States: Franklin D.Roosevelt
Great Britain: Winston Churchill
Soviet Union: Josef Stalin
France: Charles DeGaulle
China: Chang Kai–Shek

B. Other Team: The Bad Guys

Germany: Adolf Hitler
Italy: Benito Mussolini
Japan: General Hideki Tojo; Emperor Hirohito

1941

1941
Movietone Review of the Year
http://youtu.be/OGOV3Hw0F0s

Lend–Lease Act

U.S. became the "arsenal of democracy" by lending and leasing American military goods to those fighting against the Axis powers.

American unemployment dropped as our industries geared up to produce war material.

+++America on the Sidelines (Neutrality interactive)
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/static/neh/interactives/neutrality/

Congress, Neutrality, and Lend-Lease
https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/page_20.html

Great Debate between internationalists and isolationists (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/great-debate-internationalists-vs-isolationists

The Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, German Reparations, and Inter-allied War Debts
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/dawes

The United States’ experience with inter-allied war debts continued to influence its foreign
policy for years to come; this influence is evident in the Johnson Act in 1934, the Neutrality
Acts of the 1930s, and the Lend-Lease program in the Second World War.

Google search example:
Movietone News YouTube [Lend Lease Act, Neutrality Act]

Neutrality Act signed (:29)
Cash-and-Carry
http://youtu.be/UukhOSH-kAI

FDR and the Lend Lease Act
http://youtu.be/FTk_v7L4wro

Battle of the Atlantic

The Battle of the Atlantic (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_atlantic_01.shtml

Battle of the Atlantic Interactive (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_gms_battle_atlantic.shtml

Germany invaded Soviet Union

(6/22). Major mistake.

22 Jun 1941: Hitler invades the Soviet Union (BBC News On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/22/newsid_3526000/3526691.stm

Japan attacked Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941)

Why Did The Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbor? - @MrBettsClass
http://youtu.be/HlF_TQeccRw

How Pearl Harbor changed Japanese-Americans
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-38362504

The Growth of U.S.-Japanese Hostility, 1915-1932 (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/growth-us-japanese-hostility-1915-1932#sect-background

The Road to Pearl Harbor (EDSITEment)
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/growth-us-japanese-hostility-1915-1932#sect-background

Photos: The 70th Anniversary of Pearl Harbor | Plog The Denver Post
http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2011/12/06/captured-the-70th-anniversary-of-pearl-harbor/5126/

Video: WWII: U.S. Declares War on Japan - 1941 | Today in History | 8 Dec
http://youtu.be/3Wh4ikl-UzE

American Home Front

What America looked like in the 1940s…in color
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-sight/wp/2016/08/22/seldom-seen-photos-show-what-america-looked-like-in-the-1940s-in-color/?utm_term=.0f329c276225

Powers of Persuasion: Poster Art from WWII
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/powers_of_persuasion_home.html

Analyzing WWII Propaganda Posters
http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-teachers/lesson-plans/ww2-propaganda-posters.html

National World War II Museum: Rationing
http://www.nationalww2museum.org/learn/education/for-students/national-history-day/rationing-sample-topic.html

On the Ration | British Pathé 1939
http://youtu.be/0438BC3t2dc

Light! More light! - Herblock's History: Political Cartoons from the Crash to the Millennium
https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/herblocks-history/light.html

Private Snafu: The World War II Propaganda Cartoons Created by Dr. Seuss, Frank Capra & Mel Blanc | Open Culture
http://www.openculture.com/2014/02/private-snafu.html

Japanese initial victories:

Philippines, Malaya, Thailand, Hong Kong.

War between China and Japan going on simultaneously.

1942

Doolittle raid on Tokyo (4/18)
Animated Map
http://www.historyanimated.com/Doolittle.html

Survivor of the Doolittle Raid bio
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/31/us/robert-l-hite-survivor-of-doolittle-raid-and-japanese-imprisonment-dies-at-95.html

Japanese-American internment

Manzanar Historic site virtual museum
http://www.nps.gov/museum/exhibits/manz/index.html

Battle of Midway (June 1942)

U.S. wins. Turning point in Pacific war

7 Jun 1942 Japanese beaten in Battle of Midway (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/7/newsid_3499000/3499378.stm

1943

1943
Movietone Review of the Year
http://youtu.be/Nm1-PV4gQG8

Stalingrad

2 Feb 1943 Germans surrender at Stalingrad (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/2/newsid_3573000/3573003.stm

Churchill speaks to Congress (19 May 1943)
Churchill To Congress - 1943 | Today in History | 19 May
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXBG45bG51o&feature=youtu.be

Teheran [Iran] Conference (December 1943)

Dispute b/n Britain & U.S: when/where Europe invaded.
Soviets demanded a second front.
Soviets bore brunt of land war until mid–1944.
Decision was finally made on a cross-channel invasion against Europe mainland
Eisenhower was named to be Supreme Commander of Allied Forces

WWII: Tehran Conference - 1943 | Today in History | 28 Nov 16
http://youtu.be/QwvuGUqsXwo

1 Dec 1943 Allies united after Tehran conference (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/1/newsid_3535000/3535949.stm

1944

D-Day==Normandy invasion==Operation Overlord==6 June 1944
Biggest invasion armada in world history (5,000 ships, 150,000 men).

D-Day in color, Photographs from the Normandy invasion
http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2014/06/05/color-photos-d-day-world-war-ii/7043/

1. BBC Special Section: D-Day and Operation Overlord
Animated Map: The D-Day Landings
Read the description for each of the four maps: The Atlantic Wall, Concentration of Forces, The Landings, Securing the Beachheads
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/wwtwo_map_d_day/index_embed.shtml

2. Paratroopers and their equipment
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/dday/sfeature/sf_paratrooper.html

U.S. Paratrooper Joseph Beyrle fought for both U.S. and Soviets.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Beyrle

Liberation of Paris (August)

Paris through a Nazi lens
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2417335/Paris-Nazi-lens-Propaganda-images-occupied-French-capital-citizens-thriving-German-rule.html

'Vive Paris' - the Liberation of Paris in 1944 [this is good]
http://youtu.be/3KrmAwx0XHc

On This Day: Paris Liberated from German Occupation [Is Paris Burning?]
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/July-August-08/On-this-Day--Paris-Liberated-from-German-Occupation.html

Operation Market Garden

17 September 1944 Airborne invasion of Holland begins (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/17/newsid_3662000/3662264.stm

The Battle of Arnhem (Operation Market Garden) (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_arnhem_01.shtml

Battle of the Bulge.

The Battle of the Bulge (BBC)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_bulge_01.shtml

Battle of the Bulge begins: Today in History newsreel
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXShqI1vGCw&feature=youtu.be

Battle of the Bulge
https://youtu.be/lxN72fx-cJk

17 Dec 1944 Germany attacks in Ardennes (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/17/newsid_3515000/3515538.stm

Generals at War - Battle of the Bulge - YouTube

1945

Bataan Rescue (January) [movie: The Great Raid]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bataan/gallery/index.html
[Click through the 12 drawings in this section. Read the caption to each one.]

Yalta Conference (February)

Yalta Conference (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/7/newsid_3517000/3517236.stm
Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt meet in Yalta - YouTube

Soviets would control most of Eastern Europe.
Germany would be divided.
Soviets would fight Japan three months after German surrender

Iwo Jima (February-March)

23 Feb 1945: US flag raised over Iwo Jima (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/23/newsid_3564000/3564547.stm

Okinawa (April)

Attacks by 3,000 kamikaze planes on U.S. fleet.
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Japanese-Pilots-Begin-Kamikaze-Campaign.html

21 Jun 1945: US troops take Okinawa (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/21/newsid_3564000/3564489.stm

Victory in Europe

FDR died (12 April 1945)
Hitler killed himself (30 April 1945)

Germany surrendered (7 May)

US Treatment of Jewish Refugees

A ship full of refugees fleeing the Nazis once begged the U.S. for entry. They were turned back.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2017/01/29/a-ship-full-of-refugees-fleeing-the-nazis-once-begged-the-u-s-for-entry-they-were-turned-back/?utm_term=.cc4b227c6052

Victory against Japan

Factors involved in the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan:

1. Fear that the Soviet Union would soon enter the war against Japan
2. Concern that a land war in Japan would result in massive American casualties

Chronology:

1. First atomic bomb: Hiroshima (6 August 1945)
6 Aug 1945: US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/6/newsid_3602000/3602189.stm

Obama's visit raises ghosts of Hiroshima
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/11/world/asia/hiroshima-atomic-bomb.html?_r=1

How John Hersey's Hiroshima revealed the horror of the bomb
http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-37131894

2. Soviets entered war in Pacific with 1.5 million troops (8 August 1945)

3. Second atomic bomb: Nagasaki (9 August 1945)
9 August 1945 U.S. drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki (BBC On This Day)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/9/newsid_3580000/3580143.stm

Japanese survivor of both bombs
http://www.economist.com/obituary/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15268228
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/07/world/asia/07yamaguchi.html?hp

4. Japanese surrendered (2 September 1945)
Emperor allowed to keep his throne
Allied Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur would rule Japan.

Death Toll of World War II

World–wide: 55 million
United States: 405,000
Soviet Union: 21 million (one–ninth of Soviet population).

Postwar position of the U.S.

We suffered little damage to our own land.
We emerged as the world leader