A few introductory exhortations:

"Apply posterior to our chair"

Fundamentals must become automatic.

Perfect practice makes perfect.

(1) Pre-writing (30% of the total time allotted to our paper).
Early start
Idea generation: brainstorming or clustering

(2) First draft (10% of the total time)
Try to do the first draft on the computer.
If handwritten: use only one-side of paper; skip lines to facilitate editing.

(3) Revision (60% of the total time).
Revise means to "re-see."
This stage is where you show your artistry.

Revise on screen; BUT print out a hard copy draft periodically


No such thing as a typo; there are only proofreading errors.


Grading papers is not a scientific process.
In overall terms, an "A" paper will be well edited with virtually no mechanical (punctuation, grammar, and spelling) errors and will deal with the topic in a thoughtful manner.
Lower grades will be awarded as the mechanical errors increase, the thinking skills lessen, and the editing weakens.

Page numbers.
Paragraph indentation and length.
Clear printer output.
12 point type.

Clear evidence of pre-writing phase.
Advantage taken of spelling and grammar checking.
Effective proofreading.

Paper demonstrates clear understanding of subject matter.
Distinction made between major and minor points.
Quotes are appropriate.

Unified: obvious topic sentence.
Coherent: effectively organized; appropriate transitions between sentences.
Developed: supporting details are necessary and accurate.

Effective transitions between paragraphs.

Progress from coordination to subordination.
Varied sentence patterns.
No sentence fragments.
Active voice.
Consistency in tense, mood, person, and number.

Nonessential words eliminated.
Appropriate words employed.
Clear pronoun references.

Correct punctuation.
Varied use of punctuation—going beyond commas and periods.

Quantity of turnovers and unforced errors.


Paragraphs "package" the writer's meaning.

A paragraph is not just a collection of sentences but a flow of ideas.

Think of comparisons with how you use PowerPoint.

Indent paragraphs consistently. Use the TAB key.

a) Paragraphs generally should compromise only one main point.

b) Use a topic sentence (normally the first sentence in the paragraph) to state the main point.

c) In your early drafts, try putting the topic sentence in bold.

d) Develop the topic sentence by providing details and examples.

e) Individual sentences in the paragraph should be clearly connected, moving the reader from one thought to another in an orderly way.

f) Eliminate any sentence that does not contribute to the main point of the paragraph.

g) Organizational options. Arrange items to clarify their logic and importance.
  • Chronological
  • General to specific; specific to general
  • Increasing (or decreasing) importance.

h) For improved visual effect, shoot for two to three paragraphs per page.

Divide paragraphs that are too long by breaking them into subtopics of the overall controlling idea.

Revise paragraphs that are too short by combining several short paragraphs and refocusing them under a single controlling idea.

i) Use a variety of transitional words as bridges between sentences.

[Move beyond repetitively using however as a transition.]


ADDITION: again, also, and, and then, besides, most important, equally significant, in addition, moreover, too, furthermore, likewise, not only that, in many ways

TIME: next, first, second, third, in the first place, finally, then, for the moment, at present, at the same time, afterward, as soon as, before, earlier, in the meantime, later, meanwhile, now, soon, subsequently, untiL

COMPARISON: also, along with, in part, at the least, increasingly, more than ever, similarly, likewise, by the same token, in comparison

CONTRAST: but, however, yet, and yet, still, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, even so, even though, otherwise, at the same time, to some extent, at best, at worst, ironically, elsewhere, instead, whereas

EXAMPLES: for example, for instance, namely, specifically, thus

NARROWING OF FOCUS: after all, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, specifically, that is

PLACE: here, beyond, nearby, opposite to, adjacent to, on the opposite side

PURPOSE: to this end, for this purpose, with this object, after all, for these reasons

RESULT: consequently, as a result, hence, accordingly, thus, therefore, because, since, then, in fact, in effect, actually, in conclusion, to conclude, in other words

CONCESSION: admittedly, certainly, granted, naturally, of course

OPPOSITION: certainly, naturally, of course, it is true, to be sure, granted, instead, besides, rather, yet, unfortunately

SUMMARY, EXEMPLIFICATION, INTENSIFICATION: that is, in other words, to put it differently, in conclusion, finally, all in all, in the end, above all, to sum up, in particular, for instance, for example, namely, all told, in reality, to be sure, for all these reasons, clearly, by and large, generally speaking, for better or worse


Punctuation helps us as writers to make our meaning clear.

Since punctuation is part of the sentence structure, it can change as the sentence structure changes.

Key definition: Independent clauses—they can stand alone as sentences.
The moon shone. The dog barked.


Proper use of the comma will prove to be our toughest punctuation challenge.

We will make significant progress if we can understand why and when commas are used.

We want to go beyond the following "rules" you may have learned.

  • Supposed "Rule" #1: When in doubt, leave the comma out
  • Supposed "Rule" #2: When in doubt, put the comma in
  • Supposed "Rule" #3: When you take a breath

(1) Use a comma to separate independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet

No: I am a student at Azusa Pacific University (APU) and my career objective is to become an environmental attorney.

Yes: I am a student at Azusa Pacific University (APU), and my career objective is to become an environmental attorney.

(2) Though the above formulation is always correct, there is an exception.

If one or both of the independent clauses are short (four or five words each), the comma may be omitted before the coordinating conjunction.

The grass grew and the flowers bloomed.
The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.

(3) Comma splice.

A comma splice occurs if only a comma joins two independent clauses.

Comma splice: I avoided desserts, I was trying to lose weight.

Correct comma splices in one of the following ways:

a) Make a separate sentence of each independent clause.

I avoided desserts. I was trying to lose weight.

b) Connect the independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) and a comma. [as noted above]

I avoided desserts, and I was able to lose weight.

c) Replace the comma with a semicolon. [More below on semicolons]

I avoided desserts; I was able to lose weight.

d) Change one of the independent clauses to a subordinate clause.

Because I avoided desserts, I was able to lose weight.

(4) There are certain exceptions to what would otherwise be a comma splice. [I myself almost never employ these exceptions.]

a) It is sometimes acceptable to use a comma to separate two very short independent clauses, particularly if the clauses are parallel.

She is not a person, she is a legend.
Some allow it, some do not.

b) Commas can sometimes be used between three or more brief independent clauses that have the same pattern.

I'm tired, I'm hungry, I'm bored.

(5) If the subject is the same for both verbs, there is no need for a comma.

No: Charles sent some flowers, and wrote a long letter to go with them.
Yes: Charles sent some flowers and wrote a long letter to go with them.

(6) Use a comma after an introductory clause. [Microsoft catches this usage.]

According to legend, Hercules had enormous strength.

(7) Use paired commas to set off parenthetical (nonessential) elements.

My sister, the girl who wrote the story, is a professor.

Remember to use the commas in pairs (similar to how we use quotation marks).

No: George, who arrived late was not seated.
Yes: George, who arrived late, was not seated.

(8) Do not use commas to set off essential (restrictive) elements, which, if removed from the sentence, change the meaning of the sentence.

The girl who wrote the story is my sister.

(9) Add a comma before the last item in a series. [Note: journalists do not do so.]

She talked fluently, wittily, and persuasively.

What problems could arise from omitting the final comma in this example?
I leave my $30 million estate to my children: Alison, Thomas and Luke.

(10) Use of a comma in dates varies.

a) If a date is written as month-day-year, use a comma between the date and the year.

World War II in Europe began on September 1, 1939.

b) If the date stands within the sentence, use a comma after the year.

WW II began on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland.

c) If the month and the year are given, no commas are needed.

September 1939 marked the beginning of World War II.

d) If a date is written as day-month-year, use no commas.

WW II began on 1 September 1939 when Germany invaded Poland.

(11) Use a comma to prevent misreading.

No: When drinking Mary never looked up from her cup.
Yes: When drinking, Mary never looked up from her cup.

(12) Use commas to set off direct quotations from the rest of the sentence. Note that the comma is placed within the quotation marks.

"Please read your part more loudly," the director insisted.

(13) Other uses of the comma are as follows:

a) Tag questions

This is your first day on the job, isn't it?

b) Names in direct address

What do you think, Alison?

c) Mild interjections

Well, it is about time.

d) Yes and no

No, we are closed today.

e) To indicate omission of a repeated word (usually a verb)

Edwina went first; Marco, second.

f) To separate repeated words

Everything bad that could have happened, happened.


Semicolons connect items of equal grammatical rank (normally two independent clauses) closely related in thought.

Columbus "discovered" America in 1492; he made three further voyages.

(1) A common punctuation error involves the words "however, therefore, nevertheless."

No: I enjoyed the book, however, I enjoyed the movie version better.

Yes: I enjoyed the book; however, I enjoyed the movie version better.
Yes: I ordered the tickets by mail; therefore, I didn't have to stand in line.

(2) Use a semicolon in a series (when the series has internal punctuation).

At courtside were Mr. Jones, owner and general manager; a referee; the coach, a former star player; and the current trainer of the team.

We visited Columbus, Ohio; Lansing, Michigan; and Springfield, Illinois.

(3) Place the semicolon outside quotation marks.

I called him "Awesome Dawson"; he laughed every time.


Think of a colon as a replacement for "namely" and "for example".

What comes after the colon amplifies or explains what comes before the colon.

He had only one passion in life: to play baseball.
Your task is simple: get a job and hold it.

(1) Use a colon to set off a list or series, particularly when the list or series is introduced by "the following" or "as follows'.

Only a few of the graduates were there: Jim, Mark, and Tom.
The only graduates present were as follows: Jim, Mark, and Tom.

(2) Make certain that a complete statement precedes the colon.

No: Tours to France feature such stops as: Paris, Rouen, and Dieppe.

Yes: Tours to France feature three stops: Paris, Rouen, and Dieppe.

(3) Other uses of a colon:

a) Business letter salutations

Dear Senator Jordan: To Whom it May Concern:

Note: Informal letter salutations use a comma.
Dear Emily,

b) Between numbers when writing the time

4:30 p.m. [Note lower case]

c) Between chapter and verse in the Bible

Genesis 5:18

(4) Place the colon outside quotation marks.

Taxpayers were pleased with the first of the candidate's promised "sweeping new reforms": a balanced budget.

(5) When a complete sentence follows a colon, that sentence may begin with either a capital or lowercase letter.

The weather that day was the most unusual I had ever seen: It [it] snowed and rained while the sun was still shining.


(1) Use the dash or a pair of dashes to mark an abrupt shift in thought, a correction, or a hesitation.

He tried everything that he knew—nothing worked.
Could she—should she even try to—borrow money from her aunt?

(2) Explanations, qualifications, examples, and definitions may be set off by dashes for emphasis or clarity.

Putting spin on an object—a top, a bullet, a satellite—gives it stability.

(3) Use a dash to introduce a statement that summarizes a list.

"Study hard," "respect your elders," "don't talk with your mouth full"—Sharon had often heard her parents say these things.
Pound, Eliot, Whitman—the course devoted most attention to these poets.

Note: A colon works the reverse: it points ahead to the list.

Sharon ignored her parents' advice: "study hard," "respect your elders," "don't talk with your mouth full."
English 301 will focus on three poets: Pound, Eliot, and Whitman

(4) Be careful not to get dash happy. The dash should not be a lazy substitute for more exact punctuation.

Note: a dash will not eliminate a comma splice.
No: The moon shone—the dog barked.


Use parentheses to set off material incidental or nonessential to the main thought of the sentence.

Parentheses express the following ideas: by the way, incidentally, as an aside.

Tuesdays (when I'm off), the television programs are boring.

How can we decide whether to use commas, dashes, or parentheses?
  • Commas: parenthetical material closely related to the main thought.
  • Parentheses: parenthetical material incidental or nonessential
  • Dashes: give greater emphasis to item set off than would parentheses


(1) Brackets within quotations tell readers that the enclosed words—an explanation, correction, or opinion—are yours and not those of your source.

"Even at Princeton, he [F. Scott Fitzgerald] felt like an outsider."
"The miles of excellent trails are perfect for [cross-country] skiing."

(2) A source you quote may contain faulty spelling, incorrect grammar, or errors in fact.

To assure your reader that the errors are in the original, place sic (from the Latin, "so") in brackets (italics, no period) after the error.

"Henry wore a mask to disguyze [sic] himself at the party."

(3) Use brackets to remind yourself of items to follow up in your draft.

[Put several more examples here of when to use brackets.]


The apostrophe forms the possessive case.

[I find the following template useful in deciding where to put an apostrophe.]

(1) The car of my brother==My brother's car

(2) The cars of my brother==My brother's cars

(3) The car of my brothers==My brothers' car

(4) The cars of my brothers==My brothers' cars

Be careful to observe the following distinction:

It's (it is) raining.

Its paws are muddy.


(1) Voice tells us whether the subject performs or receives the action.

Active voice: the subject performs the action.
Economists predict that oil prices will fall.

Passive voice: the subject receives the action
The hope that oil prices will fall is being made by economists.

How to recognize the passive voice:

The passive voice combines a form of the verb "to be" and the past participle of the main verb (i.e., is defeated, was being driven, were discovered).

(2) Normally, use the active voice.

It is briefer, clearer, more direct, active, lively, and vigorous—and more concise—than the passive voice.

Passive: A thirty-foot putt was sunk by Tiger Woods.
Active: Tiger Woods sunk a thirty-foot putt.

(3) In some situations, however, the passive voice is appropriate.

a) When the identity of the person performing the action is unknown or unimportant.

The course was canceled.
Littering is prohibited.
He was killed in action.

b) When the recipient of the action should logically receive emphasis.

King Tut's tomb was discovered in 1922 by E.S. Herbert. (Passive voice emphasizes the tomb, not who discovered it.)
Grits, a dish made of ground corn, is eaten by southerners. (Passive voice emphasizes grits, not those who eat it.)


A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence—a phrase or a clause punctuated as if it were a complete sentence.

To correct a sentence fragment, attach the fragment to its core sentence.

No: The U. S. declared war. When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor.
Yes: The U.S. declared war when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor.


(1) Vary sentence patterns

Try not to begin every sentence with the subject.

Vary your openings with modifiers.

Proud and relieved, they watched their daughter receive her diploma.
For better or for worse, credit cards are now widely available to college students.

(2) Vary sentence length. Follow several long sentences with a short one.

(3) Place qualifiers early in the sentence. At the end of the sentence, qualifiers lose their power.

No: Smokers should not try to impose their habit on others, however.
Yes: Smokers, however, should not try to impose their habit on others.

(4) Convey emphasis through parallelism

Relaxing, cooking, and sleeping outdoors are ideal ways to spend a vacation.
We will relax, cook, and sleep outdoors during our vacation.
Most people like to relax and to cook outdoors, but few people like to sleep outdoors.

(5) Monitor shifts in tense. Some shifts are acceptable; others are not.

Yes: The Wizard of Oz is a film that has enchanted audiences since it was made in 1939. (Acceptable shift from present to past tense)

No: I registered for Biology. After the first week, I have trouble with the reading, so I go to the instructor, and she tells me to ask for help at the Learning Center. (Unacceptable shift from past to present tense)

Yes: I registered for Biology. After the first week, I had trouble with the reading, so I went to the instructor, and she told me to ask for help at the Learning Center. (Acceptable—all verbs past tense)

(a) Use literary present tense when discussing works of literature.

"The character of Mrs. Duck's husband is poorly developed."

(b) Use past tense when presenting historical or biographical data.

Her first novel was published in 1811 when Austen was thirty-six.

(6) Monitor shifts in mood (indicative, imperative, subjunctive). Stay consistent.

No: Next, heat the mixture in a test tube, and you should make sure it does not boil. (Unacceptable shift from imperative to indicative mood)
Yes: Next, heat the mixture in a test tube and be sure it does not boil.M

(7) Monitor shifts in person: first (I, we); second (you); third (he, she, it, they)

Unacceptable shifts between second and third person cause most errors.

No: When a person looks for a car loan, you compare the interest rates of several banks. (Shift from third to second person)

Yes: When you look for a car loan, you compare the interest rates of several banks. (Consistent use of second person)
Yes: When people look for a car loan, they compare the interest rates of several banks. (Consistent use of third person)

(8) Monitor shifts in number (singular or plural)

No: If a student does not study regularly, they will have a difficult time passing Spanish. (Unacceptable shift from singular to plural)

Yes: If a student does not study regularly, he or she will have a difficult time passing Spanish. (Consistent use of singular pronouns referring to singular antecedent)
Yes: If students do not study regularly, they will have a difficult time passing Spanish. (Consistent use of plural pronouns referring to plural antecedents)M

(9) Avoid incomplete comparisons

"There is nothing more tiring." [More tiring than what?]

"I like Mary more than Jane."
[This sentence could be read two ways.]
"I like Mary more than I like Jane."
"I like Mary more than Jane does."


Using some great examples from William Strong's Sentence Combining (pp. 157-160), let's see how to make our sentence structure more sophisticated.

Hopefully, few students will still be writing in what is called a "Dick and Jane" style, using strings of short, simple sentences.

Example of "Dick and Jane" style: Harold shuffled. Harold moved to the front of the room. Harold knotted his shoulders. Harold had his hands in his pockets.

(1) Sentence combining using coordinating conjunctions

This approach is a bit of an improvement over the "Dick and Jane" sentences.

Remember, coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or) connect independent clauses. The weakness of this approach—when it is used almost exclusively—is as follows:

a) Sentences have an almost sing-song pattern.

b) The coordinating conjunction suggests equal weight to each element.

Harold shuffled, and he moved to the front of the room. He knotted his shoulders, and he had his hands in his pockets.

(2) Sentence combining by subordination

Improving writers use subordination to indicate relative importance.

The more important idea is placed in the independent (base) clause, the less important idea in the dependent clause.

Various standard patterns are possible. In these examples, the base clause is Harold shuffled to the front of the room.

Here is a basic standard pattern:
  • Harold shuffled to the front of the room,
  • knotting his shoulders,
  • jamming his hands in his pockets.

We could add more "-ing" phrases to this pattern:
  • Harold shuffled to the front of the room,
  • knotting his shoulders,
  • jamming his hands in his pockets,
  • scowling at the blackboard,
  • muttering to himself.

We could move the base clause elsewhere in the sentence:
  • Muttering to himself,
  • Harold shuffled to the front of the room,
  • knotting his shoulders,
  • jamming his hands in his pockets,
  • scowling at the blackboard.

Instead of the "-ing" form, here is another pattern:
  • Harold shuffled to the front of the room,
  • tired from the night before,
  • bored with the discussion, and
  • annoyed with the teacher.

Here is yet another pattern:
  • Harold shuffled to the front of the room,
  • his shoulder knotted,
  • his hands jammed into his pockets.


Our major goal is to tighten our prose by employing only necessary words.

(1) Eliminate deadwood: unnecessary words or phrases that add nothing to meaning.

Wordy: It is important to note that the results were identical in both cases.
Concise: Both results were identical.

Wordy: A man named Dewey Phillips discovered Elvis Presley.
Concise: Sam Phillips discovered Elvis Presley.

Wordy: It was not until January that we began our Spring semester.
Concise: In January, we began our Spring semester.

Wordy: The trip was one of danger but also one of excitement.
Concise: The trip was dangerous but exciting.

(2) Tighten wordy phrases

Wordy (Concise)

At this point in time (Now, currently)
Due to the fact that (because)
In the event that (if)

(3) Be sure that word distinctions really make a difference

No: He was both tired and exhausted after running the marathon.
Yes: He was exhausted after running the marathon.

(4) Employ appropriate words

(a) Prefer the specific to the general, the definite to the vague, and the concrete to the abstract. (Strunk and White, 21)

From general to specific: Implement, tool, hammer, claw hammer, small-headed claw hammer

No: A period of unfavorable weather set in.
Yes: It rained every day for a week.

(b) Put statements in positive form

No: He was not very often on time.
Yes: He usually came late.

Did not remember (forgot)
Did not pay attention to (ignored)

(c) Eliminate clichés (trite, overused expressions): chip off the old block, nutty as a fruit cake, cool as a cucumber, apple of his eye, luck of the Irish, clean as a whistle.

(6) Use correct pronouns

Subjective case (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they): subject of the sentence

No: Me and her went to the beach.
Yes: She and I went to the beach.

Objective case (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them): direct objects, indirect objects, objects in a prepositional phrase

No: A problem is brewing between he and I.
Yes: A problem is brewing between him and me.

(7) Provide exact antecedent agreement (reference to an earlier item)

Avoid the vague use of such words as it, this, which to refer back to an earlier item.

Vague: The Fifties were a time of suburban growth, babies, economic prosperity, and Elvis Presley. This made people content.
Clear: The Fifties were a time of suburban growth, babies, economic prosperity, and Elvis Presley. This prosperity made people content.

(8) Reminder to myself: need a section on words commonly confused: affect/effect; principal/principle, etc.


(1) Ordinal numbers

a) Spell out all numbers through one hundred.

The population of the three districts was less than four million.

b) Use numerals for numbers over one hundred.

There are 514 seniors in the graduating class.

c) When numbers above one hundred appear in a series, express in numerals:

Of the group surveyed, 186 students had studied French, 142 had studied Spanish, and 36 had studied Latin for three years or more.

(2) A sentence should not begin with a numeral. Correct examples:

At Sunnybrook High School, 204 students study Japanese.
The year 1958 saw several crucial foreign policy moves.

(3) Use numerals to express decimal fractions and percentages. The word percent should be written out.

With interest at 8 percent, the payment was 2.425 times his income.

(4) Units of measurement (age, temperature, weight) are expressed in figures.

Tom’s boss is 35 years old, but Tom himself is 26.
A high temperature of 96 degrees was recorded.
The new baby weighs 4 pounds and 6 ounces.

(5) United States currency. If the amount is spelled out, so are the words dollars and cents; if numerals are used, the dollar sign ($) precedes them.

Timothy receives five dollars each week for allowance.
The report showed $135 collected in fines.

(6) Numbers (or letters) used to enumerate items stand out better when in parentheses:

He offered two reasons for his resignation: (1) advancing age and (2) failing eyesight.

(7) References to particular centuries should be spelled out—in lowercase.

Hyphenate such references only when they serve as adjectives, as in the first example below.

seventeenth-century literature
the seventeenth century

(8) References to decades take two forms.

The 1950s saw an enormous increase in consumer spending.
During the fifties, television became increasingly popular.


(1) State the topic under consideration--grades.

(2) State the specific issue in the form of a debating proposition.
Resolved: grades are unnecessary in college.

(3) State your position on the issue as a simple "yes" or "no" sentence.
Yes, grades are unnecessary in college.

(4) Using a "because clause," provide a main rationale for your position.
Grades are unnecessary because students learn more readily without them.

(5) Qualify your thesis by using an "although clause" to concede points you do not wish to dispute.
Although a student's work should be evaluated in some fashion, grades are unnecessary in college because students learn more readily without them.

(6) Polish your sentence. Maybe drop the specific words "although" and "because".
While there may be a legitimate need to evaluate the work of college students, the traditional grading system hinders learning and stifles creativity.


(1) Back cover–often gives a synopsis of main theme

(2) Author, authors, or editor
Why qualified to write this book
Other books written—what specialty

(3) Title
Title often catchy but uninformative
What comes after colon usually the topic

(4) Publisher
Pecking order exists among publishers
Academic presses at the top
Harvard, Oxford, Cornell, Princeton, North Carolina, etc.

(5) Publication date
When was book first published—is it still relevant
When revised—is it a true revision
Read preface to see what author says
Look at date of items in bibliography

(6) Cataloging data
Library of congress number—helps in shelf or computer browsing
Library of Congress subject headings
Helps in finding items for computer search

(7) Preface
If you only have time to read or xerox anything, this is the best.
Author's purpose, objectives, and thesis are often here.

(8) Acknowledgments
Where author researched
Who read drafts
Helps you determine how useful book may be to your level of specialization

(9) Table of contents
Read this for sure
Sometimes an abbreviated outline
Sometimes a wonderfully detailed outline

(10) Skim before you start reading the narrative
Read introductions
Read main headings (if any)
Read summaries
Scan footnotes. Good information often relegated here

(11) Scan bibliography
An alphabetical listing the most basic.
Annotated bibliography more helpful than a mere alphabetical list.
Bibliographical essay (or essay on sources) the most useful of all.

(12) Appendix
What documents are included
Often tie in closely to the book
Saves you time looking up elsewhere

(13) Index
Fast way to determine on what pages material is located


The material in this handbook was compiled from the following sources:

Bannister, Linda, Robert Liftig, Ellen Davis Conner, and Luann Reed-Seigel. The BestTest Preparation for the Advanced Placement Examination in English Language & Composition. Piscataway, NJ: Research Education Association, 2000.

Kirszner, Laurie G. and Stephen R. Mandell. The Holt Handbook: Annotated Instructor’s Edition, 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Publishers, 1995.

Kirszner, Laurie G. and Stephen R. Mandell. The Brief Holt Handbook, revised 2d ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998.

Kirszner, Laurie G. and Stephen R. Mandell. Answer Key to the Exercises to Accompany the Brief Holt Handbook, 2d ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998.

Kirszner, Laurie G. and Stephen R. Mandell. Exercises to Accompany the Brief Holt Handbook, 2d ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998.

Leggett, Glenn, C. David Mead, and Melinda G. Kramer. Prentice Hall Handbook for Writers: Annotated Instructor’s Edition, 11th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.

Levin, Gerald. The Macmillan College Handbook, 2d ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1991.

Obrecht, Fred and Boak Ferris. Barron’s How to Prepare for the California State University Writing Proficiency Exams, 2d ed. New York: Barron’s Educational Series, 1998.

Strong, William. Sentence Combining: A Composing Book. New York: Random House, 1973.

Strunk, William, and E.B. White. The Elements of Style, 4th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000. [online in Bartleby project]

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.